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Death of Jacob Bell, 1. 

TVoMoctioitf of the Pharmaceutical Society : List of Members^ Associatee, and Ap- 
TOBBticeB (comtinmil), 3— Meeting of Council, 3— Special Meeting of Council, 4— 
rhannaoeutical Meeting : Donations to the Library and Museum, 4 — Concentrated 
Infiuions and Decoctions. Mr. Jacob Bell, 5— Concentrated Infusions. Mr. A. F. 
Haaelden, 7 — ^Notes on Formule in the Pharmacoposia. Mr. Barnard S. Proctor, 9 
—Notes on Preparations of the PharmacopcBia. Mr. Thomas SonthaU, li--On the 
"Pfluls" of the Pharmacopooia. Mr. J. Boucher, 13 -* Remarks on S^zilus 
Ammonie Aromaticus. Mr. C. R. C« Tichbome, 16. 

RxmmekU Ihmtaetiont: Lirerpool Chemists' Association : Weights Bid Meaaue% 17 
— On Zenunbet and Cassumunar. Professor T. C Archer, 17. 

Ongmal cmd Extracted Artklee: Proposed Adjustment of Weights and Measures 
for the British Pharmacopoeia. Charles Wilson, M.D., 18— New Weights and 
Measures in Germany. John M. Maiach, 28— Introduction of the Cindiona into 
India, 29— Results of Physical and Chemical Investigation and Applications in 
the Arts : Compound of Iodide and Nitrate of Silver — ^Iodides and Bromides of 
Bismuth, Antimony, and Arsenic— Action of Hydrogen on Metallic Solutions — 
Odorous Principle of Vanilla— New Alkaloid and Organic Acid from the Com 
Chamomile — ^Newly Discoyered Action of Light— Solubility of Alkaloids in Chloro- 
fcnn — New Source of Ammonia, 29 — The Differential Stethophone, or Double 
Stethoscope. Dr. S. S. Alison, 33— Properties of Ice near its Melting Point 
Prof. Forbes, 38— First Galrano-Electric Telegraph, 40— New Mode of Decom- 
posing Hypochlorite of Lime in Dyeing. M. Saoc, 41 — Relatiye Adyantagea of 
Ether and Chloroform, 41— Proposed Substitutes for Cod-Iiyer Oil, 42— A New 
Measure Glass. Mr. Peter Squire, 42— Suicide by Corrosiye Sublimate, 43 — 
Suicides by Pmssic Acid, 4Z—Obituxay: Alexander Yon Humboldt, 45^— JBboib 
Beeeivedt 46 — Comspondenti, 46— Register of Members, Associates, and Ap- 
* ^47. 

No. II. 

The Jacob Bell Memorial, 105. 

Tranaaetiom of the Pharmaceutical Societ/: List of Members, Associates, and Ap- 
prentices (continued), 106 — Meeting of Council: Death of the President, 106— 
Bequest from the late President to the Pharmaceutical Society, 107 — ^Election of 
President, Vice-President, and Member of Council, 107— The Jacob Bell Memorial 
Scholarships, 107 — Report of Committee and Circular to Members, &C., 107— 
Subscriptions to the Jacob Bell Memorial, 108— North British Branch : Meeting of 
Council in Edinburgh, 109. 

FnmBcial TransactioHg: Liyerpool Chemists' Association: Conyersazione, 110. 

OHgiaai and Extraded ArtieUe: On Names in General, Pharmacoposial and Phar- 
maceutical in Particular. Mr. A. F. Haselden, 112^Results of Physical and 
Chemiod Inyestigation and Applications in the Arts: Composition of Vegetable 
Cells — -Frepaiation of Propionic Acid — Red Sulphide or Vermilion of Antimony — 
Manufacture of Sulphate of Baryta — ^Anhydrous Sulphate of Alumina — ^Aoetote of 
Alumina, 115— On the Synthesis of the Hydrocarbons (continued). M. Berthelot, 
119— Case of Poisoning with Hachish. Prof. Schroff, 125— On the Vegetable 
Structures in Coal. Dr. Dawson, 130— Supply of Coal, 131— On the Species of 
Croton yielding Cascttrilla Bark. J. J. Bennett, Esq., 132 — ^Employment of Water 
in Auscultation. Dr. S. Soott Alison, 134— Use of Pigmentum Album in some 
Cutaneous Maladies. A. Freer, Esq., 138 — On Percolation or Dirolacement Mr. 
W. Procter^ jun., 139— Manufacture of Otto of Rose. Dr. J. L Smith, 143— 
Permanent Purple or LUac Dye, 144 — ^Preparation of Opium in Franoy 145 — 
Therapeutic Properties of Sarsaparilla. Prof. Bocker, 145— Medical Administzation 
of Ozonized Oils. Dr. Theo. Thompson, 146 — Experiments on the Phenomena of 
Respiration. Dr. E. Smith, 147— Experiments on the Action of Food upon the 

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ReBpiration. Ihidy 147 — Gas Lighted by Electricity, 149 — ^Animonia from the 
Waste Gases of the Vitriol Chamber. Mr. G. F. Tanner, 149— Suspected Poisoning 
bv Cantharides — Suicide by Laudanum, IM) — Death by the Sting of Hornets, 150— 
Suspected Poisoning at Richmond, 151 — Books Received: Dictionary of Trade 
Products, &C., by P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S, 151 — Correspondenta: Errata, 152. 

No. in. 

Sketch of the Life of Jacob Bell, 153. 

Transactions qfihe Pharmaceutical Society: Meeting of Council, 161 — List of Members 
(conHnued), 161 — Subscriptions to the Jacob Bell Memorial, 161 — Meeting of 
Council in Edinburgh, 167. 

Provincial IVansactions : Liverpool Chemists' Association: Proceedings in Aid of 
the Bell Memorial Fund, 168 — Manchester Pharmaceutical Association: Pro- 
ceedings in Aid of the Bell Memorial Fund, 168. 

Original and Extracted Articles: On Provincial Schools of Pharmacy. Mr. H. B. 
Brady, 168— Ferri lodidi Syrupus. Mr. C. R. C. Tichbome, 170— The Syrup of 
Phosphate of Iron, 171 — The Lead Panic at Hastings, 172— On Starch and Cellu- 
lose as Constituents of Animal Organisms, 173 — Note on the Tree upon which the 
Insect producing the White Wax of China Feeds, 176— Note on Japan Wax, 176^ 
Results of Physical and Chemical Investigation and Applications in the Arts : On 
the Composition of the Cuticle of Plants— On some Bodies Analogous to Cane- 
Sugar — On the Transformation of Two Immediate Principles of Invertebrate 
Animals into Sugar — The Action of Air on a Mixture of Sulphide of Calcium and 
Carbonate of Soda— Saccharated Lime for Use in Medicine — Concentrated Lime 
Water, 178— On the Preparation of Caryophylline. Dr. Theodor W. C. Martius^ 
1 83— On the Culture'of Bixa Orellana and the Preparation of Annatto. Th. Peckolt, 
185— Veratrum Viride: American Hellebore, 186 — On the Presence of Arsenic in 
some Artificial Manures, and its Absorption by Plants Grown with such Manures. 
Edmund William Davy, M.D., 187 — On the Use of Arsenical and Lead Pigments 
in the Coloration of Paper-Hangings, &c. Dr. Hassall, 190— On Phosphorescence, 
Fluorescence, &c. Prof. Faraday, 191 — Calomel and Lime Water. Mr. H. M. 
Rogers, 194— A Substitute for Lint, 194— Death from the Administration of Chlo- 
roform, 195— Suicide by Nicotine, 195 — Sheep Poisoned by Mercury, 195 — Poison- 
ing by Potato Fruits, 195— Eflfect of Artificial Light on Vegetation, 196— Trial of 
Dr. Smethurst, IQ&^Correspondents, 200. 

No. IV- 

The Evidence in Dr. Smethurst's Case, 201. 

Transactions of the Pharmaceutical Societt/s Meeting of Council, 209 — Subscriptions 
to the Jacob Bell Memorial, 209. 

Original and Extracted Articles: Our Evening Meetings. Mr. Haselden, 211 — Ob- 
servations on some Preparations of the Pharmacopceia. Mr. E. B. Muskett, 213 — 
On Donovan's Solution. H. N. Draper, F.C.S., 215 — On the Absence of Sugar in 
the Urine in Diabetes Insipidus. Mx. Tuson, 215— Arsenic in Pyrites. Mr. H. 
Scholefield, 216 — Botanical and Pharmacological Inquiries and Desiderata. Sir W. 
J. Hooker and Mr. Hanbury, 217 — Results of Physical and Chemical Investigation 
and Applications in the Arts : On Cellulose and the Composition of Wood — Action 
of Chloride of Sulphur on the Acetates — Combination of Sesquioxides with Sesqui- 
chlorides — ^A New Disinfectant for Dressing Putrid Sores and Ulcers, 221 — 
Some Facts in Relation to the Solubility of Phosphate of Iron. Mr. John M. 
Maiscfa, 226— The Chinese Green Colour Lo-kao, and some other Dyes. Prof. S. 
Bleekrode, 228 — On Marsh Selinum as a Remedy in Epilepsy, &c. Dr. Th. Herpin, 
234— On the Synthesis of the Hydrocarbons. M. BerthoUet, 236— The Use and 
Properties of Perchloride of Iron, 244 — Process for Ascertaining the Proportion 
of Quinine in Cinchona Bark, 245— Glycerine Ointment for the Itch, 245 — Treatment 
of Tetanus by the Woorara Poison, 246— Effects of Chloroform on Bees, 246— Bo- 
tanical Prize, 246— Bad Quality of Glass, 246— Poisoning by Strychnine given in 
place of Santonine, 247 — Suicide by Oxalic Acid, 247— Suicide by Strychmne, 247 
— Belladonna Fruit mistaken for Blackberries, 247 — Obituary: DeaUi of Professor 
Henfrey, 243 ^Correspondents, 248. 

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No. V. 

The State of Fhannacy in Ireland, 249. 

IVmuaetums qftke Pharmaceutical Society: Meeting of Council, 25^— List of Membera, 
Associates, and Apprentices (contmued), 253— Subscription to the Jacob BeU 
Memorial (coniitutea), 253 — Pharmaceutical Meeting: Donations to the Library and 
Museum, 256 — Distribution of Prizes: Chemistry and Pharmacy, 256— Distribution 
of Prizes : Botany and Materia Medica, 257 — On African Turmeric Dr. Daniell, 
258-— On Syrup of Ginger. Mr. Barnard^ S. Proctor, 260— Arsenical Fly-Papers. 
H. N. Draper, F.C.S., 202 — Remarks on Pharmaceutical Infusions, and a proposed 
Mode of Preparing them more Expeditiously. Mr. Geldard, 263— Manufacture of 

PinwiHeial Tratuacticms: Lirerpool Chemists' Association : Report, 267— Proceedings 
of the Newcastle and Gateshead Pharmaceutical Association, 271. 

Origtmil and Extracted Articles: Syrupus Ferri lodidi. Mr. E. Smith, 272— Tinct 
Quine Comp. and Pil. Ferri Comp. Mr. T. Southall, 274 — ^Arsenic in P^ites. Dr. 
DaTy, 275— Cultiration of Medicinal Plants at Uitchin, 275— Pharmacy in Ireland, 
279— Pharmacy in Belfast, 284— Results of Physical and Chemical luTestigation 
and Applications in the Arts: On Metallic Chromium — On a new Acid obtained by 
the Reduction of Picric Acid, 284— Arsenic in Superphosphates, 286 — On the AIh 
sorption of Arsenic by Plants, 287 — Arsenic in Manures and Crops, 287 — Syrup of 
Phosphate of Iron and Manganese, 288 — British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, 288 — Removal of Nuisances : Bow Common, 291 — ^Prosecution under 
the New Medical Act, 292— Poisonous Coloured Sweetmeats, 293 — Death from 
Prussic Acid, 294— Cattle Poisoned from eating Tew Branches, 294— jReoiino: 
Chapman's Veterinarian's Pharmacopceia, 294 — Correspondents, 295. 

No. VI. 

The Education of the Pharmaceutical Chemist, 297. 

Transactions of the Pharmaceutical Society: Meeting of Council, 299 — List of Members, 
Associates, and Apprentices (con/wiietf), 299— Subscriptions to the Jacob Bell 
Memorial (coKdnuea), 299— Pharmaceutical Meeting: Donations to the Library and 
Museum, 300— Prize Herbarium of British Plants for 1859, 300— The Analysis and 
Preparation of Granular Citrate of Magnesia. Harry N. Draper, F.C.S., 301— On 
the Miscibility of Chloroform and the so-called Chloric Ether with Water and other 
Liquids. Mr. A. F. Haselden, 304— On PUulse. Mr. C. R. C. Tichbome, 306— 
Dika Bread, 308— Models of Crystals, 308— Proposed New Weights, 309— Pharma- 
ceutical Meeting, Edinburgh : The Education of the Pharmaceutical Chemist. 
Pro£ G. Wilson, 309. 

Prooineial Transactions: Lirerpool Chemists' Association, 320. 

Original and Extracted Articles: Malambo Bark, 321— Glycerole of Aloes. Mr. A. 
F. Haselden. 322— Adulterated Nitrate of Silver. Mr. T. Miller, 323— Cultivation 
of Medicinal Plants at Hitchin, Herts, 323— Results of Physical and Chemical In- 
vestigation and Applications in the Arts : The Action of Lime on Cellular Tissue — 
On the Composition of the Crystalline Hydrates of Baryta and Strontia — Combina- 
tions of Mannite with Lime, Baryta, and Strontia — On the Action of Sulphurous 
Acids on Persalts of Iron— On Writing Ink — Metallic Cements, 326— Deodorization 
of Sewage. Drs. Hofmann and Frankland, 328— On a New Mode of Bread Making. 
W. Odling, MD., F.R.S., 331— Canouil's Process for Manufacturing Chemical 
Matches without Phosphorus and containing no Poisonous Substance, 333 — Freezing 
'^olnt of Water in Capillary Tubes. H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., 335— On the Trans- 
mission of Heat of Different Qualities through Gases of Different Kinds. J. 
Tyndall, Esq., F.R.S, 336— How to Grow Lilliputian PlanU, 338— The Native 
Country of the Potato, 339 — Miscellanea: Poisoning by Acetate of Morphine — 
Adulteration of Tobacco — Tungsten Steel — A Pharmacopolic Combination, 340 — 
The Case of Smethurst, 341— The alleged Case of Poisoning at Poplar, 341— 
Poisoning bv Acetate of Lead, 342-^Ohiiuarjf : Death of Professor George Wilson, 
of Edinburgh, 343— £?ooA« deceived, 34,3— Correspondents, 343. 

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No. VII. 

The Jacob Bell Memorial, 345— The Sale of Dandelion Coffee, 346. 

Transactions of the PharmaceuticcU Society: Meeting of Couadl, 349— List of Members, 
Aasociatest and Apprentices (contamMQ, 349 — ^l*lie Jacob Bell Memorial. (<7om- 
muMitathn from the CoUege of Phyncums), 349— Subtoriptioaa to the Jacob Bell 
Memorial (conlBiiieiOf 350— Pharmaceutical Meeting : Donations to the Library and 
Museum, 352— Note on Sjmp of Iodide of Iron. Messrs. T. and H. Smith. 352— 
Syrap of Ginger. Mr. William Y. Breritt, 355— Note on Ditto. Mr. Barnard 
Proctor, 353— Note on the Preparation of Aromatic Confection. Mr. Stocken, 356 — 
Note on Arsenic in Trisnitnle of Bismuth. Mr. J. Moriand, 356— Sale of Dande- 
lion Coffee, 857 — Gas Blow-pipe, 358— Phannacenticai Meeting, Edinburgh: 
Manufacture of Wood and Wax Matches. Mr. J. Mackay, 358— M»uis for render- 
ing Cotton, &C., Non-inflammable. Dr. Macadam, 359. 

Provincial Transactions: LiTerpool Chemists' Association : On the Theory of the 
Construction of Balances, and on a new Chemical Balance^ Mr. J. B. Cool^ 360 — 
On the Method for rendering Fabrics Non-inflammable. Mr. Mercery365. 

Orkfinal and Extracted Artides: Phannaceutical Education, Past, Present, and 
^future. Mr. A. F. Haselden, 36&— Description of a Cheap and Delicate Balance. 
Mr. E. Thompson, 371— The so-called Granular Citrate of Magnwria. Mr. W. 
Bastick, 374— Donovan's Solution. Mr. H. N. Draper, 374— ResulU of Physical 
and Chemical Inyestigation and Applications in the Arts: On some Failures of 
Marsh's Process for the Detection of Arsenic — On the Detection of Metallic Poisons 
by means of Electrolysis, 374— Griffin's Patent Blast Gas Furnace (with cuts), 377 
— On the Comparatire Value of certain Salts for rendering Fibrous Substances Non- 
Inflammable. F. Yersmann, F.C.S., and A. Oppenheim, Ph.D., &c 385— The Case 
of AccldenUl Poisoning at Canterbury, 387— Poisoning by Cantharides, 388 — 
Poisoning by Extract of Belladonna, 389 — Poisoning by Essential Oil of Almonds, 
389— Poisoned Bath Buns, 389— Suicide by Cyanide of Potassium, 390— Death 
from Prussic Acid, 390— Mucc/Zoneo, 391— Books deceived, 392^ Correspondents, 392. 


Pharmaceutical Arithmetic, 393 — ^Sale of Dandelion Coffee, 396. 

TVansaetUmsoftke Pharmaceutical Socieiv: Meeting of Council, 397 — List of Members, 
Associates^ and Apprentices (eomtmued% 397— Subscriptions te the Jacob Bell Me- 
morial (coniinued), 397 — Pharmaceutical Meeting : Donations to the Library, 398 — 
On the Preparation of Lard. Mr. T. H. HUls, 3)8^-On PilulsB. Mr. B. S. Proctor, 
399— On Extract and Fluid Extract of Taraxacum. Mr. T. H. Hills, 401— Remarks 
on Taraxacum Root Prof. Bentley, 402— On Arsenical Fly-Papers. R. H. Brett, 
Ph.D., &C., 404 — Phytological Society : Annual Meeting, 405— Chemical Discussion 
Association : Report of the Committee, 407. 

Provinci(d Transactions: Liverpool Chenusta^ Association, 411. 

Original and Extracted Artides: On Synipus Ferri lodidi. Mr. Edward Smith, 412 
—Chlorine in Basio-Nitrate of Bismuth. Mr. C. R. C. Tichbome, 412— Medicinal 
Properties of Globularia Alypum, &c., 413 — Cultivation of Medicinal Plants at 
Hitchin, Herts (contmued), 414— Results of Physical and Chemical Investigation and 
Applications in the Arts: On Platinum and the Metals with which it is Associated, 
414 — On the Comparative Yalue of certain Salts for rendering Fibrous Substances 
Non-inflammable (continued), 422— Introduction of the Tea Plant into the United 
States, 429 — On Amyloid Substances as component Parts of Animal Bodies, and on 
their Uses. Dr. Clmrles Rouget, 430— Pharmaceutical Notes on Cornelian Cherry, 
431— Inhalation of Chloroform, 431 — Pills of Carbonate of Ammonia. Dr. J. 
Williams, ASl—MisceUaneoj 432— Court of Queen's Bench. Ladd v. Gould, 434^— 
Royal Society : Address of the President, 434— iZetww; Elements de Zoologie 
Medicale. A. Moquin-Tandon, 437— Books Received^ 439—CorrespcmdaUs, 440. 

No. IX. 

Pharmaceutical Responsibilities and Rewards, 441— Degrees in Science of the Univer- 
sity of London, 443 — ^Bill to Amend the I^w relating to the Unlawful Administra- 
tion of Poison, 444. 

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Dramactions of the PharmaeeiOieai Society: Election of C<mncil, 445^SpecxdI 
Meeting of Coancil, 445— List of Members, Associates, and Apprentices (cowUnyed)^ 
445 — ^Free Admissions to the Royal Botanic Society's Gardens, 446— Subscriptions 
to the Jacob Bell Memorial (eontmued), 446 — Pharmaceutical Meeting : Donations 
to the Library and Mnseum, 446— Note on the Roman Chamomile (Anthemis No- 
bilis) {with cuts). Prof. BenUey, 447 — On the Alleged Presence of Arsenic and 
Antimony in Grey Powder. Prof. Redwood, 450— Pharmaceutical Meeting, Rdin- 
Prmmeial Ihxnsaotums: Liverpool Chemists' Association, 453. 
Originai and Extracted Artieles : The Description, Composition, and Preparations of 
the Sanguinaria canadensis. George D. Gibb, M.D., &c. (with aU), 454— Tumate 
of ^smuttu 463 — Foreign Quinine, 463 — Arsenic in Pyrites and Artificial Manures. 
H.Scholefield and E. G. Ogston, 465— Results of Physical and Chemical Investiga- 
tion and Applications in the Arts: On Platinum and the Metals with which it is 
Associated (cotUmmed)— -On the Oxidation of Hydrochloric Acid, 465 — On Gelose. 
M. Payen, 470— The Soap Bark of Soutii America, Prot S. Bleekrode, 471— On 
the Galls of Cynips Quercus-Petioli (with cut\ 473— On Water Glass, 476—1116 
Effects of Mercury on the Labourers in the Quicksilver Works of Idria, 483 — On 
Lead-Poisoning with Snuff. W. Wicke, 480— lfMc«am«i, 481— Royal Institution : 
On the Influence of Magnetic Force on the Electric Disdiarge. John Tyndall, 
Esq., F.R.S., 483— Royal College of Surgeons and the Dental Profession, 485— 
A Bill for Preventing the Adulteration or Articles of Food or Drink, 486— jBooib 
Rcedvedj 487-^Oorre8pondeniSy 487. 


Phannaceutical Qualification, 489. 

TrMMMactiomt of ibe Pkarmacastical Socie^ : Financial Statement, 492— Subscribers 
to the Benevolent Fund, 493 — Meeting of Council, 494 — List of Members, Asso- 
ciates, and Apprentices (continued), 494— Botanical Prize for 1861, 494 — Subscrip- 
tions to the Jacob Bell Memorial (conlMUMf), 495 — Pharmaceutical Meeting: 
Donations to the Library and Museum, 496 — Syrupus Fenri Phosphatis. Me. H. 
Schweitzer, 496 — On the Syrup of Superphosphate of Iron, &c. Mx, Samuel Galc^ 
497 — On iSrrophosphate of Iron. Mr. Robins, 499— On Pulu, and some Analogous 
Products of Feins (wOh cuts). Mr. C. Cooke, 501— On the Composition of Hy- 
dmgyrum cum Creta. Pro£ Redwood, Ph.D., 504— Symons's Patent Combined 
Maximum and Minimum Thermometer (with cut), 507— Note on a Manufactured 
Product of Sea- Weed, called Japanese Isinglass. Daniel Hanbury, F.L.S., 508— 
Phannaceutical Meetmg, Edinburgh : On the Use of Honey as a Vehicle for 
Administering Remedies Externally. Murray Thomson, M.D., 509. 

Prmrindai TranaacUfmM : Liverpool Chemists' Association, 513. 

Original and Extracted Articles: Cultivation of Medicinal Plants at Hitchin, Herts 
(concluded). Prof. Bentley, 515— Results of Physical and Chemical Investigation 
and Applications in the Arts : On the Composition of Vegetable Gums— On the 
Green Colouring Matter of Leaves, 518 — Collection of Scammony in the North- 
West of Asia Minor. M. Ch. Soulier, 521— On Water Glass, and some of its 
Applications, 523 — Influence of Science on the Art of Calico Printing. F. C. 
Calvert, Esq^ F.R.S., &c., b27 ^Miscellanea, 529— The Case of Poisoning at Canter- 
bury, 531— Poisoning by White Precipitate, 532— Foreign Quinine, 533— Alleged 
Adulteration of Pepper, 534 — Correspondents, 53b. 

No. XI. 

The College of Physicians and General Practitioners, 537 — ^Examination of Dentists by 
the Royal College of Surgeons, 538. 

TransacHmu of the Pharmaceutical Society : Meeting of Council, 539— List of Members, 
Associates, and Apprentices (continued), 539 — Subscriptions to the Jacob Bell 
Memorial (continuea), 539 — Phannaceutical Meeting: Donations to the Library and 
Museum, 540— Some Further Remarks on Touloucouna Oil. Robert Clarke, Esq.^ 
540— Preparations of Taraxacum. Mr. Thomas B. Groves, 543— Some Sugges- 
tions relative to the Plasters of Opium and Belladonna. Mr. A. F. Haselden, 545— 
On the Adulteration of Carmine. Mr. J. Attfield, 546— Pharmaceutical Society, 
Edinburgh : Annual Meeting, 549— Annual Report, 550. 

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Protfineial Transactumt: Liverpool Chemists' Assodation, 553— Lecture " On Food." 
Dr. Inman, 554— Newcastle and Gateshead Branch Association, 555. 

Original and Extracted Articles : On the Arsenic Eaters of Styria. Charles Heisch, 
Esq., F.C.Sm 556— On the Preservation of Leeches. Dr. Mill Frodsham, 560— 
Results of Physical and Chemical Investigation and Applications in the Arts: Arti- 
ficial Production of Tartaric Acid from Gum or Sugar of Milk — On MeUiyl-Strychnine 
and Methyl-Brucine— Coating Glass and Porcelain wiUi Platinum — Red Cinchonic 
or Cinchonine— The Odour of Horseradish, 560— On the Proximate Analysis of 
Plants and Vegetable Substances. Frederick Rochleder, M.D., 562 — Kote on a 
Poisonous Loranthacea. J. L^on Sbubeiran, 56&— Preparation of Valerianate of 
Ammonia in Dry Crystals. Benjamin J. Crew, 569 — On Polygalic Acid. William 
Procter, jun., 570— Arsenic Sublimates. Frederick \V. Griffin, Ph.D., 572— 
Weaving by Electro-Magnetism, b7^— Miscellanea, 576— Suicide by Nitrate of Silver, 
577 — Accidental Poisoning by Arsenic, 577— Sale of Excisable Articles, 578 — 
Regulations of the Royal College of Surgeons relating to Dental Surgery, 579 — 
An Act to Amend the Law relating to the Unlawful Administration of Poison, 580 
— Selling Adulterated Pepper, 581 — Reviews: The Micrographic Dictionary. J. W. 
Griffith, M.D., 582— Therapeutics and Materia Medica. Dr. Stille, 583— J?ooA« 
Beceiveid, ^^^ Correspondents, 584 

No. XIL 

Adulteration of Food and Drink Bill, 585. 

Transactions of the PharmacetUical Society : Meeting of Council, 587 — List of Members, 
Associates, and Apprentices (continued), 587— Subscriptions to the Jacob Bell 
Memorial (coniinuea), 687 — Conversazione, 588— Nineteenth Anniversary of the 
Pharmaceutical Society, 591 — Report of the Council, 593— Adjourned Meeting, 602 
—Election of Council, 602. 

Provincial Transactions: Liverpool Chemists' Association, 603— Microscopic Structure 
of Pepper and its Adulterants, 605. 

Original and Extracted Articles: Bassia Flowers, 607 — Results of Physical and 
Chemical Investigation and Applications in the Arts: On the Separation and Estima- 
tion of Phosphoric Acid — On a Combination of Chloride of Arsenic and Alcohol — 
Solubility of Sulphate of Quinine in Saline Solutions — Iodized Essence of Juniper — 
On the Composition of Gutta Percha, 608 — On the Proximate Analysis of Plants and 
Vegetable Substances (continued). Frederick Rochleder, M.D., 610— On Lighthouse 
Illumination : the Electric Light. Professor Faraday, '614— On the Dietetic and 
Medicinal Properties of Eiythroxylon Coca, 616— Metropolitan Waters, 61 8 — Poison- 
ing by Arsenic, 618 — Poisoning by Strychnine, 620— Pepper Adulteration Cases, 
62\— Books Received, ^2A^Corresp(mdents, 624. 

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VOL. L— No. I.— JULY Ist, 1869. 


Thb readers of this Journal will not be wholly unprepared for the intelligence 
it is our painful duty thus to communicate. Jacob Bell, the President of the 
Pharmaceutical Society, and the Editor and Proprietor of this Journal, died at 
Tunbridge Wells, on Sunday, the 12th of June. For eighteen yean the part of 
the Journal corresponding to that in which this notice appears has, from month 
to month, contained a succession of editorial articles, which, with two or three 
exceptions, have all emanated from the pen of one individual ; and these will 
form a lasting memorial of the disinterested zeal and unwearied devotion with 
which the best energies of a life, unhappily cut short in its prime, have been 
applied in the cause and for the benefit of those to whom these lines are 

The Pharmaceutical Society, its rise and permanent establishment— the 
Pharmaceutical Journal^ and the influence it has exercised in asserting and 
defending the rights of Pharmaceutical Chemists, in promoting the advancement 
of Pharmaceutical knowledge, and creating a bond of union among the members 
of the Pharmaceutical body — are facts for the realization of which we are mainly 
indebted to Jacob Bell. 

The last number of this Journal concluded the eighteenth volume of the work, 
and in it the Editor intimated that a change would probably soon take place. 
Mr. Bell's health had long been declining ; his natuially active disposition, and 
the enthusiasm with which he engaged in many public pursuits, caused him to 
overtax his physical powers, and thus was laid the foundation of a distressmg 
complaint which deprived him of his voice, and rendered the act of deglutition a 
source of extreme suffering. Throughout life he had manifested a remarkable 
disregard of his own personal ease and comfort, especially when business of im- 
portance claimed his attention, and this, which almost amounted to a reckless 
neglect of the requirements of nature, was continued long aflex the commence- 
ment, and no doubt contributed to the aggravation, of his illness. His mental 
powers remainmg unimpaired, and the disease, Laryngeal PMhins^ chiefly 
affecting the organs of voice, he continued to exercise- his pen with unabated 

VOXtol. B 

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energy when he oould no longer take part in public discuMions. Bis presence 
at the last Anniversarj Meeting of the Pharmacentical Society, on the 18th of 
May, affords striking evidence of hia devotion to the interests of this Society, 
which continued to occupy his thoughts to the last hour of his life. But the 
change was now fast approaching. Distressed with hectic cough, feeble and 
emaciated to the laJBt degree, and deprived, almost wholly, of the power of re- 
ceiving nourishment in consequence of the agony attending the act of swallow- 
ing, he calmly applied himself to the preparations for his death. One of his last 
acts was the assignment of the copyright of this Journal to the Society at whose 
rise it was commenced, with whose progress it has been intimately associated, 
and in the interest of which it has ever been conducted. For some weeks before 
his death he resided at Tunbridge Wells, and there he fixed upon a spot for his 
last resting-place, beside the grave of tise late Dr. Golding Bird. Having 
occasion to apply to tiie minister of the parish on this subject, he unexpectedly 
found in that genldeman an associate of his boyhood, the renewal of 
whose acquaintance contributed to render his last hours those of Chris- 
tian peacCi and assurance in a happy change. The instmctionB he left 
for his funeral were consistent with his unostentatious dqrartment through 
life. Small was the parade of ceremony, and few the followers to his grave, 
yet he had many true mourners, and of theee not a few gave public 
expression to their feelings by partially closing their shops. This was especially 
the case among our Members in London, and, we believe, in most parts of the 
country. The Council and Officers of the Pharmaceutical Society were among 
those who attended, though uninvited, at the grave. They could not be re- 
strained from thus following the last earthly track of him with whom they had 
so long laboured harmoniously, and to whom they were accustomed to look as 
to one capable of fulfilling the parts both of counsellor and leadw. 

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LoHDON..* CrUpe, James. 

Savdoatb Jeooer, William MeMenger 

Llavoqllbn.. ^ Jones, Humphrey 

IsQiTBBiDaE Smeeton, William 


DmihUI, WiiUam Workman «.«.». ..Doncaster 

Fowler, Robert John ,....«^,....... Leeds 

Ha^wwd, Cbarles John ^ ....Lincoln 

PeafsoB, GtooKge Brigg ....^..^.« ^....Leeds 

BajBor, John Charles >.— ...Uxbridge 

Richardson, Robert Ipswich 

Roberto, Albinos John Horsham 


Austix^ Henry Felix London 

Briggs, John Aston Tipton 

Clapham, Edward Leeds 

Hartley, William Birmingham 

Jvies, &»bert William ^ Greenwich 

Maudsley, William Preston 

YidMOiu Charles liondon 



Gender, George Mr. Smitli „ Walworth Road 

Manby, Thomas Mr. Cheaarf — Ipswich 

Merrick, Charles James Mr. Batoraan Manchester 

Fhilpot, Arthur Waiter Mr. Wimble Maidstone 

Roberts, Charles Mr. Haadley Wakefield 

Shadford, Thomas Mr. Sbadford Spalding 

Vacher, Arthur s •.....,«... Messrs. Bullock & Reynolds... London 

AT A BOSBTmG OF THE COUNCIL, l§t Jmte, 1859, 

Present— Messrs. Bell, Bird, Bottle, Brew, Bucklee^ Cnpiss, Darenport, Deane, 
Hanbury, Herring, Lescher, MeggesoD, Morson, Sandford, and Waugh, being the first 
meeting after the AmtdTorsary, the following OfBoera of the Society were elected— 

Jacob Bbu. President 

ThomabN. R. M0R8OH Vice-President 

Daitibl Bbll Hahbubt Treasurer 

Elias BaEMBiDOBwas also re-appointed... Secretary and Registrar. 
The following resolution was carried unanimously: — 

"That this Council having heard a proposition from Mr. Bell to present the 
Journal to the Pharmaceutical Society, recelYe the proposal with much favour, and 
beg to express their grateful thanks to him for the same, and will undertake to use 
their best efforts to carry it on with the same efliciency that has hitherto cha- 
ractorized its career, and in so doing to adopt his suggestions." 

7Ve«(%, June 14<A. 
Some Members of the Council, hearing of the death of the President, met at the 
house of the Sooiet^r, and addressed the following resolution to the brother of Mr. 


" The Council of the Pharmaceutical Society, hastily assembled on receipt of 
the melancholy intelligence of the death of the President, although unable immedi- 


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ately to express in suitable terms their sense of the loss the Society has sustained, 
lose not a moment in preferring their earnest request to his fiimily tliat they 
may be permitted to evinoe, on the occasion of his funeral, their profound respect, 
in any way most congenial and gratifying to his family. 
<*To James Bell, Esq." 


Present— Messrs. Bird, Brew. Bucklee, Deane, J. B. Edwards, Hanbnry, Lescher, 
Meggeson, Morson, Sandford, Squire, and Waugh, 
The following communication trom Mr. James B^ was read: — 

1, Dewnuhire Place, PorOand Place, June 15th, 1859. 

** Sir,— I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter enclosing the resolution of 
the Council of the Ptiarmaceutical Society respecting the great loss which our 
Ikmily has just sustained, and request you to conrey to them our deep sense of the 
feeling of sympathy that they have expressed. 

** I regret that in consequence of the instructions that my late brother has left re- 
specting the funeral, it is out of our power to inyite the attendance of the Council ; 
at the tame time we are desirous to leaye it to the Members to act in any manner 
most congenial to their fbelings on the occasion. 

** I am, Sir, yours faithfully, 

*< E. Bremridge, Esq." *< James Bell. 

The Secretary was instructed to issue the following circular to the London Mem- 
bers, Local Secretaries, and as generally among the Country Members as the short 
internal would admit: — 


« ZoiMfim, June 16, 1859. 
*^ Sir, — ^I am desired by the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society to inform you 
that the Funeral of the late President, Mr. Jacob Bell, will take place at Tunbridge 
Wells on Saturday next, the 18th instant, at 11 o'clock. 

** The Council would respectfully suggest to the Members of the Pharmaceutical 
Society generally, that they, should eyince their respect for the deceased, and their 
deep sense of the loss the Society has sustained, by, so far as is compatible with 
indiyidual conyenience, partially closing their shops on that day. 
'* I am, Sir, your obedient seryant, 

** Elias Bbskbidoe, Secretary,** 


Wednuday^ June \et^ 1859. 


The following 


were announced : — 

Hie Journal of the Societu of Arte, from the Society. 
The Photographic Journal, from the Photographic Society. 
The Journal of tlie Lmnean Society.fTom the Society. 
Quarterfy Journal of the Chemical Societv, from the Society. 
lUustratwns of the Nueva Quinologia ofPavon, By J. E. Howard, Esq., E.L.S., from 
the Author. 
A Specimen of Sapo Venetus Verus, from Mr. Hanbury. 
A Specimen of Austrian Rhubarb, from Mr. Daniel Hanbury. 
A yery fine Specimen of Hog-gum, from Rhus Metopium, from Mr. Bennett. 
A Specimen of Sesquichloride of Chromium, from Mr. T. H. Baldock. 

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The foUowiog pftpen were read : — 



Whii^b the British Pharmacopceia is under the joint consideration of the 
Medical Conndi and the Pharmaceutical Society, it would not be right to lose 
• 80 favourable an opportunitj|r of arriving at a definite principle respecting 
T^;etable infusions and decoctions which from their liability to spoil by keeping 
are a source of some inconvenience, and have been the subjects of various 
experiments or innovations. Unless some uniformity of practice be adopted 
in reference to this class of medicines, a difference in the taste, appearance, and' 
probably in the effect of those prepared at different places, is unavoidable. A 
patient having a prescription for a senna draught, knowing what are the 
ingredients, and taking it to be prepared at a shop in the country, may be 
startled at seeing the bottle fillea up with water. Involuntarily he remarks, 
^' I think that is not right ; it should be infusion of senna," and the young man 
replies, " We use the concentrated infusion ; I was only makinz up the quantity.** 
**" But are you sure the concentrated infusions are as good as tne fresh ?'* ** We 
think so ; at all events, the difference, if there be any, is not enough to counter- 
balance the inconvenience of waiting ; but if you prefer the fresh infusion, you 
can have the medicine in about an hour and a half.*' ** Not this time, thank 
you. I am going by the train immediately, and wish to be provided with a 

In these few sentences, the case between the chemist and the patient is fairly 
stated. On the question of quality the patient is no judge ; he must take on 
trust what he is told. He can judge of the inconvenience of delay, and is easily 
persuaded that the difference is not worth waiting for. 

Between the medical man and the chemist the question stands on different 
^^und. The inconvenience of waiting an hour, or several hours, for a me<^cine, 
IS known and admitted. Yet in the face of this fact, which is undisputed, the Col- 
leges of Physicians continue to order in the Pharmacopoeia vegetable infusions 
and other preparations liable to the same inconvenience. There is, however, in 
tlie Pharmacopoeia a general instruction to the effect that the chemist is at 
liberty to vary or improve the process provided the result be identical with that 
ordered and intended by the College. This privilege has been extensivehr acted 
upon with reference to vegetable mfusions and decoctions, a variety of which 
preparations in a concentrated form are in constant use, each bein^ recommended 
as being, when properly diluted, identical with the corresponding preparation 
fresh made. These concentrated essences, however, are not identical with each 
other, the process by which they are prepared not being officinal or known to 
the profession, but each maker adopts such method as his skill and experience 
ma^ suggest ; and some carry on an extensive trade in this class of preparations, 
which are, in fact, secret medicines purporting to be synonymous and identical 
with corresponding preparations in the Fharmacop<£ia. 

Some difference of opinion exists as to the comparative merits of the con- 
centrated and the fresn preparations, and the consequent propriety of substi- 
tuting one for the other. Xne subject has been repeatedly discussed, and the 
result has usually been opposed to the innovation, yet some ingenious processes 
have been suggested, and clever papers written, with a view of surmounting the 
difficulty. J^paration in vacuo, percolation, the exhaustion of the ingredients 
by steam, spontaneous evaporation, and in most cases the addition of a certain 
proportion of rectified spirit, may be mentioned as the processes most generally 
recommended, llie substitution of elycerine for spirit of wine as a vehicle has 
also been suggested, which is very objectionable, and none of these methods can 
be considered, according to the strict letter of the law, an adherence to the 

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instructions of the PharmaoopiBta. Several discvssions of the qnestioii, bolk in 
London and £dinbnrffb» have ended in a reconunendation of the plan of 
bottling the infusions not and carefully excluding the air, on the principle on 
which meat is preserved for travelimg. 

A correspondent in the Journal of last month suggested the plan of keeping 
isfixsions in bladders with stop-cocks, an idea anything but pleasant, espeoially 
m case a lady with a delicate stomach should happen to see in the back shop her 
aromatic infusion drawn out of the bladder of a pig I 

This, however, does not solve the problem, whether it be desirable to keep 
and use these preparations, or any of them, in a concentrated form. If it be so, 
it would be better that the practice should be sanctioned by authority instead 
of being done suh rasS, by the use of substitutes, the composition of which is 
known only to each respective maker. There may be some motive for retaining 
in the Pharmacopoeia the old-fashioned vegetable infusions, and decoctions for 
iise in the fresh state, when convenient and practicable. Patients are not always 
in haste, the cases are not always urgent, and when time admits of the fresh 
preparation being made, there can be no excuse for deviating from it. If it be 
urged as an objection, that in case of emergencv on another occasion the patient 
would observe a difference in the medicine made with the concentrated infusion, 
then the hypothesis of identity of result breaks down, for it is assumed that the 
Bubstitotion, if admissible, is on condition that the result is the same. Some 
responsibility also must rest on the prescriber, who, in a case of extreme haste 
api urgency, should order some medicine that could be had within a reasonable 
time in preference to one requiring six or twelve hours for its preparation. It 
is desirable that the custom adopted should be uniform, not only as to the cases 
in which the substitution of the concentrated preparation is admissible, but also 
at to the nature and composition of the said preparations. Any one who has 
examined specimens of this class of medicines by different makers, must be aware 
that they are not at all alike, some being much better than others, as the makers 
wonld testify if asked the question. 

The same doubt and inconvenience formerly existed respecting the decoc* 
tions of sarsaparilla, and this was rather a serious obstruction to business on 
account of the tio^ required for the preparation. Many varieties of concen- 
trated decoction were in use before the practice was sanctioned on authority, 
but when the attention of the College of Physicians was directed to the subject, 
and the requisite investigations were completed, the introduction of the formolse 
Ibr fluid extracts removed all doubt and difficulty. These preparations are, in 
fact, superior on an average to the decoctions freshly made over a common fire, 
which may be easily shown by dilating a portion and comparing it with a similar 
quantity of freshly made decoction, when it will be found to possess the taste 
and other sensible characters of the drugs in a superior degree. 

Liquor sennsB, liquor cinchonas, liquor taraxaci, and other '* liquors," are 
preparations of an analogous class, equally deserving of attention. ^^1 
'^ '' ' ' ' *' " k, leaf, 

contain the active principle of the vegetable — root, bark, 

!. — in a concentrated form, free from the liability to chanse by keemng, 
which is the drawback on infusions and decoctions of the old sort. There 
is perhaps no preparation which differs more widely than the liquor 
taraxaci, which, although not an officinal preparation, is in very general 
use. Soine prepare it by dissolving the solid extract in water and adding as 
much spirit as may be required to preserve it. This is a dark, sweetish com- 
pound, not quite so thick as treacle. Another process consists in expressing 
the juice, evaporating to two-thirds, making up the quantity with spirit, and 
filtering after the deposit has fallen. This is rather a strong liqueur^ in appear- 
ance resembling sherry. Other varieties in tint, appearance, and strengtn are 
to be found, according to the discretion of the makers. This preparation, and 
stveral others of the class, are quite deserving of a place in the Pharmacopeia, 
and the free discussion and settlement of the entire question would put an end 

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to the inconTenience and perplexit/ which has for many yean eaiited resfMting 
concentrated infusions and diecootions. 



So much has already been ably written, and so many opinions well expressed, 
both respecting the ordinary and concentrated infusions, that I should not have 
yenturea upon so well-explored a subject had it not by others been a^ain brought 
upon the tapis, but such being the case, it appears to me that each and eyarv 
opinion which, by concurrence, tends to confirm the ideas of others, or by di^• 
ference, opens afresh the fruitful field of Inquiry, cannot be altogether yoid of 
interest or unworthy the attention of the membm of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
or the large and influential body of Pharmaceutists not connected with the 
Society but who may take an interest in its proceedings, and read the Journal. 
Under this hope ana conyiction I am induced to offer the following remarks :— 
Upon a yery little consideration it cannot, I think, fail to be admitted that the 
infusions form a yery useful and important part of the Pharmacopoeia; but, as 
is the case with eyer^thing useful, there are certain drawbacks and inconyenienoes 
which it is most desurable, if possible, to ameliorate or remedy, the chief of which 
is their proneness to decomposition, and in warm summer weather this may take 
place in a few hours ; secondly, the time required for their preparation ; and 
thirdly, the necessity of a fire or boiling water at all hours. These circumstances 
render it almost impossible for a large oody of Pharmaceutists who haye not a 
rapid and continued demand for them, to employ them except in those eases 
where the necessary time can be allowed, but it often happens that this cannot 
be done, and [the Pharmaceutist either loses his customer, which he is yery 
nnwillin^ to do, or substitutes something for the ordinary infusion of the Phar* 

As a remedy for this the concentrated infusions were introduced, and on many 
occasions, and* under circumstances callins' for stt«h preparations, haye often 
proyed useful substitutes. Whilst admitting thus much on the score of utility 
and conyenience, I am not prepared to reCeiye them in place of the freshly- 
prepared infusions, or such as may haye been made some time, if still sound. 
With great care and some management the concentrated infusions maybe brought 
to resemble the ordinary in colour, bitterness, and general characters, but hick 
their naturally grateful qualities. The infusions are daily used in cases where 
the stomach, as well as the actual disease under treatment, requires an amount 
of consideration. They are continually employed where there is distaste for 
food, with loss of relish and appetite, and are required, as ft were, to restore the 
tone of the stomach and prepare it for receiTin^ its usual food, and enable h 
to perform its ordinary duties. Now, if you put into it any preparation in the 
shape of an infusion, which does not reach the standard of quality enjoyed by 
the delicate fresh infusion, it is but reasonable to infer that it is possible that the 
remedy may retard rather than accelerate the cure. 

It has been urged in fayour of the concentrated infusions that they can be 
prepared with greater uniformity. It is probable that in operating upon a large 
quantity a more uniform product may be the result; at least, the quantity 
either by measure or weight may always be the same, but when we think fbr a 
moment how the products of the yegetable kingdom differ in different seasone, 
and how prone preparations of them generally are to yary ; when we observed 
deposits continually occurring in hishly concentrated spn>itu -aqueous solutieni 
(if I may use the term), whether as mfiision, decoction, nquor, or essence ; wheft 
we notice, as we cannot fail to do, the difference at present obseryable betwetn 
these preparations made by different mannfacturers, and supposed to be of the 
same relatiye strength and quality, and, indeed, in eyery way identical, the sup- 
position th&t they would necessarily be unifbrm, appears to me to fall to tn» 

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ground, and yaniBhes at once, like the baseless fabric of a vision. It seems to me 
uat there is precisely the same difference between a fresh and a concentrated 
infusion as would exist between a freshly prepared, grateful, refreshing cup of 
bohea and a given quantity of strong tea made hot as required by the addition 
of boiling water, or between the fresh hot infusion of recentW roasted cofiee* 
with its own ddicacy and peculiar aroma, and tlie diluted manuutctured essence. 
There has been, and there is stUl, a strong leanine towards concentrated 
preparations of every form and description. A large oody of Pharmaceutista 
{et Quorum parsfm) seemed at one time to think taat to concentrate was the 
height of ingenuity, utility, and profit. Experience has shown the vanity of the 
notion, and, as a rule, it should be discouraged rather than otherwise. It is not 
unusual, so much does the idea pervade all classes, for a patient to request that 
the medicine mav be so concentrated that a tea spoonful may be taken instead <^ 
two table spoonfuls ; and more than this, it is not by any means unfrequent to find 
a larger Quantity of a salt prescribed in a small mixture or tincture than the 
fluid can by any possibility dissolve. The disadvantages in many ways of sudi 
a system must be obvious ; indeed, so obvious as not to require any specific 
description. A hint may be given yet in good season. This concentrating * 
system has been^ promulgated by the Pharmaceutists ; they have inundated the 
medical profession with their concentrated infusions and decoctions, their 
essences, liquors, and fluid extracts. But to return to our infusions. Can 
nothing be done besides concentration to diminish the labour of continually 
prepanng fresh infusions; the perpetual loss of time, material, and, in some 
cases, money? Several years since, and for a continued period, I fol- 
lowed the plan as explained by Mr. Stephenson in the May number 
of the Pharmaceutical t/btirMa^— namely, that of boiling the infusions in 
bottles and tying over with bladder, and can bear testimony to the 
fact of their preservation for a very lengthened period, but in the practical 
working of this plan several disadvantages presented themselves. In the first 
place, in order to avoid loss, it was difficult to decide upon the size of the bottle, 
oecause, a bottle when opened, if not wholly used, the remaining contents soon 
become worthless; thus, too large a bottle was inconvenient when a small 
quantity only was required, and, vice versd, too small a bottle was equally so 
when a large supply was necessary; the remedy for this was, perhaps, difierent 
siaed bottles, but the proportion of infusion ordered in mixtures is so varied, 
that a certain amount of loss in this wav was inevitable. Again, bottles were 
continually flying from the heat employea in boiling, and if not thoroughly (by 
some accidental oversight) deansea before being used a second time, a whole 
batch might occasionally be spoiled; and lastly, from some neglect in notif}'ing 
that the last bottle had been used, there was still the liability of running out of 
a particular infusion, precisely at the time it was most wanted. I then argued 
with myself thus: if the addition of a certain portion of spirit was sufficient to 
preserve the concentrated infusions, why should it not have the same effect with 
the ordinary? The only reason I could see opposed to the use of it was the fact^ 
that the spirit might be considered objectionable for the patient; but when we 
examine prescriptions containing infusions, we almost invariablv find a very fair 
allowance of some tincture in combination. Although quite satisned that infusions 
thus prepared could not be used unless formally introduced into the Pharma* 
copoeia, i still thought it worth a trial, in the event of an opportunity occurring 
of introducing the matter. In pursuance of this notion, on the 1st of April, 
1856, I prepared some infusion of senna in the ordinary way, and having 
strained it on, added in one case to every ounce one drachm of we tincture w 
senna, in another, to every ounce two scruples of the tincture; to the infusions 
of calumba, cascarilla, and orange, I added in one case one draclmi of the 
tincture of each individual infusion, and in another, half a drachm onlj^; infusi(m 
of roses and rhubarb I prepared similarly, but using rectified spirit. These 
preparations were then exposed in a window to the sun and light, and, without 

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exoeptioD, thej were perfectly good upon the 17th of the month, and equally so 
when examined on the 16th of the following month, namely. May. For some 
considerable time afterwards I fre<]uently examined them, until thev were 
thrown away and the subject was dismissed from mv mind, thiiJdnff that the 
tincture would be looked upon as an infringement which would not be yielded 
to, although I did not then, and cannot now, see any valid objection, as infusions 
are rarely prescribed where spirit and tinctures are entirely interdicted. The 
Phannacopceia supplies us with two infusions where the addition of spirit is 
Mdered — viz. di^talis and armoracia. 

I selected the infusions here experimented upon because I considered them 
more likely to change than any of the others. Quassia, chirayta, cloves, and 
bark, keep a very long time, so that no one need really, under any circumstances, 
be without them. I should perhaps mention that the calumba had a doudy 
deposit, but in other respects remained sound and good, retaining the bitterness 
in a remarkable degree. 

18, Conduit Sireet, SOih May, 1859. 

Mr. Wauoh had for several years adopted the plan noticed by Mr. Haselden, 
of heating infusions to near their boiling point in bottles filled to the brim, then 
covering the mouths of the bottles with bladder, and keeping them thus excluded 
from the air, and he had found this plan to answer penectly. In fact, the 
process and arrangement were so simple and so satisfactory, that he thought 
there was no excuse for usiuj^ concentrated infusions, nor any necessity for 
altering the characters of the mfusions at present ordered in the Fharmacopceia, 
and which had received the sanction of long experience. He might mention^ 
in order to show how completely the method he had mentioned succeeded in 
excluding air, that afler tying the bladder over the mouth of the bottle, and 
allowing the infusion to cool, on taking the bottle in the warm hand, the liquid 
would sometimes enter into ebullition. He did not think the objections urged 
bv Mr. Haselden to this mode of keeping infusions were of much weight ; on 
tne other hand, he thought tiie plan sug{;ested of adding spirit or tincture to 
infusions to preserve them was very objectionable. 

Mr. T. H. Huxs said it had sometimes occurred to him, since improvements 
had been effected in preparing infusion of coffee by a process of percolation 
which occupied but a tew minutes, that probably a similar process might be 
made availaole for the preparation of medidnal infusions. He had triea some 
experiments with a French cafeti^e of very simple construction, and^ found the 
results to be satisfactory. He thought this was worth a consideration, as pro- 
bably all infusions might be thus made by a uniform process that would not 
occupy more than ten minutes. 

The CHAimMAM thought the suegestion a good one, and the object a very 
desirable one to attain, if practicable. He believed the subject of infusions was 
referred to in other papers they had to read. In fact, there appeared to be 
several communications which had been received from different parts of the 
coontrv, all relating to Pharmacopoeia processes, and probably it would be the 
best plan to have them all read before discussing the subjects. If the time 
would not admit of discussion on the present occasion, the papers might be 
printed in the Journal, and tiie subjects cUscussed at the next meeting. 

Mr. FxABCis thought it would be best to have the papers merely read this 
evening, and to take the discussion after Members had had an opportunity of 
reading them. 



AoBA. — ^Acidum Phosphorionm Dilutum. The formula for this preparation 
would be well replaced by one for diluting the glacial acid to any standard 
degree, pladng the ghusial acid in the materia medica list. 

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DscoCTA. — ^Decoctam Aloes Compositnm would probably be in no respect 
injured by the omission of saffron, a costly and nauseous stimulant of questitm- 
able efficacy. 

In the preparation of decoctions generally, greater uniformity would be 
obtained by making both the time of boiling and the quantity to be ultimately 
produced definite. For example, in preparing decoctum cmchonse, say add 
water a.s., to replace what has been lost by boHing, so that if it has been r^uced 
to one-nidf in one case and to three-quarters in another, the addition of the water 
will remove this source of variation. In the case of decoctum hordei, the opposite 
source of variation exists ; it will sometimes get a much lon^r boiling before it 
is reduced to two pints than at another time. These objections apply with 
increased force to the preparation of larger or smaller quantities, as the length 
of boiling on the one hand, and the volume lost on the other, are materi^ly 
influenced by the quantity operated upon. Decoctum taraxaci. The difficulty 
or impossibility of haviug fresh root always ready, makes it desirable to saf 
dried taraxacum root. Though fresh is ordered, I have no doubt the dried is 
in a great majority of cases either unavoidably or thoughtlessly substituted. 

ExTBACTA. — The consistence to which extracts are to be evaporated is a 
matter capable of being more particularly defined with advantage. Some 
(aloes, colocvnth, &c.') which may be dried without injury, and are not hygro- 
scopic, would probaoly have the greatest number of advantages in being 

Ikfusa. — Infusum gentianae compositnm, according to the present formula^ is 
prepared with *' lemon peel," the dispenser being left to his own judgment to 
decide whether it h to be fresh or dry, both conditions being acknowledged in the 
Ibt of materia mcdica. According to custom, fresh should be used, but the order 
that ** unless otherwise directed, vegetables are to be preserved dry," throws a 
doubt upon it, and countenances the more convenient use of the dry peel . I would 
suggest the propriety of deciding in favour at the dry. The gentian is ordered 
** concisa,'^ a ratlier vague term, but no doubt intended to express a very rough 
state of comminution. If it were ordered in coarse powder, the length of 
maceration might be reduced to a quarter of an honr (the time required fbr 
infusum aurantii), which would greatly facilitate its being prepared fresh when 
ifeouired, and reduce the temptation to substitute a concentrated preparatronr. 
I think this object should have special consideration, and experiments to reduce 
the time of maceration in all cases to its shortest duration. For instance: 
buchu bruised, ^02., hot water \ pint, infused for a quarter of an hour, gave an 
invasion a little turbid, darker coloured, with stronger odour and taste than that 
prepared with (he same i>roportion of the whole leaves and macerated five hours. 
The degree of comminution found advisable might be expressed as *•* powdered,** 
•'rougmy powdered," " bruised," or " sliced,*' and the exact meaning of these 
terms defined in the general directions, thus : powdered, is to be understood so 
fine as to pass through a sieve, the meshes of which are 40 x 40 or more to the 
square incii ; roughly powdered, that which will pass through a sieve 20 X 20 ; 
bruised, that which will pass through a riddle the perforations of which are 
one-fifth or one-sixth of an inch in diameter; sliced, cut transversely in sections 
not more than }-inch thick. If my ideas upon the reduction of the time of 
maceration do not meet with approval, I stiH think the subject of comminution 
is one that requires attention. 

LiRiMBKTUH Ammokls. — This preparation is often troublesome on account of 
the variable nature of olive oil, even when purchased from dealers of the highest 
reputatien, and bought as ''01. Oliv. Opt." it will sometimes give a thick, soapy 
mass, which will not pour out of the bottle, and at other times is very imper- 
fectly saponified. I have found almond oil more uniform, and would suffgest its 
use. Tnongfa less perfect combination is obtained, it is always fi^enSmthe 
objection that it fnll not come out of the bottle when wanted. 

ViMUM Fxaai.— If retained this should be of uniform strength, prepared wiA 
ffftti ammonio-tartras or ammonio-citras rather than the potash salt of iron, which 

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is ten uniform and pdrmanent, Hioii^ even it k be^er than merely trustiog to 
tfie acidi^ of the wine. 

MisTumA Crbta. — The quantity of mucilage is much too small to be of any 
use ; two or three times the quantity would be better. 

PKLCJI.JB. — Pilola aloes composita and pihila alo& c. sapone are not quite wtM- 
^LCtory preparations. The former is apt to lose its shape when made into pUlt ; 
Hie latter is too soft without the use of treacle, and has unnecessary bulk given to 
H by the fiquorioe. A desire is frequently expressed by the patient to bvve 
jnfla made as smaH as possible. I think we should attend to this desire as &r 
as practicable eonaistently with the necessary qualities of the mass. With this 
objeet I would suggest the propriety of discontmning extract of gentian in piluk 
aloes composita, extract of liquorice in pilula aloes c. sapone, cardamoms in 
pfluls colocynthidis composita (and probably placing oil of^ cloves in its place), 
myrrh in pilula galbani composita and in pilula rhei com|)osita. The ten- 
dency of pills to lose their shape is perhaps below the notice of the Fhysi- 
eian, but the Pharmaceutist finds it a matter which he most attend to; and to 
eflbct a sufficient firmness, together with ready solubility, hard soap is a most 
ufloftd addition ; I find it better than soft. I think the auantity used in Dilula 
colocynthidis composita and pilula rhei composita should oe much increased. 

FtTi.Yi8 Cbbta GoMPosrrus is often complained of by the patient as being so 
omrining to mix with water. The quantity of gum it contains is much too 
small to be of any use. I suggest that it would be better omitted, and that 
5 per cent, of carbonate of potash (not bicarb.) be added. This addition does 
not give it a tendency to become wet, even if kept a week or two in a damp 
place, and is snfficnent to makeit mix readily with water. 

SFZBiTi}s.--Spiritus anisi, carui, cinnamomi, menthss, pimentse, pul^gii, 
roamarini. These preparations are very little in use, probably because ta^ 
me so feeble ; tbe desire for more active preparations is shown by the constant 
demand fi)r ementia menthas, essentia anisi, &c., which might advantageously 
replace the others if prepared from authorized formtdsB. 

Sr auFu s ZfiicOBBBis.— The infusion for this syrup is inconveniently prepared 
with boiling water. An improvement might be found in ^e use of cold water, 
or ^le syrup might be macte with strong tinctsre of ginger added to simple 

TiRCToaA. — ^Tinctura Cardamomi Composita. It is to be hoped that raisins 
trSl not be any more used in this tincture. Tinotura Cinchone Composite. The 
nrntnal ef smon and cochineal from this formula would be no loss to the pre- 
paration, and a gain to the Pharmaceutist. Unctura lodinii Composita is better 
prepared with proof than with rectified spirit. Tinctura Rhei Composita. 
If fiquorice is to be retained in this formula, the propriety of using the 
extract instead of the root is worthy of consideration. As a rule (perhaps 
not without exception), it is better to see preparations have the nataml 
eolour of their active ingredients, and here» as elsewhere, I think saffiron 
had better be expunged. Tinctura Sennae Composita. Omit the raisins, 
nicknra Zingiberis. A formula for a stronger tincture than the pvesent 
m%fat be advantageously added, as '^ essentia zinffiberis " is not only a conunan 
domestic remedy but occasionally prescribed by M.D.S. It also affords a good 
means of making syrupus zingiberis. See above. 

TJMjnstmu Iodtmu CoKPosiTirif . Water is better than ^irit for dissolving 
tlieio^ne and iodide in this ointment 

11, Grey Sireet^ NewcasHe-on- Ttfne, 



Evpuksmm Baxj^DomtJ^—l have pointed out (Pharmaceutical Journal, 
f6L XV., page 361) the advantages of having this plaster prepared with an 
alcoholic extract of belladonna, and they are confirmed by fiirther experience. 

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EiipukflTBim Opxi.— The use of extract of opium in making thia piaster 
appears to me to be a refinement which is not needed in an external application. 
Unless there was some obvions advantage connected with it, the great increase 
of expense in the preparation should be avoided. It has prevented the adoption 
of the new fonnula to a great extent, and our demand for the article is cuefly 
ihe old kind. 

PiLDLA. Febbi Composita. — ^In making this compound, the sulphate of iroa 
and carbonate of soda should be first rubbed together. Sulphate of iron, which 
will keep its colour, necessarily contains a portion of uncombined acid, and in 
mixing it with carbonate of soda a considerable portion of carbonic add is 
evolved. If this is not allowed to pass off before the other ingredients are 
added, the mass becomes porous, and consequently spoils by exposure to the 
air; but if the foregoing direction is attended to, the mass or pills made from it 
will keep good for months if not years. Iliere is no objection to a warm 
mortar being used if thought needful. 

PiLULA Rhbi Composita. — ^I think the Edinburgh formula is entitled to 
preference in the British Pharmacopceia, from having been first in use. It was 
so much in demand in our neighbourhood, before the London College adopted 
it, that we have never felt at lib^y to depart from the original formula.^ The 
change attempted to be introduced into its composition by the substitution of 
oil ofcaraway for oil of peppermint, has, I think, had a tendency to lessen its use, 
and has been very inconvenient. 

Liquor Takaxacl^Fcw vegetable preparations are more in demand than 
liquor taraxaci. A good formula for its preparation is given in vol. ix., page 
948, of the Phartnaceutical Journal. Persons who have had more experience 
than myself may probably be able to state at what period of the year the pro- 
duct is most satisfactory. The quantity of juice is certunly less, and the 
proportional deposit mudi sreater, m autumn than in spring or the early part of 
summer, with no increase of strength, so far as I can juoge. Even with twenty- 
five per cent, of spirit, liquor taraxad gradually loses its bitter by keeping. 

Stbupus Cocci.— I have not known this syrup prescribed, and was not aware 
it was in the Pharmacopoeia till two or three days since. I suspect it would 
become veiy putrid in a mixture containing no spirit. Probably this might be 
prevented by extracting the colour of the cochineal with cold very diluted 
sulphuric acid, and aflerwards saturating with potash. 

Stbupus MoBi.—The following process greatly improves this syrup. Heat 
the juice to the boiling point to separate the albumen ; when cold, mter, and add 
the sugar, dissolving oy heat. Thus prepared, it is a beautiful transparent 

Stbupus AuBAMTir, Stbufus Zihqibkbis. — In making these svrups I would 
suggest that the spirit should be used to extract the virtues of tne solid ingre- 
dients, which are much more soluble in that menstruum than in water. 

TmcTOBA Ammonia Composita. — Might not this rubbishy formula be ex- 


tures are liable to become muddy by keeping. Would not the substitution of 
cassia for dnnamon be an improvement ? Cinnamon appears to have a great 
tendency to change in nearly all its liquid preparations. 

TiBCTUBA loniNii.— A saturated solution of iodine in rectified spirit is oflen 
required as an escbarotic, and medical men are disappointed in the efiects of 
tinctura iodinii composita if used for this purpose. 

TiBCTUBA QuiNJE CoMPosiTA. — Would there be any objection to facilitate the 
solution of quinine by the addition of a Uule sulphuric acid ? 


preparations the starch should, I think, be allowed to subside. 

I have been induced to turn my thoughts in the following direction, in con- 
sequence of a remark made at the Pharmaceutical meetmg on t^e drd of 

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February, by Dr. F. J. Farre, to the effect that a note might be appended to the 
formuUi for apiritds ammonias aromaticus, stating that the spirit is liable to 
become coloured by keeping. _ 

It is probable that our continental neighbours pay too much attention to what 
may be termed the minor, or less imnortant characters of medicinal prepa- 
rations, and may thereby justly incur tne charge of spending their ingenuity 
u^on trifles. NcTertheless, I hope that in the forthcoming Pharmacopc^ these 
minor particulars will not be neglected, but that even in them perfection and 
excellence will be aimed at, however far we may be from attaining it. 

It should, I think, be considered a defect in a tincture, a syrup, a honey, or an 
oxymel, to be otherwise than perfectly brisht. In a distilled spirit to be coloured 
or muddy. In an extract to become mouldy, or to be lumpy (and green extracts 
will certainly be lumpy if the chlorophyl is evaporated with the juice). In 
confections to be rough or to become candied. In a pill mass to crumble inth 
pressure, or in pills to lose their form. Decoctions and infusions, the medicinal 
qualities of which are soluble in cold water, should be clear. Those who 
remember the practice of bruising sarsaparilla root for decoction after it was 
softened by boiling, must look back upon it with disgust, but there is much yet 
to be learned before many of our preparations are perfect. I hope, however, 
everv successful attempt to remove defects and to produce a perfect preparation 
will be recognized as a step forward, though I would by no means recommend 
that attention to these minor considerations should in any case interfere with 
those of greater importance. 

The province of the Physician and the Pharmaceutist in determining the 
processes and formulae of the Pharmacopoeia, is, I think, separated by a pretty 
clear line of demarcation, and I should be glad to see all the skill and experience 
of the Pharmaceutists of this country exercised in the part which rightly 
devolves on them. 

I may acknowledge that I feel rather disappointed that no mention has been 
made in the Journal of contributions to the work from many experienced Phar- 
maceutists, who are in a position, I should suppos^ to lend a helping hand. 

I do not know to what extent the College of Physicians has hitherto been 
responsible for the doses attached to preparations in their authorised translation^ 
but the subject is, I think, one of considerable importance. 

In the Pharmacopceia of 1836 the proportion of jalap root to proof spirit for 
tincture was lOoz. to on.,and in 1851, the quantity of jalap was reduced, to 5oz.y 
yet in Phillip's Translation the dose is in each case the same. A similar over- 
sight does not occur with regard to simple extract of colocynth, which in 
Phillip's Translation for 1836 is directed to be given in the dose of 10 grains to 
30 grains, and in 1851, from 5 grains to 20 srains, but the strength of the 
extract of 1851 is such that few persons would like to repeat the minimum dose 
of 5 grains, and 20 |;rains would, I think, in some cases be dangerous. When 
an important alteration is made in any formula, special attention should, I think, 
be directed to it. 



Perhaps one of the most neglected portions of our present Pharmacopoeia is 
its pilulas. No delicate chemical changes in preparation or uncertainty in com- 
position exist to attract either scientific or practical discussion to them. By the 
prescriber they are invariably considered a bad form for exhibition unless where 
nauseous or repulsive medicines are required to be administered ; the Phar- 
maceutist finds them the time-absorbing, profitless pests of his establishment, 
whilst the dispenser also feels equally warm in his dislike for them, which 
feeling is mooified only by the consolation that their physical characters 
nevef' vary; they will bear any amount of scrutiny without the detec- 

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tion of a shade of difiference in colour, and the inyalid's delicate palate will 
be expended here in vain — he never tastes pills; the dispenser, therefore^ 
imagines that anything will do for these troublesome compounds. Such id, how- 
ever, not the case, nor does there exist any reason why attention should not 
be directed to these poeparations. 

A good pill mass, as stated by one of our most competent lecturers on Fhar* 
macy, *' shoold be of a perfectly even consistence ; wnen cut through, should 
nresent a uniform appeiarance without any observable difference in colour or 
laminae ; should be sufficiently hard to preserve a nicely rounded form when 
made into pills, and sufficiently soft to be readily taken up by the fluids of the 
stomach. It should not be so unyieldingly elastic as to refuse to be moulded 
into any shape the operator may think fit, nor delude him to imagine he has 
rolled a lot of round pills when, on further examination, he finds them ovals, 
but should possess a degree of tenacity sufficient to preserve them even when 
tolerably dry from falling to powder." Nevertheless, to secure these qualities 
much practical experience is required to indicate what vehicle will answer best 
for mixing up the particular substance under notice. I am not aware of any one 
thing that will fulhl the deflored end in every case ; even that beautiful mixture 
of 8<m soap and treadle will fail occasionally. 

In the present Pharmacopceia the required conditions are fulfilled admirably 
in some instances, in others but very imperfectly. The pilula cambogise eom- 
posita and pilula hydrargyri chloridi composita, are examples of this. Scarcely 
ever are these two substances found in a fit state to be rolled into pills after 
having been made for a short time. There are others which I submit might be 
matly improved by the slightest modification in the process employed, and hj 
me vdiicle used in their manufiicture. 

I would therefore propose to divide the pUuls of the Pharmacopceia into two 
classes — first, those to oe prepared by mixing together the ingredients in powder, 
xf admissible, with the soap or treacle, or whatever may l^ indicated by the 
present. fi>rmuls9, and adding thereto sufficient water to form a thin paste, 
afterwards evaporating the mixed materials by the heat of a water-bath until a 
fit consistence shall have been obtained. A sb^t modification to the foregoing 
process will be required for those masses containing volatile oils, &c. TbiB is 
substantially the method adopted in many leadinghouses at the {H>Bsent time 
wi^ admirable sesi^ts. Second, those prepared by beating the ingredients 
together in the ordinary way as now directed. UiMer the first head I would 
place the following :*^ 

FtlxHsL Alobs €o]iPoaiiA.~Prepare this by mixing the aloes in powder, 
extract of gentian, and treade, with sufficient water te form a paste, and evaporate 
by a water-badi as above indicated to a proper consistence, ihexi, when tne pUl 
is beginning to cool, stir in the oil of carawav. 
PuiULA AiiOBS c. MxBBBA.— Prepare as above. 

TihOJjL Alobs c. SAPOKB^Prepare as above. Treacle is ordered in this 
formula to be added in sufficient quantity ; it would evidently be preferable to 
name a fixed weight instead, for, as will be perceived, none would oe necessanr 
to reduce the mass to a pill consistence, being even without it, when soft soap is 
used, too soft to preserve the pills from running together. 

PiJLULA GAMBOGiiE CoMPOsrrA.-^Prepare as directed for pilula aloes com' 
posita. Although when recently prepared by the Fharmacopceia process, this 
mass seems to pHOSsess all the necessary qualities for use, still it soon loses its 
adhesive propezties, and has either to be rebeaten with a ficesh quantify of soap 
or rejected entirely. It is, however, not much used now. 

P11.ULA. Cou>CTHTHii>is Composita.— Prepare as pUxUa aloe» composita^ mixinff 

in the cardamoms towards the end of the evaporation, when in the last named 

pill the oil of caraway is ordered to be added. Many prescribecs are in &voar 

of the extract of 1838 in lieu of this. 

Pilula Galbahi Composita.— Take of myrrh, galbanum, sagapenum, and 

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Ifbcacuashjb g. ScHiLA. 
scillje cohpo«ita. 


asafoetidm oi each quantities equivalent to those at present ordered ; macerate 
at a gentle heat in sufficient water, and strain through muslin, then the soap 
and treacle being added, evaporate to a proper consistence. 

TiLvUL Rhei CoBirosiiTA.— Prepare as /7taito aloes comprnta^ stinring in the oil 
at the end of the process. 

Pii.uiiA Sttbacis C0MPO6ITA.— Prepare as pUuia ahes eomponta. 

The before-named comprise the pill masses, which I feel convinced would be 
Improved by adopting tiiis method, which has also another advantage, that of 
requiring considerably less manual labour in its perfbrmaaoe. In illustration of 
the advantage of the process I recommend, I would refer to linimetUum hydroT" 
gyrL With all the rubbing, beating, mixing, and mechanical exertion the 
most vigorous arm could apply, it will still remam a mixtave disposed to separa- 
tion almost immediately; but take this same mixture, apply a gentie heat, aod 
an entirely difierent result will present itself. We have now a thick even 
liquid, retaining when cold the same properties ; we have, in fact, not a mixture, 
but a thorough combination. 

The pill masses of the second class I shall have but few remarln to make en; 
they are — 

The instructions given, as well as the 

methods of keeping these masses, are all that 

»^can be desired, the pilnla hydrargyri being 

genendly prepared on a very extensive 

scale, well mixed, and genuine. 

P11.ULA Fbbri CoMPOsiTA. — ^As frequently met with, this pill possesses an 
andue amount of hardness, for which, however, there is no neoessitv, for if the 
decomposition of the iron be thoroughly completed, which is readily done by 
heating the mortar to 212^, the mass will have a sood consistence, and retain 
it for some time, ^et it is preferable not to keep this pill for too long a time, in 
order to prevent in some degree the iron from becoming peroxydized. I have 
been in the constant habit of replacing the treacle by sugar here, with, I think, 
great advantage, the sugar exerting an equal, or even superior preservative 
influence on uie iron, and admirab^ fitting it in all its properties for adminis- 

PiLuLA HnmABOTBi Chloridi CoMP08iTA.-*-Few things can be more trouble- 
some than this to roll into pills when made up with treade as directed. The 
only substance I have found to answer the desired end is castor oil, wiA which 
they will not only keep their original form, but remain sofl for an unlimited 

PxjiULA SAPoins Coif posiTA.— This mass is much too soft to form pills, and 15 
to 20 per cent, of its moisture must be evaporated to obtain a good consistence. 
if something were not added to compensate for this loss of water^ the prepara* 
tion would as a necessity contain too much opium to the extent to which water 
18 driven off. It would be far better to use the hard soap ordered in the former 
Pharmacopoeia in place of the soft soap now ordered. 

These comprise the whole of the pill masses ; and, in conclusion, I would re- 
mark, it is oiten a convenience to have the pill in a state of powder. As this 
form, in many instances, is obtainable, it would be well, in cases where thought 
desirable by the Pharmacopoeia Committee, to make provision for it. Pilula 
colocynthidis composita, pilula rhei compoflota, pilula hydrargyri chloridi com- 
posita, &c., are now often kept in this state as well as in mass. I may also add 
that glycerine has been much recommended in pill making, and doubtless, 
like many other unnamed substances, has its place, but I Imow of no spedal 
advantage it possesses over the means we alreadj^ have, and besides this, it is 
considerably more expensive— a circumstance which should always be attended 
to in the construction of formulas for the Pharmacopoeia. 

4 and 6, Union Street^ Brittol, 

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The disparity in composition which the three Pharmacopoeias exhibit in this 
article is greater than at first sight strikes the eye. ^ It is but one of the many 
cases of dissimilarity presented by these works, which in some of the other prepara- 
tions must have produced serious results ; but tcmpara mutantur. If we compare 
the methods directed to be foUowed by the three coUeffes, we shall find Cttle 
analogy. Thus, placing them in juxta-position, we shall find that in about three 
pints, the formule contain respectirely — 


Rectified spirits j specific 
Oij. water Oij. *) gravity 

(about .900 

Chloride of ammonium, ^iy. 
Carbonate of potash, Jr. 

Aromatics in their primitire 

form, 5xx98. 
Specific gravity, .918 

D. PH. 

Rectified spirits, Og. ^xiv. 

Solution of ammonia 
specific gravity .900 

Aromatics in the form of 

volatile oils, 3v. m^lj. 
Specific gravity .852. 

Spirits of ammonia, Oij. 
Jxvy. 3v. ntlvij. 

Aromatics in the form of 
volatile oils, S^^iij- V\i^. 
Specific grav. about .846 

We find that the proportions of absolute alcohol run as follows :— L. Ph., 
about ^xxxiiiss. ; D. Ph., about |xxxxjv. 5vj., and the E. Ph. a little above 
the latter. The ammonia is in the form of sesquicarbonate in one, and in the 
caustic form, varying eccentrically, in the other two, whilst the aromatics in the 
£. Ph. are about equivalent to quadruple those of the London Ph. 

In looking over the processes, we find that in the D. Ph. distillation is not 
used, and although the product is not equal to the others in appearance, I think 
it has one advantage which ought not to be overlooked — that is, the fadlity it 
ofiers to the Pharmacopolist to make the article for his own use, a consideration to 
be held in view in all toe processes introduced into the Pharmacopoeia, so that 
the apothecary may become more independent of the manufacturer. There are 
hundreds of Pharmacopolists who make their own articles as far as the appli- 
ances go, but are prevented by circumstances from using distillatory or other 
apparatus. The nroduct of the present Dublin formula is open to serious ob- 
jections. When first made, it is decidedly coloured from the use of a certain 
oil, which becomes darkened by the action of alkaline substances ; nor is thia 
coloration lessened by the action of the sun's rays, added to which it lacks 
the sweet saline piquancy gained by the introduction of sesquicarbonate of am- 
monia. In preparing a formula, such an oil as Qinnamon or clove is inadmis- 
sible, from its pro|)erty of becoming tinged when in contact with ammonia ; but 
by avoiding such oils, we may eet a solution which is not only perfectly colourless 
but will remain so for an indefinite period. The following, or a similar formula, 
will give the desired results :— 

Rectified spirits, Oj. Jxiv. 

Sesquicarbonate of ammonia, powdered, gss. 

Solution of ammonia, sp. g. .880, i^. 

Oil of lemon, 5iij. 

Oil of nutmeg, 3$. 

Oil of lavender, ilt,xx. 

Water, a sufficient quantity to make Oij. 
Specific gravity, .870 
Oil of rosemary may be substituted for the lavender, but I think the flavour 
of the latter would be preferred. 
Laboratory, Apothecaries* Hall oflrelandy Dublin. 

The usual hour for adjournment having arrived, the further consideration of 
these papers was deferred to a subsequent occasion. 

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The fifteenth Meeting of the Session was held in the Koyal Institution, Colquitt 
Street, May 26th, 1859; 


The Sbcretart announced several donations to the Library and Museum, 
amongst which was the Austrian PharmacopoBia, from Daniel Hanbury, Esq., 

A discussion on the new Pharmacopoeia and the weights and measures was again 
brought forward. The meeting appeared to be almost unanimous in deprecating 
any iteration in the value of the grain weight, as such alteration would be likely to be 
proIttctiTe of great inconvenience ai|d confusion in dispensing, nothing being more 
mischievous than altering the value and still retaining the same designation of a 
weight or measure. The unanimous opinion of the meeting was in favour of a 
decimal system, and until such be introduced and legalized by Act of Parliament, 
it was considered desirable to use the avoirdupois weight from one ounce and upwaida, 
and the apothecaries' weight below one ounce. 

In accordance with these views, Mr. Abraham moved the following resolution:^ 
* That the Chemists' Association are strongly of opinion that avoirdupois weights 
ouglit to be adopted in the new Pharmacopoeia, but that the value of the grun 
weight ought not to be altered, and that the sign 9j., 3j., $j., should represent re« 
spectively, as hitherto, SOgra., 60grs., and 480gTs. 

Mr. Shaw seconded the motion. 

Dr. Edwards moved an amendment : ** That on the ground of the immovable 
unanimity of the Medical Colleges, despite the remonstrances of the PiiarmaceuticaL 
Society, it is not desirable further to communicate with the Pliarouicoposta Com- 
mittee;" which, not being seconded, the original motion was carried. 

Mr. Abraham proposed, and Mr. Walkbr seconded, '* That the above resolution^, 
should be forwarded to Professor Christison;" which was agreed to* 

Mr. H. S. Evans read a short paper on "Microscopic Research,** and, after a 
vote of thanks to the lecturer, the meeting separated. 

lioi/al Institution, 
The Sixteenth Meeting of the Session was held on June 9th ; 


The Secretary announced some donations to the Library and Museum, after 
which the President suggested that a formula for Tr. ferri. aoet. aether in the new 
Pharmacopoeia wa$ very desirable, it being often prescribed hj the profession, and 
the preparation obtained from different sources not being uniform in strength and' 



Queen's College, Liverpool. 

My attention has lately been called to an importation which arrived in this port 
in the month of March last. It consisted of nearly two tons of an article called by 
the importers Kutcfioo. Upon examination, I found the packages contained appa- 
rently two kinds of rhizome, one round in form, and not unlike zedoary, the other 
resembling ginger, but not quite so much flattened ; both were exactly like ginger 
in tlie external colour ; internally, they were of a dark greenish brown, and pos- 
sessed a fine aromatic camphoraceous taste, with a slight degree of bitterness. 

The round variety in every essential particular agrees with the cassumunar root 
referred to by Pereira under the head of Zingiber Cassumunar, Roxburgh, The long 
and thin variety as closely resembles the Zedoaria ionga of the same author, de- 
scribed under Curcuma Zedoaria {Pereira' a Materia Meaica and Therapeutics, vol. ii. 

From the admixture of both sorts in the same bags, their perfect similarity in 
sensible qualities, and from the still stronger proof that plenty of specimens were 
present, showing fractures on the sides of the round rhizomes exactly such as would 

VOL. I. c 

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be found had the long ones been broken from them, and tome also in which por- 
tions were still left, identical with them, I feel perfectly satisfied that they are the 
produce of the same pUuL 

I think, also, that they are derived from the Curcuma Zerumbet of Roxburgh, and 
lot from his C. Zedoaria. My grounds for this opinion, I confess, are slight; they 
rest chiefly upon the native name under which the artide wsj imported — wn, 
Kutchoo, This so nearly resembles the Dnkkanhie name of Kutchoor, by which it is 
known in the Indian baaaars, that it forms at least a reasonable excuse for the 
opinion I have adranced. The Arabic and Persian name for the same plant 
Zerwnbad, is also another reason. According to AinsUe, the Hindoos of Upper 
Hindostan called the root Ct^mr Huldity which signifies that it smells of camphor, 
of which it both smells and tastes very strongly. The following description of the 
not of Curcuma Zerumbet, by Geoflroy, also strikingly accords with the characters 
of these rhixomes except in the internal colour, " intus Candida/' which may, how* 
ever, have arisen from the examination of a r^ent root instead of a dried specimen, 
as all the turmerics become much darker in drying. He says: ^ Foris cinerea, intus 
Candida, sapore acri, amaricante, aromatlco, odore tenui, fragrante, ac valde aro- 
maticam, suavitatem cum tunditur aut manducatur spirante, et ad camphoram 
aliquatenus acddente." Few subjects in Materia Medioa have been more puszling 
than the determination of the products of the natural order Zingiberacese, and more 
especially those referred to in these remarks, but I now feel sure that these rhizomes, 
hitherto believed to be the produce of two diflferent plants, are, in fact, only difierent 
parts of the same, and that Cassumunar root is on^ the central root-atock of Cur- 
cuma Zerumbet, and that Zerumbet roots are its lateral ofisets. 

At a Meeting of Council of the Liverpool Chemists' Association, held Jmie 2and, 
the following resolution was unanimously adopted: — ' 

*' That this Council earnestly desire to sympathiae with the family of the late 
Jacob Bell, Esq., iu the bereavement which they have sustained by his death, and 
at the same time to record their high sense of the very important services which he 
has rendered to the cause of Pharmacy daring the last twenty years.** 

The Seventeenth and last Meeting of the Session was held June 23. A report of 
the proceedings will appear in the next Journal. 




Fellow of Eoyal College of PhyBicians, and Vice-President of Medioo-ChJnugical Society of 

Edinburgh, fto. 

It need scarcely be necessary to do more than refer the readers of the Phar- 
maceuUccU Journal to the subject of Weights and Measures in Pharmacy, as it 
has been discussed in the numbers for May and June of that Journal, 
iu order to justify a desire, which has not onlv been felt by myself, but has 
been urged upon me by others, that a more full explanation than has hitherto 
appeared in these pa^ should now be given of a plan which has been recently 
proposed for the adjustment of our medi^ metrology; a topic at all times of 
great interest and importance, but which has at present been rendered especially 
opportune from the contemporary progress of the arrangements for the publica- 
tion of a new British Pharmacopoeia, designed to serve as the sole rule hence- 
forward thron^out the Empire. 

If it can be shown that the existing system of medical weights and measures 
is one which, either owing to defects inherent in itself, or engrafled upon it 
through external encroachments, has become liable to many senous objections, 
there can be no doubt that just complaint might be urged against the Gieneral 

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li^dioal Couacil, aokiag under the recent enactment for the re^raktion of Ike 
medical jprolesatCKD, ware they to demit that power of adjusting and defining 
these weights and meaaures which has been there expressly committed to them by 
the State. Manifestly, also, if any chiui|e be necessary, it should be effected now, 
when, in bdagiog the Pharmacopceias of the several (uvisions of the empire into 
hannony with eSoL other, and the whole into a just relation with the proj^r^a 
of knowledge, and the demands of the time, so many other alterations must 
Gompulsorily enaue, the introduction of which would Uurgely facilitate whatever 
adjustments it mi^t be found advisable to associate with them. While 
thus performing the inentable duty of first determining which of several con- 
flicting modes of compounding a formula shall be the rule for the future, or 
whether the whole of theae ought to be modified, or supeneded, or abandoned, 
or what entirely new formulae, either in arrangement or in ingredient, shall be 
introduced, the element of an alteration in the weights and measures, by which 
their proportions are to be combined, falls easily into an integral part of the 
labour ; and the strength of the preparations, with the due correspondence of the 
various constituents, will be regulated accordingly and at once. Thus the whole 
would be aoeomplished as one effort by the compilers, and learned afterwards as 
one lesson by the druggist and the practitioner. It would be widely otherwise, 
however, if all other £3ereaees were reconciled, and all other points of change 
or aroangement determined now, and that of systematizing and simplifying the 
weights and measnrea were merely postponed. Instead of a single process of 
change, which a great object of national union has rendered to a wide extent 
imperative, and which should be rendered simultaneously complete if we would 
wisely escape from tiiose minor disturbances which, under the general adoption 
of the new ^tem, might be rendered almost imperceptible while they were felt 
to be necessary, we should then become needlessly subjected to the risk of a 
new subversion and of new distractions at some uncertain period ; and these, 
though proceeding from an individual cause would be sufficient to annul much 
of the labour, and revive most of the inconveniences, of the former compre- 
hensive change, with the additional painful reflection that they had been 
gratuitously encountered, in so &r as that a little timely prudence might have 
antioipated and prevented them. 

Assuming it» then, as beyond dispute, that if a change in the weights and 
meaaures be found neoessarv, it can be best made as part of that other more 
comprehensive change which circumstances have rendered inevitable, it remains 
only to be seen whe&er there is anything in existing relations which can re- 
commend it as prudent otherwise in the judgment of those to whom the credit 
of a profession, and the safety of the public, must rank as first conditions, or, in 
other words, in that of the whple of the united departments of medicine. It is no 
reproach to any of our present race of Chemists and Druggists, that the system of 
troy weights, with that modified subdivision of the ounce which has been spe- 
cially designated as apothecaries* weight, originally enjoined as that alone 
authoriaed for use in their shops, should have been in great measure aban- 
doned, while that of the avoirdupois weights has been largely substituted 
in its place. How and when this infringement of rule first glided into use, it 
will now be diffiooH to determine : but it was to have been foreseen, as a natural 
result of the univeml adoption of the avoirdupois system by all the commercial 
clanea of the country ; and it must have be^oi almost forced b^ the merchant or 
importer upon the wholesale Druggist, who, again, for an obvious convenience, 
would be not less willing to impose it upon those who purchased from bim, and 
who were engaged in the retail of medicines. It has unfi)rtunately ensued, however, 
as a conse()u«Me, that two sjrstems of weights, not only differing from each other, 
but conflicting and alternating singularly in the values of their similar denomi- 
nations, came mto simultaneous use in the shops of the dispensers of medicines ; 
and a larger avoirdnpms pound, with a smaller troy pound, to contrast with a 
laiger taeoy oimoe ana drmm, placed, again, beside smaller avoirduposs weights 

c 2 

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having coinciding designations, stood side by side on the same counter. It was 
necessary to escape, at least in part, from the intolerable confusion thus 
originated ; and the natural tendency with the Druggist, as it would have been 
with every other class of dealer, was to seek his refuge by gradually leaning to 
that description of weight which, setting aside the seldom required pound, not 
only enabled him to sell a smaller quantity under a like denomination, but was 
identical with that by which he had himself been constrained to make his own 
purdiases. Thus the custom grew up of retailing all <](nantities of medicine 
exceeding, or amounting to, a quarter of an ounce, by avourdupois weight only ; 
a contravention of the originally prescribed usage which seems to have been 
alreadj widely prevalent a century and a half a^, when the excellent treatises 
on weights and measures b^ Bishop Hooper and Dr. Arbuthnot were published, 
and which may be safely said to be universal now. 

Meanwhile, the requirements of medical practitioners still compelled a con* 
tinuance of the preparation of prescriptions, according to the authorized troy 
or apothecaries' weight. But with the preparation of the fundamental formulae in 
the rharmacopoeias it was soon found to fare differently. The larger denomi- 
nations of troy weights having actually disappeared from many establishments, 
and fallen into total disuse in mfoiy others, comparatively few Druggists were 
left who complied with the directions of the Colleges in compounding their 
Galenical preparations directly' by these weights ; by far the greater number 
adopting a process of transmuting the quantities so as to express them in the 
avoirdupois weights which were now universally in their possession, and thus 
proceeding to complete their office upon this, in so far, arbitrary method of their 
own. That so extreme a point, in such a matter, was thus easily reached, was but 
part of the general tendency evinced by the Druggists to verge into the adoption of 
the avoirdupois weights, under the common impulsion which we have indicated. 
These facts premised, we best sum up the results by recapitulating, that thus three 
different systems became contemporaneously established in their laboratories. 
By the first, they made all their purchases, and retailed all their wares, when 
amounting to a quarter of an ounce in quantity or upwards, according to the 
avoirdupois scale; by the second, they dispensed prescriptions, merely a 
restricted form of sale, not in conformity with the weights by which they had 
made their purchases, but according to the troy or apothecaries' standard ; and 
by the third, they mingled the two, receiving the directions in troy, and trans- 
muting them for execution into avoirdupois. 

These accumulating changes were not likely to be either unobserved or 
unresisted by the Colleges of rhysicians. It was not necessary for these bodies to 
inculcate here a duty among themselves, through any appeal to the earnest 
straining of all nations, and throughout all times, for uniformity of weights and 
measures, in their several countries ; and, most of all, in each special depart- 
ment of art, trade, or commerce. The physicians had already established their 
modification of the troy weight, as that which was to be the sinsle rule in all 
compounding and selling of medicines ; and aj^inst the growing infiringement of 
this rule, carrying thus along with it, as it did, a departure from a universally 
asserted principle, they for long attempted to bring the force of their 
influence. In a Draught for the Reformation of tluI/mdmPharmacopcda^ pre- 
pared by a Committee of the London Royal College in 1742, and then printed, 
the complaint is ur^ed, for example, that the pound troy being much less than 
the avoirdupois, while the troy ounce is the heavier, the druggists and grocers, 
nevertheless, " sell by the avoirdupois weight, and the apothecaries do not 
generally use the troy weight for pounds and ounces ; whereby it happens that, 
when ingredients are some prescribed in pounds and others in ounces, they are 
not in their practice proportioned according to the intention of the prescription; 
and when an ingredient is prescribed by anv subdivision of the ounce, their small 
weights being adapted to a greater ounce than the avoirdupois, those ingredients 
are also used in a wrong proportion." So strong, actually, luid been the pro* 

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divity to this source of error, thai the Pharmaoopoeia itself had not been able 
to escape its influence ; and it is stated that, ^* though the troy weights only 
are described at the beginning, yet many of the compositions are prescribed 
aecording*to the proportions of the avoirdupois." Having amended, however, this 
fault on their own parts by rephicine everywhere the trov standard, they finally 
recommended the total abolition of Uiis ** confused use of the two weights/' and 
derired to leave the rest to the vigilance of the censors over the shops of the apothe- 
caries. Again^in a phin for a new PharmacopcEia, issued in 1745, the London 
College reverts to this subject, describing the irregularity which had now crept into 
the practice of pharmacy as peculiar to ourselves, from the custom in this country of 
ap|nx>priatinff different species of weights to different commodities; and thepr 
atate that ahready then, as the druggists and grocers sell by the avoirdupois 
weights, so ''few apothecaries keep weights adjusted to the troy pound greater 
than two drams, but for all above use avoirdupois weights ;'' a practice of wludi 
they once more enjoin the discontinuance, as leading to mischievous error. 

Men of eminence, also, not only for special acquaintance with the subject of 
pharmacy, but for general leamingr and high character, were not slow afterwards 
m repeating these charges, and m regretting their necessity. Dr. Healde, 
among the rest, in his translation of the London Pharmacopceia, published first 
in 1786, while conmienting upon the faults induced b^ the prevailing irre- 
gularities, laments^ as was natural for him at the period, ''that the avoir- 
dupois weights are not banished entirely from the shops of Apothecaries.*' 
In 1788, 1^. Duncan, of Edinburgh, while editin^j the Dispensatory of Dr. 
Lewis, complains of the prevailing differences of weights as bavins occasioned 
great confoBbn in the practice of pharmacy. In 1822, when puolishing the 
tenth edition of the Edinburgh New Dispensatory, his eminent son. Dr. Duncan, 
jun., than whom there was then no higher authority in this department of 
medicine, and no more conscientious writer and observer, renews the challenge 
of the want of uniformity of weights and measures as attended with many incon- 
veniences, and charges it, besides, with ite fitness for engenderinjg^ numerous and 
culpable errors. Dr. Christison, with a like title to attention, in his Dispensa- 
tory pubiiabed in 1842, brings a similar accusation against the current system. 
Nor nave the Druggists and Apothecaries themselves failed to stigmatize fre- 
quently the practices, into which the force of their position, and a long inheri- 
tance of mbuse, have finally, and almost inextricably, led and entangled them. 
I have been assured by individuals, as well as by firms of the greatest experience, 
that the nearly nnivenal expedient of making up all compounds of the Pharma- 
eopceiaby converting the apothecaries' into avoirdupois weight; with the rule of 
buying all medicines, and selling all quantities of above a quarter of an ounce, by 
the latter weight, wlulepreparing prescriptions by the former ; and the perplexity 
of havinff weights coinciding in name yet diverging in value, each proves to them a 
continuu source of confusion and inconvenience, and adds a perpetual excuse or 
occasion for carelessness in ]roung dispensers. Nor are^ these reerets and con- 
fessions, the instances of which might have been multiplied indefinitely from 
within the different departments of the profession, unattended with something 
like the taunts of others beyond its limits. Colonel Pasley, while treating of 
weights and measures, retails the admission of the '^intelligent*' apothecaries 
whom he consulted, that they sometimes get confused between the two kinds of 
weight which they are oblieed to use daily in the course of their business : and a 
writer in the Eneychpcedia Briiannica^ a work in very extensive circulation, 
directly charges the College of Physicians with having prevented the completion 
of an equalization of the weights in this country, under the Acts of 1824 and 
1885 ; and of having been the cause of the very needless retention of two, and in 
some respects three, different standards as applied to medicine, from the use of 
iriiich, it is added, arises a tendency to create confusion, with the opportunity 
for firaudulent transactions. 
But the early, though the persbtent remonstrances of individual Physicians, 

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and of the London College, could avail nothing against an irregnlantjr vrbich. 
had struck its roots so deeply, be<»in8e it hadl>een so naturally fostered, and 
had found so congenial a support in the general usages of commerce. The Acts 
of Parliament, however, which we have just referred to, suggested a new oppor- 
tunity, and gave a new direction to the efforts of many, for the rescue of rnar- 
macy from tne embarrassment which thus threw doubt and discredit on its 
functions. Feeling the impossibility of bringing back the Druggists to the 
exclusive use of troy weight in their shops and laboratories, the prescribers of 
medicine, like prudent and thinking men, began to contemplate the advisability 
of yielding to its compounders, and of adopting the avoirdupois, which they 
could not wrest out of iJie others' hands ; or, at least, which it seemed impossible 
to remove without an effort, the harassment and labour of which would be 
widely disproportionate from the chances of its success. The first, and, in some 
degree, perhaps, the unconscious step in this direction, was that made by the 
Royal College of Physicians of London in 1886, when they adopted the imperial 
measure, expressly based on the avoirdupois standard, as their rule for the dis. 
pensing of li(}uids. When the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh next 
issued an edition of their Pharmacopoeia, in 1889, they followed the ISnelish 
College in adopting the imperial standard of measure; and now with the furUier, 
and wholly explicit, declaration, that they could not admit the force of the 
objections which had hitherto prevented the introduction also of the imperial or 
avoirdupois system of weights into the practice of medicine and pharmacy. 
Three years afterwards. Dr. Christison, in the valuable work already referred 
to, advocated the same views, and with his usual solidity of reasoning. The 
Dublin College of Physicians, therefore, were not without warrant when, alone 
with a change to the imperial measures, they took another and still more decided 
step in advance ; and, reiterating the oflen urged complaint, not less justly 
pounded in Ireland than elsewhere, of the frequent errors, and the unceasing 
inconveniences caused by the existing discrepancies, determined that the avoir- 
dupois pound and ounce, with the addition of a corresponding drachm 
and scruple, should be henceforward the rule within their jurisdiction. But 
unfortunately, this change lost much of the merit which attached unqueih 
tionably to its motive, through the circumstance that it seemed only to vary 
the difficulty by eluding a part of it; for, in attaching, as a concession to a 
long-established infraction a hitherto unrecognized value to the larger de* 
nominations of weights, while retaining the troy grain as the real basis of the 
system, the actual tendency was to give the appearance of a rule to that 
practice which was still only arbitrary, and tnus to lend the sanction of 
authority to what remained a confused and defective arrangement, resting upon 
two different, and, in the strict sense, radically and essentially incompatible 
standards. This is best shown by the fact, that the troy grain can be converted 
into no aliquot part of the avoirdupois ounce or of the new drachm ; and the 
expressed value of the former fgi*. 487.5), or of the latter (gr. 54.68), or of 
the associated scruple (gr. 18.22), carried with each so much of an air of 
defective^ scientific precision, and of an assurance of practical intricacy and 
inconvenience, that the plan, however partiallv efficient in result, and wholly 
excellent in intention, seemed little likely, on this score, to meet with a general 
acceptance, even had it been successful otherwise in removing tJie whole of the 
eadsting causes of complaint. 

Through this rapid sketch of the leading points in the history of the medicd 
metrology of the United Kingdom whioi was necessarv for our object, we 
arrive easily at the conception of its existing condition. We have learned that 
the system of troy or apothecaries' weights, originally established for exclusive 
use in the sale and compounding of medidnes, has been, in spite of injunction 
and remonstrance, gradually infringed upon, until all quantities exceeding a 
quarter of an ounce are universally sold by avoirdupois weight, and all 
Galeoictl preparations are prevalently compotmded by means of a commutation 

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ju)f vsnmrr ot wbiohvs ahd mbasubm. 28 

of tbe Ibnner into the latter sCandaid : thst all attempti bavmr fkiM, throuffk 
natural grounds of ezceptioD, in retaming the Druggists within the rule primBrQ^ 
flitaMished, there has been a growing inclination on the part of manj to incline 
towards them, and to aanction that aroirdupois system wholly, which they hare 
appropriated to themselves in so large a part : and that, finally, the result of 
this has been an adoption of the im|>eTial liquid measures, based upon the 
avoirdupois standard, for general use in medicine ; and the partial adoption, 
limited as yet to one division of the empire, of a plan of weights for solids^ 
intennediate between the two standards, while in the other two divisions the 
troy wdgfats are still retained, in as far, at least, as prevailing usages permit 
them. This state must be clearly one of transition, for it increases an intricacy 
which was fonnerly sufficiently embarrassing ; but it points as manifestly in the 
direction towards which the whole system tends, in order that it may be 
brought into complete harmony, not only with itself, in its several parts, but 
with the entire arrangements of commerce throughout the country. Mean- 
while, it leaves us to resret the |>08ition of the Druggist, constrained to the use 
of ^diverse" weights, by his being thus still compelled to buy in one weight 
and sell in another ; or by his assuming arbitrarily the right to sell sometimes 
in one weight and sometimes in anotibier; for it is a false and inadmissible 
distinction which separates dispensing fh>m selling. We deprecate this the 
more, that he is unique in this predieament ; and that, with a singular impro- 
priety, it is that department of trade which is the closest in its rdationa to 
science, which has not only had tolerated in it a laxity of procedure so wholly 
adverse to scientific rule, and such even as the law does not now admit in the 
■hop of the pettiest huckster, but which, dealing as it does with the highest of 
human interests, has been ihna rendered liable to the more momentoua 
charge of inflicting needless risks of error and danger upon the public. The 
means of escaping from such a position, and from such imputations, even if 
undeserved, are well worthy of consideration, and of more serions efforts tiban 
Hie occasion, fortunately, is likely to demand. 

What has been stated, will have shown, at all events, that it is not too much 
to assert that there is a duty incumbent here upon those who, under the Act for 
regulating the qualifications of medical practitioners, have had entrusted to them 
the important char;^ of preparing the new and long desired British Fharmacopceia, 
and who, as is specified m the Act, are to direct the true weights and measures to 
be employed for that purpose. Holding such a power in their hands, the eminent 
men constituting the General Medical Council are not likely to encounter the 
responsibility it carries with it, in any other than a spirit becoming the onerous 
relations of their position to science and the public interests. It would be 
contrary, on the one hand, to an honest sense of dignity on the part of the 
Greneral Council, were they now, thus freshly and specifically authorized, to be 
expected to repeat that injunction for the exclusive use of troy weight, which 
they know has never hitherto been obeyed, and which it would be even more 
difficult to render compidsory at the present than at any former period. Yet, 
as responsible to science, they surely cannot continue, on the other hand, to 
sanction the existing confusion, and thus linger, in a twofold sense, behind the 
spirit of the times, which not only demands that there shall be no intermingling 
of weights in a single craft or profession, but that there shall be ultimately but 
one uniform and uncomplicated standard, for whatever uses, throughout the 
country, llie public morality would not be respected, if a system were con- 
tinued which had beeft chai|;ed by ^ave and experienced authorities witii 
fiicilitating and procuring the introduction of many errors or malpractices; and 
those high interests of human health and life, which constitute the peculiar 
province of the medical profession, would be held as inconsiderately tampered 
with, if it could be shown, or even plausibly alleged or suspected, that theie 
malpractices had led anywhere to serious ridks of uncertainty or injury in 
me<ncal practice, and yet that the conditions which fostered such dangers con- 

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tiiuied to be heedlessly tolerated. It would be no answer to this, that an assurance 
is offered by the heads of some of the principal firms of Druggists, that the 
present arrangements, with the calculations and transpositions they render 
requisite, are safe in their hands. What care, and ability, and experience may 
render easy to some, may be singularly the opposite where these are wanting ; 
and the man who walks unshrinkinely along the edge of a parapet, must not 
wonder if others prefer the safer footpath below. It is such a footpath, plain 
and obvious, and easy for all, or at least rendered needlessly difficult for none^ 
which the framers of the Pharmacopoeia are bound to take the present oppor- 
tunity to provide ; and physicians will naturally be excused, if, while cheerfully 
admitting the merits of at least the more accomplished masters of the craft of 
the apothecary, they are not the less reminded of human fallibility, and some- 
times of human rashness and presumption, even if they do not seek it in the 
description of apprentice whose exbtence hns been admitted by so eminent a 
Pharmacopolist as the lato Mr. JTacob Bell (Pharm, Joupi.^ 1859, p. 592), who 
could be heard boasting that he had only been in the business three months, and 
could guess calomel already. But beyond this, there will exist always a class of 
minds to whom such calculations never can become easy ; while, simple as they 
may be to others, they still must remain challengeable, as involving a chance of 
error, without offering a particle of advantage in compensation. 

Granting then, as at least our own, and not unsupported conviction, that a 
chimee is necessary, and that a proper time has arrived for effecting it, to neglect 
wbicn, indeed, would be to aggravate all difficulties, it only remains to deter- 
mine what should be its precise nature. Many and various suggestions have 
been offered for consideration. The first in importance of these has been to 
proceed at once to some modification of a decimal systom ; but this by no means 
with any unanimity of concurrence as to which special plan was the best 
recompnended for selection. The metrical system of the Frendi had its warm 
advo6ate8; but others, like Herschel and his distinguished associates in the 
Commission of 1841, desired the decimal division to be based upon the avoirdupois 
pound, as a scheme the least antagonistic to English usi^es. Most scientific 
men would be eager to see a decimal system established in this country ; though 
it could scarcely be expected, generally, that the Druggists, on their part, 
would be equally eager for a system the merit of which was that it might be 
rendered uniform throughout Europe, unless they first evinced their eamestness, 
by showing some anxiety to possess one which should be uniform within their 
own laboratories. Many, besides, might reasonably be inclined to doubt 
whether the gramme, wiUi its multiples and submultiplesj were really the form 
best adapted for employment in medicine. But there was, above all, one grave 
objection to the instant introduction of a decimal system of weights, of what- 
ever description, into Pharmacy, that, while it would widen, in the mean time, 
the discrepancy between the standard of the apothecary and the ordinary com- 
mercial standajrd, and so aggravate an inconvenience already felt too extensively, 
there could be no security that, should a decimal system be subsecjuently 
adopted by the nation at large, it would prove identical with that which we 
had independently contrived or select.ed ; and we should thus be compelled 
ultimately to another change, having derived little intermediate advantage from 
that which we had undergone the mbour to introduce so prematurely. It waa 
necessary, then, to devise such a change as, while it would the least outrage 
existing usages, would yet satisfy the claims of science and of public justice, by 
brining into harmony with each other the weights and measures in current 
use m medicine, and equalizing, at the same time, both with the commercial 
standards of the country ; and this, it was found, could fortunately be accom- 
plished by an alteration in the value of the grain, converting it into an integral 
part of the avoirdupois system. 

Leaving the General Coundl, or those whom it has authorized, to declare, at 
their own time^ their determination on this matter, it may be permitted to me. 

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as being myself in the pontl6n of belieying tbe cbange now indicated to be the 
beet under the circumstances, to explain more fullj, yet briefly, its nature and 
its concomitants ; considering what would be its results if actually adopted, 
whether it would be followed by any inconyeniences, what would be the weight 
of these, and in how far they were to be obviated or admitted of compensation. 
Commencing then, by agam recalling that the present weights or measures for 
liquids in the Fharmacopaia are bss^ upon the avoirdupois standard, it must 
be conceded that there is now actually and fundamentally, at least in the London 
and £dinbnrgh Pharmacopeias, a mingling of two diffelfent standards, the troy 
(apothecaries') and avoirpupois (imperud), in every formula where liquids and 
sends are combined. There hos thus here crept in something like a renewal of 
that error, of which the Ck>mmittee of the London College complained during 
that attempt, in 1742, at a reformation of the Pharmacopoeia, to which we have 
already made reference. But the anomaly thus introduced is one rather 
offensive to merely scientific precision than attended by any really practical 
disadvantages ; or, at the most, these can be felt only as complicating the cal- 
eolations required to determine the proportions between the solids and fluids in 
any given compound, the quantities constituting which have become conjoined in 
wliat has ceased to be a simple and easily ascertainable relation. But it is other- 
wise with those discrepancies so largely introduced by the Druggists into 
practical Pharmacy, as well as into the customary sale of medicines, and the 
amount of reprehension directed against which we have already illustrated. It 
was in so fiur a well-directed attempt, therefore, which has been alluded to as 
having been made by the Dublin College in 1850, when it sought to remove 
these discrepancies by a change to the avoirdupois system, to the extent that it 
adopted that system for all denominations of weight above the grain. But thb 
retention of the troy grain, as has been already remarked, still deprived the plan 
of its due practical and scientific value ; for, instead of securing uniibrmity, it 
actually sanctioned a new form of intermingling of standards, wnere there was 
yet no possibility of a true amalgamation. The existence, as we have seen, 
of fractional parts in the ounce, drachm, and scruple, evinced the incapacity of 
the troy ^rain for becominj^ a proper basis for the avoirdupois weight, or for 
being easily assimilated with toat weight, because it could not take its place as 
an integral part of any of its subdivisions. The objection thence arismg had 
its strong support in the practical inconvenience attendant upon the compulsory 
introduction of such fractional numbers into matters which, in^ ordinary life, 
must often become the subject of rapid calculation ; while, in a rigidly scientific 
point of view, its force was insuperable. But the difficulty is at once removed 
by reducing the troy grain to 0.91145 of its present value, or by taking from it a 
little more than an eleventh, and assuming this as the medicinal srain : an 
apparently slight change in itself, yet fortunately^ with virtue enough in it to 
remove the whole of the existing confusion, and impart to the arrangements 
everywhere the dignity and consistency of a uniform system. 

By this system, as so completed, the avoirdupois pound is solely retained, with 
its ordinary division into sixteen ounces ; but the ounce will be divided into 
dght drac&ms, each, therefore, containing two of the former avoirdupois 
drachms, a denomination of weight so little in use that it may be said to have 
become obsolete. However, should it still be thought necessary to recognize 
its existence, it may be mamtained distinct from the new medicinal drachm, by 
appending to the latter the name of didrachm, as signifying the double drachm ; 
a tide for which there would be good ckssical authority, in as far, at least, as an 
etymology was 'concerned. .The drachm, or didrachm, a^ain, will be sub- 
divided as usual into three scruples, each of the latter containing twenty ^ns, 
and thus the pound 7680 grains, of the new value. The effect of this will be, 
that the different subdivisions of the pound would be aliquot parts of each other, 
while each would be an entire multiple of the grain ; whicn, on the other hand, its 
value once determined, would be as simple an entity as before. But the grain 

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for Bolidfl would now be also equal to the oonputatioDal weigbt of the grain, or 
its repreaentativ^ tlie minim, in the liquid measure, ftom wfaioh it fbrmorly 
differed; and this coirespondence between weight and measure would be carried 
upwards throup^ all the multiples of either, the ponderable value of any 
measured quantity of a fluid, in relation to distilled water, being easily asoer- 
takiable by multiplying the ounce by the speciAo grayky. To the advantages 
of this fundamental assimilation of the medicinal weights and measures with 
each other, must now be added that aooompanjing equalisation of both with 
the ordinary commercial system, which must be considered as having been the 
main motive for the intioduotion of any change. Henceforward, the Druggist 
would sell and compound by the same weight, or bj aliquot parts of the same 
weight, as that by which he made his purchases; and the troy weight being 
removed, there would be no longer the risk of that confusion, or the necessity 
for that calculation, which intervened, as a needless source of possible <Nr of 
actual error, within the whole tenor of his most ordinary transactions, 
and which frequently rendered him liable besides, as we have seen, to grave sus- 
picions or to mver charges. That the plan accomplishes this equalization, 
and so fulfils aU its objeots, was admitted at a meeting of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, recorded in tms Journal (p. 597), to which its details were submitted ; and 
at which 1 attended, though somewhat less in the capacity of a volunteer than the 
report assigns to me, haying been requested to make the explanation by a very 
important body, who had arranged to await tiie result. The following 
tabular view represents the propos^ adjustment: — 

Pounds. Ounces. Drachms. Scntples. Grains. 

ftj. » 16 a 128 = 884 == 7680 

Sj. =■ 8 - 24 =: 480 

3j. - 3 ss GO 

aj. = 20 

(I gr. troy = 1.09715 ayoiid.— I gr. avoird. « a91145 troy.) 

If the admitted advantages of the proposed arrangement be such as we have 
represented them, the inconveniences attendant upon it should be of a very 
decided character to justify axnr doubt as to its reception. But if we turn to 
the report of the proceedings of the Pharmaceutical Sodety already referred to, 
we find that, on tne part of the Drn^cists at least, they seem really to limit 
themselves to two. The one was the irksomeness of any change ; yet, as many 
of the Members advocated the introduction of a metrical system, such as we 
have seen would be wholly inexpedient for the present, but which would require 
for its adoption an infinitely more thorough subversion of all existing usages 
than the sole alteration of the grain, it may be considered that the one notion 
ia a sufficient neutralization of the other, even could the circumstances be ad- 
mitted fairly as allowing the consideration of either . The other inconvenience, and 
that winch was alone really insisted upon, was, that so long as any prescriptions 
written before the introduction of the new system continued to be presented, 
floid which, therefore, were to be compounded upon the old system of weights, 
there would be continual risk of error in dispensing them. This was, indeed, 
to narrow to its extremest limit what was to be received as an opposition to a 
wide and comprehensive general measure ; but as the objection is certainly a 
tangible one, it is just that it should be answered. Had the former system been 
itself charsed with no promotion of error in all its parts, and through all its 
duration, this anticipation of evil with reference to the new, when thus confined 
to a single category, and one which, as it must be the least extensive of all now, 
will infulibly become every day smaller, would have been entitled to greater 
prominence. But when we consider how transitory its influence, and how 
trifling the amount of its capacity for mischief, compared with that which the 
proposed new arrangement rentoves, we can assign to it only a very insi^ificant 
value. But, still more, we must consider whether the change of the weights be 
the aole, or even the most important, obstacle to be encountered with reference 

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tolUs cIms of prenriptionf . Unjiiieationably, the Tariations in the 8ti«iM(tb 
of tite dilferenl Galenical preparationg, sooh as it will be impossible to aToid in 
reducing the several existing Tharmacopoeias to one hannomons whole, and in 
aeoonmodaling that whole to the progress of medical sotence, and possiblj to 
Ae newly pexwred exigencies of medical practice, will interfere &r more 
imperiously with the cnrrencyof antiqaated prescriptionsthan any redaction of 
a naetionai part of their strength, snch as tlw change in the value of the grain 
will be fitted to effect ; and dispensers will doubtless soon discover, that the demand 
made upon their caution, in this way, by the introduction of the new weights, 
will be the least exigent of what will be still the reasonable duties imposed upon 
tiiem. Besides, there can be no hazard, where the difference in dose is a dmii^ 
nntion and not an increase ; while, should there be anywhere a hankering after 
an extreme meety oi ad^tment, the addition of a tenth, in adapting the new 
weubts to the old prescriptions, will involve a far less intricate and more easily 
ftmniarixed calculation than Druggists have hitherto been in the habit of en- 
coontering vduntarily under the existing system. But the honest and expe- 
rienced p&aician will remove all pretext for anxiety by pointing out to them, tnat 
there really exists, and can exist, no such level uniformity in age, sex, habits, 
and phynological or pathological condition, that the practitioner can adjust his 
ordinary remedies to it to tbe nicety of the eleventh part of a grain, or, in the 
case of powerful medicines, such as strychnine for example, to less than the 
ISOdi part of that quatrtity, which would be about the proportions in dl^er 
instance in which the strength of the dose would be altereci. 

Finally, as all new formmse would be adjusted to the new weights, and all 
new prescriptions to the new formulae, and as not the oldest practitioner would 
reqmre to write his prescriptions otherwise than in the mode and with the 
characters to whidi long habit had given the force of a predilection ; while the 
old troy weights might almost instantly be totally and perpetually banished 
from the laboratory, and that with the entire safety we have described; 
and no new denominations of weights, save those below the value of a (]^uarter 
of an ounce, sadb. as would be procurable at the oost of a few shillings, 
would be required to complete what would now be the sole and uniform 
standard ; it seems surprising how it should be possible that so much should 
be accomplished at so insignificant a sacrifice. And if, at what will still, 
in all probability, be a remote period, we should ever be re(}uired to advance 
to a general metrical system^ we shall assuredly accomplish this the more 
easily and naturally, that we shall proceed simultaneously with the universal 
interests of the country from the avoirdupois to the novel standard, the 
refartiona of which will be the more readily mastered by all, that firom a common 
baaia we pursoe a common object. 

To^^ose who have a natural repugnance to an innovation, jt may be some 
additional satis&ction to reflect, that possibly already in the reign of Henr^ IH., 
bttt certainly in that of Edward I., the statute pound of England was divided, 
Eke that now suggested, into 7680 grains ; while we learn from the Leadcon 
Techniatm of Hams that, down to at least 1704, drachms and scruples, in pre- 
cisely the same relative proportions (eight and three) as those in the apothe- 
caries' weight, were the recognized submultiples of the avoirdujpois pound of 
■Ttecii ounces. The classiou scholar will have a similar gratification in re- 
men^bering, that the avoirdupois ounce, as now proposed for medicine, is 
eoindered to be as neariy identical as possiUe with the Soman uncia ; and tfastt 
the new, or, in this sense, the revived grain and scruple would thus, along with 
tiie drachm, assume the same close relation to those inherited from antiquity 
and employed by Galen. But there is still greater room for congratulation in 
the circumstance, that the contemplated reduction in the value of our grain 
would brii^ it nearer to that of all other systems of medicinal weights at present 
employed in Europe, and similarly inherited ; with the sole exertion of that of 
Austria, or of a recently contemplated, but still not establbhed, innovation in 

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Prussia ; but including that formerly in use in France, and still occupying its place 
in the medical literature of that country, as in that of the bulk of ciyilization 
everywhere else, and throughout all periods. 

With these . observations, in which I have already transgressed my limits^ 
without, however, having approached the exhaustion of my subject, I leave the 
Question to the review of the mtelligent Druggists of Great Britain; with a con- 
ndence towards them, which has not disappointed me elsewhere, that a little 
calm consideration will speedily dispel the feeling of reluctance which naturally 
arises on a first suggestion of innovation, and that the proposal will ultimately 
receive from them the justice which, on so many grounds, I believe it to be 
entitled to at their hands. 


Great Brttain is not the only country which is occupied with the perplexing 
task of revising, and, to some extent, remodelling the weights and measures. 

The following letter by a Pharmaceutist in Philadelphia contains some concise 
practical remarks on a chanffc in the weights and measures recently introduced 
m Germany, which has involved the question in very great complication and 
confusion : — 


Dear Sir,— The Archiu der Pharmacie, May, 1858, p. 257, &C., contains tables for 
the reduction of the former medicinal weight to the weight which is hereafter to be 
the lawful standard in Prussia, and met versA, The following extracts will convey an 
idea of the new system, and also show its relation to the old, now discarded, one : — 

1 grain 

= Loth. 

Quint. ( 

Dent. 3.65399 Kom. 

5 " 

= 41 

" 1 

" 8.26996 « 

10 ** 

— . (( 

" 3 

« 6.53992 " 

I scruple 
1 drachm 

= " 

" 7 

« 3.07985 " 

r= '* 


(( I 

*• 9.23954 « 

1 ounce 

= 1 " 


*< 5 

" 3.91630 « 

I medicinal lb. = 12 «* 

= 21 " 

II 4 

•* 6.99557 " 

1 civil lb. =16 " 

= 28 " 

(1 c 

« 2.66076 «* 

1 Kom. 

= .278 grains 

5 « 

= 1.367 


10 Korn. = 1 Cent 

= 2.737 


10 Cent. = iQuintcher 

i = 27.374 


10 Quint. = iLoth. 

= 4 drachms, I scruple, 18.740 grains. 

30 Loth. = lib. 

= 17 ounces, 

52.20 grains. 

This new system of weights appears to have been legalized by the various German 
States comprising the " ZdUverein," wherefrom it has received the name "ZoUge- 
wicht." I do not know how its unit was obtained, but from its term Kom (English 
lye, grain or seed) it is to be inferred that the medium weight of some seed, probacy 
rye, has been selected for it. 

Dr. L. F. Bley. the Editor of the Archiv, makes the following remarks :— "The 
introduction of these new weights for use in medicine will be a source of annoy- 
ance until the physicians have become thoroughly acquainted with them. All 
difficulties might have been obviated if the French gramme weight had been chosen, 
which has long been adopted in science." 

In the above tables it must be remembered that the old Prassian grain is equal to 
.96 grs. troy, and the old Prussian medicinal pound = 5415.1 grs. troy, and l^ 
calculation the weight of the new Prassian, or rather "Zoll pound,** is found to be 
7720.47 grs. troy. 

It is to be n^retted that by this act still more confusion is guned, and from the 
arbitrary unit and the arbitrary division we may infer that it will have to give way 
to a more rational system. The labours of our American Committees on weights 
and measures, we will hope, will produce something nearer to perfection. 

_ _ ., , , Yours, very respectfully, 

Fhtladelpbia, Oct, 20th, 1858. John M. Maisch. 

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Wb have great satisiaction in stating that stepa have been taken for the 
realization of this imjjortant project, for we understand that Mr. Clement Mark- 
ham has been appointed bj the Government to proceed to the Cinchona 
districts of South America for the pnrpose of obtaining seeds and plants of some 
of the more valuable spedes of Cinchona, and of trMisportbg them to India* 
where there is good reason to hope their aodimaticatbn will be as successful as 
It has alreadjr been in Java. We are glad to hear that Mr. Markham is well 
acquainted with the Cinchona districts, and has a thorough knowledge of the 
Spanish language. Such qualifications, when accom^mni^ by good botanical 
acquirements, can scarcelj fail to achieve success in so uiportant an undertakings 
and we sincerely trust that all who are in a positbn to assist Mr. Markham wal 
do so cheerfully, and then we have little doubt the experiment will be entirely 

We take this opportunity of correctins an error which many Pharmaceutical 
Chemists and others have fallen into, with reference to the supposed discovery of 
a species of Cinchona in Africa by Dr. Livingstone. The plant thus thought to 
be a Cinchona is a species oiMahueiia, Nat. Ord. Apocynacem, This plant, like 
several others of the order to which it belong, possesses febrifugal properties, 
but it contains no quinine or other alkaloid resembling it^ as supposed by 




A Oompotind of Iodide and Nitrate of SllTer.— -Dr. Hofmann has described, 
at a meeting of the Chemical Society, a compound of iodide and nitrate of silver, 
which was obtained by treating a mixture of iodide and oxide of silver with nitrio 
add. He found that the iodide fhsed in the boiling liquid, forming an oily-looking 
strata at the bottom of the vessel, which solidified on cooling into a cry ttalune mass. 
This salt, when treated with water, was resolved into nitrate and iodide of silver. 
Upon farther examination of this compound, he found that its composition varies 
according to the relative quantities of its constituents originally present, and the 
amount of nitric acid employed. From the result of several experiments, he found 
the limits of combination m the fusible compound to be as follows : — 

I. zi. 

Nitrate of SUver 69.52 33.67 

Iodide of ditto 29.84 65.55 

The first of these results corresponds to the formula S(AgO, NOs), Agl, while the 
second may be represented as 2(AgO, N0«), 3(AgI). 

By continued ebullition, the proportion of iodide of silver may be still further 
increased, but the compound Uien no longer fuses in boiling concentrated nitric acid. 

A combination of iodide and nitrate has been also observed and suspected by 
other chemists, although no analysis or examination appears to have been made ex- 
oeptuog by Dr. Hofmami. Mr. F. Maxwell Lyte, in a recent letter to the Journal of 
Ae Photographic Society, alludes to such a combination: — 

<<It is, I believe, allowed by many, though not by all, that there does exist a com- 
pound of the iodide with the nitrate of silver; but the various forms and properties 
of this substance, and the important part it plays in photography, have been little, 
tf at all, separately examined, and I now propose to mention a few facts and consi- 
derations with regard to it. 

**We have the iodo-nitrate of silver, if we may so call it, under three different 
forms:— First, in solution, when we dissolve iodide of silver in the negative nitrate 
bath; seoQudly, in the amorphous form, as it appears on the surface of the collodion 
plate; and, thirdly, it may be obtained in the crystalline form by adding recently 
precipitated iodide of silver to a nearly saturated solution of silver nitrate, when it 
will be found that much of the iodide, which at first dissolves, reprecipitates as a 

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crystalline iodo»mtTate, and that even the excess of iodide which remains ondissolyed 
slowly becomes converted into a similar crystalline deposit. This crystalline iodo- 
nitrate is sensiiiTe to light, like the amorphous deposit on the sensitized plate, and 
it may be dried withoat lonng its crystalline form; but as aeon as it is touched faj 
water it decompoaes, loaes its ailTer nitrate, and by soffioieniiy prolonged washing 
becomes leoonverted into silTor iodide, as insensible to light as it waa before being 
pUced m contact with the silTcr nitrate. The amorphona deposit on the phrte ia 
subject to exactly the same hiws, only it is rather more sensitive than the crystalliM 
iodo-nitiate, a dUTerence probably attributable to the crystalline form of the latter; 
but by washing it loses, like it, its combined nitrate, and beoomes equally insensible 
to light, while at the same time it passes from a straw-yellow to pale primrose. 

" Now, what results from the consideration of the above facts?* Simply, that by 
their means we are enabled to explain several of the mles which practice has fhxm 
time to time given to photography. As the iodide of silver, iHien placed in a con- 
centrated solution of silver nitrate, first dissolves and then reprecipitatesascryataK 
Uiie iodo-nitrate, we can understand why it is that in practice it is found ibcod* 
ventent to employ a bath of nitrate of silver over a certain strength, aa it infallibly 
destroys the sensitive film; and for a similar reason we should not allow the nikniite 
bath to concentrate )3j e^iaporation and dry on the plate. Again, we destroy the 
sensibility of the i^ate by prolonged washing, since we thus decompose the iodo- 
nitrate upon its surface, as above described ; and, lastly, when we wish to preserve 
the sensibility of a collodion plate, we wash it with a glutinous or syrupy liquid, 
which, by enclosing each atom of the iodo- nitrate, protects it from decomposition 
while we are getting rid of the superfluous nitratcf 

" Is it not also highly probable that the accelerating action of many salts, as ace- 
tates, nitrates, fluondes, &c., the use of whidi has been so much questioned by some, 
and recommended by otiiers, may be attributable to the formation of iodo-aoetate, 
iodo-fluoride, &c, of silver? Iodide of silver is not the only salt of this metal which 
possesses the property of retaining the nitrate in combination. The chloride and 
bromide have the same property, though in a less degree, and probably many others 
also; and we find the following passage in Timer's Ckemitir^y under the head of 
*Tribask Phosphate of Oxide of Silver:'*-* This compound subsides of acharao* 
tenstic yellow eoloor, when the rfaombic phosphate of soda ia mixed in solution with 
nitrate of oxide oi silver. ... It is apt to retain some of the nitrate in combination.' 
This doubtleaa arises iiom a aimilar reaction to the one I have deacribed above." 

On the Xodldea and Bromidea of BIsmnth, A ntlm any, and ▲naenlo.l — ^The 

properties of these compounds have been as yet very little studied, m consequence of 
the difficulty attending their preparation. When tiie metal and metalloid are hrooght 
into contact alone, combination takes place with auch avidi^ as to give rise to 
inflammation and detonation ; while, if water be present, the compound formed ia 
decomposed into an oxy salt. M. J. Kickles has succeeded, however, in producuig 
them with great fiiciUty by the employment of a liquid, which shall be at the same 
time a solvent of the metidloid, and of the compound to be obtained. Thus bromide 
of bismuth is prepared by adding the powdered metal to anhydrous ether, containing 
its- own volume of bromine, and bromide of arsenic or antimony, by reacting with the 
metal upon a solution of bromine in bisulphide of carbon. If any trace of water 
should be present, a white deposit of oxy bromide will take place. The bromides ef 
bismuth (Bi, Br.), of arsenic (As, Brs), and of antimony (Sb, Br«), are fusible at a 
slightly elevated temperature ; they are very deliquescent liquifying in the air in the 
order they are named. The two first crystallize in a vacuum in fine prisms, the 
latter in the form of rhomboidal octahedrons. We are not at present acquainted 

* " It is also curious to observe the change of colour which talces pkee when iodide of siher 
which has been precipitated in presence of an excess of iodide of potaanum is added, after being 
well washed, to a eolation of silver nitrate, when its ooloor will bo seen to change at ones fiwm 
pale primrose to a deeper and more brilliant yellow.** 

t ^' It was the knowledge of the &ct of the existence of this iodo-nitrate of ailver- which is 
dflcompoeable bv water, but not so bv washing with a weaker nitrate bath^which induced me, 
when 1 first published my * Honey Proceas,* to recommend the addition of nitrate of silver to tha 
sjTup. This addition has since been proved by Mr. Shsdbolt to be, with certam precautions, 
mmecessarjr. as the alatinous nature of the honey itself, coupled with the porosis of the collodion 
film in which the iodo-nitrate is formed, suffices to protect that compound from decomposition." 

t Ccmpks Rmcbu, 

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wUh any douUe mUs fomied with thme iodidet Mid bromldQe, probftUy baetoM thej 
are decomposed in contact with water ; but when a ayrupy toliition of bmaide oC 
blamnih in this liquid is heated for an instant with bromide of ammonium, tine 
yellow plates of the doubk siUt are deposited on oooUag. 

The iodides of arsenic and of antimony are both soluble in sulphide of carbon, and 
crystallizable from the solution, they are unchanged in the air, and are isomorphoos, 
crystallizing in fine red plates belonging to the rhombohedrio sjrstem. 

On the Aetlon of Hydrogen at diflerent Preaaurea on MetalUe Solntlona. 
*— 'M. N. B^^toff has shown that hjfdrogen, when under an increased pressure, is 
capaUe of predpitatfng ailTer and mercury from their saline solutions, and conse-> 
quently of assuming a pAace in the series of metallic substitutions. 

The experiments were conducted as follows :^In the different branches of a glass 
tube, bent into several cuTTes, were introduced the saline solution, an acid and 
metalUo sfaie, the ends were then sealed, and the acid allowed to run on to the zinc 
The hydrogen thus generated then came into contact with the metallic solution 
onder increased pressure. 

Chloride of silver dissolved in ammonia, and submitted to this action, became 
browned at the surihoe, and, at the end of several days, it had deposited on the sides 
and bottom of the tube a grey powder, which, upon examination, presented all the 
^aracters of metallic silrer. The author did not find hydrogen exert any reducing 
action upon the same solution at the ordinary pressure. Nitrate of stiver, treated in 
a similar manner, soon deposited metallic silver as a white crystalline pellicle. The 
liquid, which was neutral, had become acid. A taturaitd solution of sulphate of 
ailver, submitted to the action of compressed hydrogen, presented no sign of reduction 
at the end of seroral days, but the same solution diluted with three times its weight 
of water, commenced to decompose after a few hours' contact In some cases the 
alWer was depomted as a metallic minor on the sides of the tube, but in other cases 
a deep grey powder was precipitated, which, upon being gently heated, lost its 
pecuhar tint, disengaged a gas, and was converted into ordinary metallic silver. This 
substance was not obtained in sufficient quantity to admit of a proper examination, 
bot it appeared probable that it might consist of a hydride of silver. 

Acetate of silver is decomposed by hydrogen at the ordinary pressure of the 
atmosphere. Solution of nitrate of mercury also deposited small globules of mercury 
when acted upon in the above manner. 

On tha Odoroos Principle of Vanl]la.*~M. Qobley has recently publidied the 
results of an investigation which he undertook for the purpose of ascertaining the 
nature and properties of the odorous principle of vanilla. Buchola and Yogel appear 
to be the only chemists who have made any chemical examination of this fruit. 
Bncholz obtained from it a fatty oil baring a rancid and disagreeable odour, a soft 
yielding re^n, which had a very faint odour of yanilla when heated, a slightly bitter 
extract, an extractive matter resembling tannin, sugar, an amyloid body, and benaoic 
add. Nothing appears to have been obtained, however, which would aeoount for its 
peculiar odour. 

M. Gobley proceeded in the following manner :— The vanilla was treated with 
swtified siHiit, and an extract obtained which was mixed with sufficient water to 
give it a s]rmpy eonsistence, and then agitated with ether. The ethereal solution 
upon evapoeaoon left a brown substance having a most powerftd odour. This 
leaidiie was treated with boiling water, which dissolved the aromatio principle, and 
the filtered liquid was eTajwrated and allowed to erystalliae. The crystals, which 
were at first much colour^ were then purified by animal charcoal, and successive 
ciystallization. The substance thus obtained, when pur^ fbrms long colourless 
needles or fonr-sided prisms. It possesses a most powerftd aromatic odour, strongly 
resembling the vanilla ; its taste is warm and penetrathig. The ciystals are hm, 
and crack under the teeth. It exerts no sensible action on litmus. At 168** F. it 
loses, and at 802^ F. it rolatiliaes, and forms small needle-like crystals of a brilliant 
whiteness, which possess all the fragrant odour of yanilla. It is difficultly soluble in 
cM water ; boiling water dissolves a yery large quanti^, which is again deposited 
on cooling. It is veiy soluble in alcohol, ether, and the fixed and yolatile oils. Oil 
of yitriol dissolves it, forming a yellow colour. It is soluble in the dilute acids 
without change. 

It is readily dissdyed by solution of potash, from which it is precipitated by adds 

* J(iwmald$ Pharmaci$» 

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without ftlteratioD. It does not liberate carbonic acid fh>m the carbonates, even by 
the aid of heat. The following is the result of its analysis:-- 

Carbon 75.22 

Hydrogen 3.98 

Oxygen 20.80 


Which gives the formula Cm He O4. The properties of this crystalline substance 
approach those of coumarine, which the author scTeral years ago found to exist also 
in the leayes of the Faham,* differing, howerer, in its odour, its fusing point, and its 
chemical oomposition* This body appears therefore to constitute an immediate and 
peculiar principle^ to which M. Gobley applies the name vohUIvm. 

It is well known that the surface of ranilla is generally covered with small needle* 
like crystals, termed by the French ffwre, Bucholz considered these crystals to be 
benzoic acid, and this opinion was afterwards adopted by Vogel, senior. M. Gobley, 
however, considers these crystals to consist of this new substance yanilUne. He 
finds them, in fact, to correspond in all their proi)erties, to possess the same crystal- 
line form, the same ftising point, the same solubility in water, in alcohol, and ether. 
When, however, this crystalline matter is dissolved in alcohol, and tested with litmus 
paper, it communicates a faint rose tint ; and it is this property which probably 
induced the former chemists to regard the body as an acid. M. Soubeiran, however, 
disregarding this character, states that the crystals covering vanilla are not an acid. 

In consequence of these facts, M. Gobley made a comparative examination with 
reference to their action on litmus paper, of the crystals of vanilla, and the coumarines 
extracted respectively from the Tonka bean {Dipteryx odorata)^ the asperula, the 
melilotus, and the leaves of the faham {Angracum fragrans), and he found 
that while the coumarine obtained from the first source gave a faint rose tint, that 
ftom the remaining three, and which have never been r^iarded as acids, reddened 
the paper more sensibly than the crystals firom vanilla. The author, therefore, 
concludes that the crystals from vanilla are identical with, and consist of, the body 
which he lias termed vanilline, and which must be regarded as an immediate neutriU 
principle, analogous to coumarine. 

On a Now Alkaloid and Organic Acid from the Oom Chamomile. — M. C. 

Paltone, pharmacien to the Civil Hospital of Alexandria, has recently shown that 
the Anthemu arveiuii, a common plant growing in the corn-fields, is capable of 
yielding a crystalline alkaloid, which he terms antkemine, and also an organic acid, 
anihemic acid. The process which he adopted is as follows :— The flowers of the 
plant are distilled with water, and the distillate set aside, the residae in the retort is 
strained, and the liquor allowed to stand for 24 hours, then decanted, filtered, and 
evaporated by means of a water-bath, to the consistence of an extract ; this is 
treated with boiling spirit of 36 per cent., which dissolves a resinous matter and the 
new acid, until the liquid no longer reddens litmus paper. The spirituous solution ia 
then set aside for further treatment, and the insoluble matter is boiled with distilled 
water, filtered, and allowed to cool. Ammonia is then dropped in until the liquid 
becomes distinctly alkaline, when, in the course of a few minutes, brilliant prismatic 
crystals begin to deposit ; these are afterwards collected and washed with a little 
cold water. The substance thus obtamed is without odour and taste. It is sensibly 
aUcaline, very dightly soluble in cold water, but more so in boiling water. It is 
insoluble in aJcohol and ether, and readUy dissolved by acetic acid. It is carbonized 
by heat and by oil of vitriol. 

To obtain the acid the spirituous solution, which resulted firom the above process, 
is evaporated to an extractive consistence, and the residue dissolved in the distillate 
obtained in the first part of the process. The clear liquid is saturated with baryta 
water, boiled and filtered. Dilute sulphuric acid is then dropped in to precipitate 
the baryta, but without leaving the least trace of sulphuric acid in the liquid. The 
solution is filtered, and evaporated to dryness by the water-bath, and the residue 
treated with ether. From this solution the acid is deposited in prismatic crystals on 
evaporation. These crystals have a decided bitter taste, and the peculiar odour of 

* The AfignBCum Jragrana, an epiphytic plant, the leaves of which are exported from ths 
Maoritiiis, aaid possess a very fragrant odour strongly resembUng vanilla. 

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camomile. The/ strongly ledden Htmns ptper, are tdable in alcohol, ether, and 
water, but insoluble in benzol. 

The author is stiU engaged in the examination of these substances, and in ascer- 
taining whether they also exist in the AntAemit noh'dia. 

M. Mlepce de St. Vletor'a Bxpertaaents on Light.— M. Gaultier de Claubry, 
in a communication made to the French Academy on the 7th March, describes the 
results of some experiments confirmatory of those of Mr. Crooked, which were 
described in our last number. He states that when paper sensitized with rarions 
agents, was placed beneath a sheet of paper with letters marked on its surface, and 
heated from 100** to 120® cent, for periods rarying from ten minutes to an hour, he 
obtained a complete reproduction for the black letters, and less sensible for the red, 
results analogous to those of M. Kiepce, and ascribed by him to the action of li^t 
which had b^ absorbed. 

SolnbUltr of aareral Alkaloids In Okloroforaa.— M. Fettenkofer states that 
at the ordinary temperature, 100 parts of chloroform dissolve, of morphine 0.57, 
narcoline, 31.17, duchonine, 4.31, quinine, 57.47, strychnine, 20.16, brudne, 56.79, 
atropme, 51.49, reratrine, 59.49. 

On a New Sovreo of Ammonla.~Mr. Alexander Williams, of Neath, in a 
letter to the JowmaiofihM Socitty ofArU, has suggested a means of economizing the 
waste nitrogen products escaping from the oil of yitriol chamber, by effecting their 
'a. This is dcme by passing the escaping gases, mixed witSi 

conversion into ammonia. 

ateam, over heated charcoal, and then into' dilute sulphuric add, by which sulphate 

of ammonia is obtained. 

The foUowing is Mr. Williams's description of the arrangement he employs, and 
which has been tried on a large scale at the Pontardawe Vitriol Works. 

The apparatus fitted up was of the following description:—- A fdrnace was built 
above the exit tube of one of thdr vitriol chambers, and a brick gas retort^ about 14 
indies in diameter, 8 feet long, and open at both ends, was passed through its whole 
length. This retort was filled with charcoal, and kept at a red heat ; the exit tube 
of the chamber, and a steam-jet to supplv the hydrc^n, were attadied to one end, 
whilst to the other end was fixed an upright leaden cylinder, filled with coke, and 
moistened with diluted sulphuric acid. On passing the waste gases and steam 
through the retort containing red-hot charcoal, both were decomposed, the oxygen of 
eadi uniting with the charcoal to form carbonic add ; the nitrogen and hydrogen 
oomluning to form ammonia ; then together, probabl v forming carbonate of ammonia^ 
which was again decomposed by the diluted sulphuric acid, the sulphate of ammonia 
being found remaining in solution. This sdution was then evaporated, and in July, 
1857, 1 first had the pleasure of obtaining any quantity of crystals of sulfate of 
ammonia, by this process, from a vitriol chamber in actual work. 

Mr. Williams does not intend to make this process the subject of a patent 



{Suhstanee of a Lectitre delivered at the Boyel InetUutkm,) 
Cbbtain auditory phenomena, bearing upon the correlation of the ears, and pos- 
sessing some interest, have been recently made out by the employment of a double 
stethoscope, which has beeo called the difierential stethophone, contrived by Dr. 
Scott Alison.* This instrument, like the first double stethoscope, viz. that of Dr. 
Leared, is applied to both ears, and has the sdf- adjustment of that of Dr. 
Camman of New York. It consists of two tubes for the two ears respectively, each 
independent of the other except for purposes of adjustment, manual management, 
and convenience of application. Each tube consists again of two parts, a tube part 
and a cup or sound-collecting aperture. The cup, made of mahogany or other 
fredy vibrating wood, is about one inch in diameter at its mouth, and about one» 
dghUi of an inch in diameter at its proximal extremity. The tube near the cup is 
made of flexible wire, and is covered with silk ; the part nearer the ear is made of 
metal, and at the aural extremity is furnished with an ear-knob of ivory for insertion 

• It 18 to be ob&eived, that for the differential stethophone to have its paroperties made available, 
it IS necessary that both ears of the obserrer should be alike in acuteness. 
vox.. I. » 

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into the cavity of the external ear. The bore of the knob and of the metal part of 
the tube is about one-eighth of an Inch in diameter. 

An instrument possessing the same acoustic yalue may be made at much less 
expense than that above described. A piece of india-rubber tube, about 18 inches 
long, having a bore of one-fifth of an inch in diameter, raaj have fitted upon one 
extremity an ear-knob, and upon tlie other a sound-collecting cup. Two of these, 
held together by means of a ring of ivory or steel, will make an excellent differential 
stethophone or phonoscope. 

. The difierential stethophone was designed with the 
view of collecting different sounds from two parts of 
^e body at the same time, and conveying them sepa- 
rately to each ear. It formed in reality a stethoscope 
for each ear, and it diflfered from all binaural or double 
stethoscopes hitherto employed, which collected sound 
through one aperture or cup only. Though the old 
binaural stethoscopes could not be made differential 
instruments, the differential stethoplione might be made 
a binaural stethoscope, simply by placing the two 
Bound-coHecting cups at the same part of tlie chests 
When this is done, the same auditory result is obtained 
as when the sim^ binaural stethoscope is employed, 
viz. a full sound and a distinct auditory sensation, 
fuller than when one car only is employed. The ad. 
vantages sought by means of the differential stetho- 
phone were, first, to give facility in comparing the 
intensity of the fine breath sound of the lung at two 
different parts of the chest at the same time ; i|nd 
second, to ascertain with exactitude the relative com- 
mencement and termination of two sounds generated 
at different parts of the thorax $ which hitherto was 
, impracticable : for, as is obvious enough, it is not 
possible to have one ear at the same moment at two 
different parts, or to have the two ears in the same 
plane, which, however, is now virtually effected by the 
differential stethophone. The second object was fully 
obtained ; but the first was not secured when the two 
ears were simultaneously employed, though by using 
the two ears in succession this great advantage of 
comparing the intensity of one part with the intensity 
of another was fully gained. It was fomid that the 
weak qt defective respiratory sound of one part pro- 
duced no sensation in the ear to which it was conveyed 
when the stronger sound of another part was commu- 
nicated to the other ear. 

This failure of the differential instrument, though disappointing at the moment, 
has led to the ascertaining of an important acoustic principle, and to the practical 
application of it in medicine, viz. that a mt^jor impression made on one ear will 
prevent all consciousness or perception of a minor impression made at the same time 
on the other ear, by the same sound ; and that an impression on one ear which 
produces a distinct sensation roapr be made to produce no sensation whatever, by 
conveying at the same time a major impression of the same sound to the other ear: 
the sensation obtained through the latter ear totally destroying or obliterating all 
sensation of the same sound in the other ear. By the same sound is meant the sound 
proceeding from the same body, as a watch, a bell, or from two bodies of the same 
kind, as two tuning-forks of the same size and note. 

Major impressions on one ear prevent sensations of minor impressions on the 
other ear only in the case of the same sound, and not in the case of sounds of a 
different character, unless indeed the major sound happens to be very intense and 
deafening. Therefore the loud sound of one watch and the weak sound of another 
watch may be distinctly heard in the two ears, one in one ear only and the other in 
the other ear only, provided that one car be favoured with a msjor impression of one 
watch, and the other ear be favoured with a major impression of the sound of the 

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otber watch. In this case, the stroDger impressioD of either watch nuUifies in « 
sensorial sense the weaker impression; and as the strong imprewion of one watch |s 
made in one ear, and the strong impression of the otber watch is made upon the 
otber ear, one watch is heard in one ear and the other watch is heard in the othor. 

The principle of restriction of hearing of the same sound to that ear on which a 
major impression is made is illustrated in respiration. The ear connected with a 
part where the respiration is weak, fails, as has been already stated, to convej any 
•ensation, while the ear connected with a part where the respiration is strong pro- 
duces sensation. 

The diagram represents the sounds occurring alternately in two sides of the chest 
in a consumptive patient. The dark spots represent the so«m(2i. The right side has 
the Inspiration strong, the Expiration faint. The left side has the Inspiration weak^ 
the Expiration coarse. 

Right Side of Chest. 

Left Side of 



Inspir. I. 


Inspir. I. 

Expir. 1. 


Expir. 1. 

Inspir. 2. 


Inspir. 2. 

Kxpir. 2. 


Expir. 2. 

Tlie same principle may be made to perform an important part in the diagnosis of 
diseases of the heart, accompanied by murmur. If the two cups of the stethophone 
be applied at two points of the area of a murmur differing in intensity, the sound 
is heard by that ear only connected with the point where the murmur is more 
intense. Now as the source of a murmur is determined by the point of its greatest 
intensify it must be obvious that a ready mode of diagnosis is oflTered. If there be 
a roatenal difference at the two spots examined, sound is heard only by that ear 
connected with the more intense point. The test is absolute; for in one ear there 
is no hearing, and in the other there is hearing. There is consequently no room 
for error in judgment as to degree, as in the case of consecutive observations with 
one ear only, with the ordinary stethoscope. 

The human ear being capable of hearing many sounds at the same moment (if 
one be not extremely intense), and as the principle, so to speak, of restriction of 
hearing to the favoured ear holds in the case of all, it follows that if one can be 
favoured with a major impression of fifty sounds, they shall all be heard through 
that ear, and through that ear only. And if some of these fifty sounds be carried 
in major Intensity to one ear and some in major intensity to the other ear, some 
of these sounds will be exclusively heard through one ear, and some exclusively 
through the other ear; a division of sounds thus virtually taking place. Indeed, 
if we possesTCd fifty ears, and if of fifty sounds one could be carried in a ms^or 
intensity to each of these fifty ears, each of the fifty sounds would be heard exclu- 
sively through one ear— t.e. each ear would hear one sound exclusively. 

This apparent division of sounds may be effected by placing a watch upon a 
musical box. If both cups of the stethophone be placed so as to receive sound from 
these bodies equally well, both sounds will be perceived through both ears, and if 
one cup be placed nearer these two bodies than the other cup, both sounds will be 
heard in the ear connected with this cup ; but if one cup bo held a little nearer the 
musical box than the other cup, and if this otlier cup be held a little nearer the 
watch— -ie. if one cup be a little favoured in respect of one sounding body, and the 
other cup bs a little favoured in respect of that of the other sounding body, the 
musical box will be heard through that ear only which is favoured in respect of 
it, and the watch will be heard exclusively through that ear that is favoured in 
respect of that body. When two murmurs occur at the heart, one at the base and. 
another at the apex, possessing, as they usually do, dilTerent characters (say one 
being •* blowing* nnd the other being "rasping"), and they Wend together, they may 


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be thuB Bensoriallj separated by placing one cup at the bate, and the other at the 
apex, points of migor intensity of the two murmurs respectiyely. 

Of the amount of difference which shall suffice to render one ear as it were sensa- 
tionless and to effect a monopoly of sensation in the other, it is difficult to speak 
with great precision. The difiorenoe must be considerable, but need not be yery 
great. In the case of a watch, if one cup be placed fully on the watch, and the 
other one-third or one-half off it, sensation is limited to the ear connected with the 
first; if the cup wholly on the watch be now mored off the watch, but kept within 
hidf an inch of it, sensation is limited to the other ear; and if the cup half or one- 
third off the watdi be now mored wholly off it, to the distance of an inch or more, 
'sensation is again transferred to the other ear. Transitions of sensation may be 
thus indefinitely carried on from one ear to the other. This corresponds with ordi- 
nanr audition : for if we draw a circle around the head in the plane of the horizon, 
which may be called an acoustic circle, we shall find that on carrying a sounding 
body round it, binaural sensation is procured only so long as the bc^y is within 
about 10° on either side of a line drawn forwards and backwards at right angles 
with the transYerse line of the head. In the case then of such a circle we hare dis- 
tinct binaural sensation Umited to a region of about 20^ in front and 20^ behind. 
The intermediate arcs are the regions of uno-aural sensation; it thus appears that 
in ordinary audition a moderate superiority in respect of intensity of sound gires a 
monopoly of hearing to one ear. 

The intensity of sound in the ear which has serred to give it a monopoly of 
hearing to the disadvantage of the other ear, has in the foregoing obserrations been 
chiefly obtained by greater proximity of one cup of the stethophone to the sounding 
body over the other ; but this may be procured by other means. A superior mode 
of conduction in respect of one ear over the other, or of one cup of the stethophone 
over the other when the eara and the cups are similarly placed in respect of the 
sounding body, will give a like intensity. A solid rod in the case of one ear, while 
the atmosphere is the only medium of communication in the case of the other, in 
respect of a sound of a solid body, will suffice to give the monopolizing intensity. 
In the same way it has been recently ascertained by Dr. Scott Alison, that water 
placed at the distal extremity of a hearing tube will give an advantage of intensifi- 
cation or of more periect conduction sufficient to restrict hearing to that ear favoured 

with its aid, and to render sensationless the ear connected with the sounding body 
by means of a hearing tube having no water at its extremity to intensify or econo- 
mize sound by superior conduction. A ring of water between the edge of the hear- 
ing tube and the solid sounding body will suffice for this result The restriction of 
hearing to one ear is perfect, although the conditions of the ears and of the two 
limbs of the difi^rential stethophone are precisely alike, with the exception of the 

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ling of water. As we form our notbiM of flouiMiiiig bodies being on our right hand 
or on oar left, hy perceiving throogh which ear auditory seoMtions are acqmred, 
and as water under the circumstances giyes an augmentation of sound auflScient to 
restrict to one ear, an aural illusion may be produced by haring two hearing tubes 
of equal length and of the same conditions brought in contact with two windows 
respectively, and placing under the cup of one of tliem a thin bag of water, which 
may be called a hydrophone. A churoh bell or a barrel organ will be heard only 
through the ear connected with the window haying the water bag upon it, although 
these sounding bodies may be nearer the other window. The mind is led to beliere 
that the sounding bodies are nearer the window which is Uie mora distant from 

In the case of some few sounds, the influence of water in modifying their tone is 
80 great, that virtually a sound di£feront in kind is heard. Thus, a watch, in Dr. 
Alison's possession, gives simply a short ticking sound to that ear connected with 
one cup of the differential stethophone held in the air; and imparts a full soft tick, 
or rather tack, and a musical bell sound to the other car connected with the other 
cnp of the instrument placed upon the thin bag of water lying on the watch. The 
sound of the watch is so modified by the different media, that as it wero two different 
sounds are obtained, a sharp tick and a full sofb tack, and though the watch-sound 
is conveyed in greater intensity to one ear than to the other, it is heard in both ears. 
No loss of sensation takes place, as in the case of the same sounding body, sounding 
through the same medium. The reason of this exception to the law of auditory 
obliteration, so to speak, is found in the fact that the sound is no longer one, but hsis 
become virtually two, by being conveyed through two different m^ia, and it has 
been already stated that a migor impression sensorially nullifies a minor in the case 
of its own sound only and of no other. The fine bell sound has been simply made 
audible by passing through water. It is probable that the double hearing of some 
persons which has been commented upon by physicians has been due to a difference 
in the two ears involving a disagreement in the media through which sounds have 
liad to pass. The double hearing referred to has consisted of heariag the sounds of 
the same sounding body, very different in character in the two ears ; the sounds in 
one ear bemg soft and in the other sharp, and so on. Perhaps, likewise, certain 
sounds inaudible in one ear liave been rendered audible in the other, as in the case 
of the fine bell sound above roferred to, by passing through better media. It is to 
be observed, that in order to have a sensation in this manner in both ears the sound 
must not preponderate greatly in one. 

In the case of sounds conveyed to the ear through the bones of the head, a restrict- 
ing intensity may be procured by closing the aperture of the external ear, as lias 
been observed and commented upon by Mr. Wheatstone. A tuning-fork placed upon 
the middle of the forehead is heard in that ear only that is closed. The closure pre- 
Tents the escape of sound, and promotes resonance to an extent sufllcient to give the 
restricting intensity. This restriction of hearing to the closed ear in the case 
of sounds communicated through tlie bones of the head may be imitated by an 
analogous closing of the apertures of the differential stethophone. Sounds commu- 
nicated in equal intensity to both limbs of the stethophone at some point between 
the closed apertures and the ear knobs are heard louder than when the apertures aro 
open; and if one aperturo only be closed, the sounds are heard in that ear only that 
is connected with the closed aperture. The wetted cotton of Mr. Yearsley— really 
a cotton and water membrane— and the gutta-percha membrana tympani of Mr. 
Toynbee, thus applied, greatly increase sounds conveyed to the stethophone at 
points between the dosed apoiures and the ear knobs. By closing one aperturo 
with wetted cotton, and the other with gutta-percha, the comparative value of 
these appliances so far as intensification of sound communicated in the manner 
under consideration, may be tested. Both of these appliances have been found 
extromely beneficial in cases of deafness proceeding from perforate membrana 
^mpanL It would appear that it is by some closure of the passages of the ear in 
persona partially deaf of one ear, that these persons hear sounds communicated 
through the bones of the head, in that ear only that is deaf, a fact ascertained in an 
extensire inquiry instituted by the author, and that had been previously observed 
in a few cases. 

When one cup of the difi^rential stethophone is held decidedly nearer a sounding 
body than the other cup, the sound is perceived, as it wero, in the ear connected 

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with the nearer cup; but if the further cup be brought somewhat towards the 
sounding body, so as to obtain more sound, and to be more upon a par with the 
other cup, the sensation changes its seat, and is felt less in the ear and more towards 
the centre of the head, or the spot midway between the two ears. This centripetal 
character of sensation is more marlced as the two cups attain to a parity, and when 
this is fully accomplished sensation is located at a central spot. If the cup, which 
was at first further from the sounding body, be now gradually brought nearer than 
the other cup, a farther transition of sensation is produced ; it leares the central 
spot and mores towards the other ear, and becomes exclusively located there, as it 
was exdusirely located at the first part of the experiment in the other ear. By 
alternately and rapidly bringing the cups nearer the sounding body, this raoTement 
of sensation may be rendered very striking. 

Lastly, the difi*erential stethophone affords an unfailing test of the existence oi 
difl^rences of intensity of sounds communicated by difierent bodies, solid, liquid, or 
gaseous. If consecutive trials be required on two bodies, this is done by using the 
two cups in succession, the necessary movements being effected without changing 
the position of the head, and with only a very little motion of the fingers. The con- 
trast is readily made, and the difference, if any, with facility discovered. If both 
limbs of the instrument be simnltaneously employed, and if the difi^nce in the 
amount of the same sound conveyed to the instrument be material, an absolute test 
is procured at once; for, as has been already explained, no sound will be heard in 
one ear, and a full sound will be heard in the otlier. For example, a musical box 
placed upon the banks of the Serpentine, is heard in that ear which is supplied with 
that limb of the stethophone (an elongated one) whose cup is immersed in the river, 
and not at all in that connected with that limb whose cup is held upon the ground. 
In the same way this test of restriction of hearing to one ear, or of uno-aural 
hearing, is available for deciding upon the comparative acoustic value of different 
arrangements. If we desire, for instance, to know whether surrounding a glass with 
water and another with air, both filled with water and previously being equal 
in communicating sound to the stethophone, gives a difference of sound, the fact i» 
immediately made known. The ear connected with the limb of the stethoscope 
immersed in the glass surrounded with water hears nothing, while the ear con- 
nected with the glass surrounded with air has a distinct sensation. 



Prof. Forbes has communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh the results of 
some experiments made by him on the properties of ice near its melting point, wit^ 
particular reference to those of Mr. Faraday, published in the Athetunm for June, 
1850, to which attention has been more lately called by Dr. Tyndall and Mr. Huxley , 
in relation to the phenomena of glaciers. The substance of Prof. Forbes's statement 
is as follows: — 

"Mr. Faraday's chief (hct, to which the term 'regelation' has been more lately 
applied, is this, that pieces of Ice, in a medium above 32°, when closely applied, freeie 
together, and flannel adheres apparently by congelation to ice under the same 

'M. These observations I have confirmed. But I have also found that metals 
become froasen to ice when they are surrounded by it, or when they are otfaerwiae 

Erevented from transmitting heat too abundantly. Thus a pile of shillings being 
bid on a piece of ioe in a warm room, the lowest shilling, after becoming sunk in the 
ioe, was found firmly attached to it. 

** 2. Mere amtact^ without preswrt, is sufficient to produce these efibcts. Two 
slabs of ice, having thdr corresponding surfaces ground tolerably flat, were suspended 
in an inhabited room upon an horizontal glass rod passing through two holes in the 
plates of ice, so that the plane of the plates was vertical. Contact of the even 
surfkoes was ohtalned 1^ means of two veiy weak pieces of watch-spring. In an 
hour and a half the cohesion was so complete, that, when violently broken fai pieoef, 
many portions of thte plates (which had each a surfisoe of 20 or moie square inches) 
continued united. In fact) it appealed as complete as in another experiment where 

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similar nirfaoefl were presaed together hj weights. I condude that the effect of 
pre i enr e in assisting 'regelation' is prindpally or solely doe to the larger surfaces of 
contact obtained by the moulding of the surfaces to one another. 

^3. Masses of strong ice, which had already for a long time been floating in 
nnfrf>y^n water-casks, or kept for days in a thawing state, being rapidly pounded, 
showed a temperature of 0^.3 Fahr. below the true freezing point, shown by delicate 
thensometers (both of mercury and alcohol), carefully tested by long immersion in 
a considerable mass of pounded ice or snow in a thawing state. 

**4. Water being carefully frozen into a cylinder sereral inches long, with the 
bulb of a thermometer in its axis, and the cylinder being then gradually thawed, or 
allowed to lie for a considerable time in pounded ice at a thawing temperature, 
showed also a temperature decidedly inferior to 32<^, not less, I think, than 0'*.35 F. 

'* I think that the preceding results are all explicable on the one admission, that 
Per8<m*8 view of the gradual liquefaction of ice is correct {Comptes Rendusy 1850, 
roL XXX., p. 526),* or that ice gradually absorbs latent heat from a point Yery sen- 
sibly lower than the zero of the centigrade sciile. 

''L This explains the permanent lower temperature of the interior of ice. 









" Let AB be the suzfiuse of a block of ice contained in water at what is called the 
ffcenng temperature. That temperature is marked by the level of the line «p above 
some arbitnury zero, ui is, in like nuumer, the permanent but somewhat lower 
tanperature possessed by the interior of the ice. The space, partly water, partly ioe^ 
or partaking of the natore of each, xnop, has a temperature which yaries m>m point 
to point, the portion vo corresponding to what may be called the physical surface 
of the ioe between ab and a6, which is * plastic ice,' or * viscid water,' having the 
moat r^d raiiation of local temperature. 

'*IL Such a state of temperature, though it is in one sen^e permanent, is so by 
compensation of effects. Bodies of different temperatures cannot continue so without 
interaction. The water must give off heat to the ice, but it spends it in an insignifl- 
cuit thaw at the snrfaoe, wAtcA therefore wa»te» even though (he water be what is caUed 
iee cold, or having the temperature of a body of water enclosed in a cavity of iccf 

** This waste has vet to be proved; but I have little doubt of it; and it is confirmed 
by the wasting action of superficial streams on the ice of glaciers, though other 
circniaatances may also contribute to this effect. 

** IIL Tlie theocy explains *regelation.' For let a second plane surfiace of ice ▲b' 
be broagfat up to nearly physical contact with the first surface ab. There is a 
doable film of * viscid water* isolated between two ice surfaces colder than itself. 
The fonner equilibrinm is now destroyed. The films abAo and x'^'h'a' were kept in 

* Quoted by me in 1851, in my sixteenth Wtter on Glaciers. 

t ** I incline to think that water, in these circumstanceB, may, though surrounded by ice, have 
afixedtemperatnie somewhat higher tiian what is called 32 ^ But I have not vet bad sn 
qpportanity of verifying the conjecture. — [My idea is, that the invasion of cold from the 
snrroan^g ice is spent m producing a very gradual * regelatiou ' in the water which touches the 
ice, iMving the interior water in possession of its full dose of latent heat, and also of a temperature 
which may slightly exceed 82*^. By similar reasoning, a small body of ioe, enclosed m a huge 
Bsss of water, wffl preserve its proper internal temperature htimo dS^" ; but, instead of regelatioa 
taking pboe, the sorfiwe is booig grsduajJy thawed. This is the ease oontenplated in the 

this note during prmting. 13th May, 18j^ 

panmph of the text to which tfau note reiers.]'' 
A.B.— The words ia biacfcrts were added to 


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a liquid sUte by the heat communicated to them by the perfect water beyond. 
That is now remored, and the film in question has ice colder than itself on both sides. 
Pwrt of the sensible heat it possesses is given to the neighbouriog strata which hare 
less heat than itself, and the intercepted film of water in the transition state becomes 
more or less perfect ice. 

** Even if the second sur&ce be not of ice, provided it be a bad conductor, the 
effect is practically the same. For the Aim of water is robbed of its heat on one hand 
by the colder ice, and the other badly-conducting surface cannot afford warmth 
enough to keep the water liquid. 

** This effect is well seen by the instant freezing of a piece of ice to a worsted 
glove even when on a warm hand. But metals ma^ act so, provided they are 
prevented from conveying heat by surrounding them with ice. Thus, as lias been 
shown, metals adhere to melting ice. 

^'Edinburgh, April 19 J^^-Athenaum. 


Db. Hambl, of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg (and the 
oldest corresponding member of the Society of Arts in London), has communicated 
to the Academy some results of his researches relative to the first development of 
galvanic and electro-magnetic telegraphy. Among other interesting facts, he shows 
tliat the youngest of Lady Palmerston's three brothers was the very first Englishman 
who ever saw a galvanic telegraph. It was the Russian Baron Schilling who, at 
Munich, so long ago as 1816, had invited the Honourable Frederick James Lamb, 
then British Envoy and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of Bavaria, to ac- 
company him to Dr. Samuel Soemmerring, in order that he might see his telegraph, 
the first ever made to act by a galvanic &ittery. Schilling having introduced the 
British Minister to Soemmerring on the 2nd of July of the year mentioned (1816), 
repeated the visit with him ten days later, the 1 2th of July, when the telegraph was 
made to operate before them. Besides the brother of Lady Palmerston and the 
Russian Baron Schilling, there were on that occasion present also the Countess 
fianfy, Schilling's sister, and her husband, Count Banfy, from Vienna, then on a 
visit at Munich. Dr. Hamel proves that the date of Soemmerring*s invention ia 
nowhere accurately stated. His first telegraphic apparatus was made between tiie 
9th July and 6th August, 1809. Baron Schilling, who was at tliat time attached to 
the Russian mission at Munich, saw it for the first time on the 13th August, 1810^ 
and from that day he became an enthusiastic labourer in the field of electric tele- 
graphy. In the autumn of 1 8 1 2, he was enabled, by means of a subaqueous conductor, 
planned by him, in April and May, at Munich, to explode powder mines across the 
river Neva, near St. Petersburg. Subsequently, he made the rery first electro- 
ms^etic telegraph, a copy of which, in 1836, found its way through Bonn and 
Heidelberg to London. In 1837, tliere was at St. Petersburg a submarine cable 
making for him, with which he intended to unite Cronstadt with the capital, tlirough 
the Finnish Gulf. His death, which took place on the 7th August, prevented the 
execution of this early submarine telegraph enterprise. Dr. Hamel remarks, that 
the Honourable F. J. Lamb, afterwards Lord Beau vale, who married in 1841, at 
Vienna, where he was more than ten years ambassador, the daughter of the Prussian 
minister there. Count Maltzahn, and who, in 1848, succeeded his elder brother, the 
second Viscount Melbourne, so well known as having been long Prime Minister of 
England, and after whom, in 1837, the present capital of the auriferous colony Vic- 
toria in Australia, was named, did not live to see the telegraph introduced there. 
He died on the 29th of January, 1853. About that time two gentlemen from Mon- 
treal, in Canada, Mr. Butcher and Mr. McGowan, left for Melbourne, in Australia, 
to establish from thence electro-telegraphic lines in various directions. The first, to 
Williamstowii, was opened on the 3rd March, 1854, in the presence of the then Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Latrobe. Since last November, the capital of the colonies New 
South Wales and South Australia (Sydney and Adelaide) are both telegraphically 
united with Melbourne in Victoria. Kre long the continent of the distant afth part 
of the globe (Australia) will, through Bass's Strait, be electro-tclegraphicaliy united 
with Tasmania, by means of a submarine cable, lately made at Mr. Henley's factory, 
At Enderby Wharf, near Greenwich.— Jovma/ o^ Me Society of Arts. 

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BT M. 8AGC. 

Oh being remored from the madder-bath, the tiisiies are found to contain on their 
anrfkce a ooathig of cobnring matter vhlch giree them a dirty appearance. Thia 
vaa formerly remored by repeated immersion in bran or soap hatha, and by expoenre 
to the direct raya of the tun on the graae. 

Wlien BerthoUet discovered the bleaching properties of chlorine, it was considered 
that the problem of rapid bleaching was solved; owing, however, to the difBcnlty of 
management and the irregnlarity of action in the chlorine water, this did not prove 
to be the case, and the old method of bleaching on grass was continued until Tennant 
eabatituted for free chlorine the hjrpochlorite of lime. For many years madder-dyed 
stnfis have been whitened by passing through solutions, more or less concentrated, 
of hypochlorite of lime or soda, at different temperatures. 

Some years ago M. Steinbach conceived the idea of printing upon the stuffs to be 
bleached, with a solution of hypochlorite of lime, and then diying upon drums 
heated with steam, so as to decompose the hypochlorite into chlorate and diloride, 
and thus prevent any subsequent action. This method proved suocessAil, and con- 
stituted a great improvement in the art of bleaching upon madder-dyed stuffs. It 
had the inconvenience, however, of sensibly browning the red and rose colours. To 
remedy this defect the author has tried tlie use of hypochlorite of zinc, or rather the 
products of its decomposition, which have been described by M. Balard in Ids paper 
on hypochlorons add and its derivatives. 

When a solution of hypochlorite of lime is decomposed by a quarter, a half, or an 
entire equivalent of sulphate of zinc, liquids are obtained possessing more and more 
energetic bleaching properties, and finally presenting all the characters of a solution 
of pure hypochlorons add. The stuift, when immersed in this sdution, properly 
dilated, are perfectly bleached without any injury to the red and rose colours, which, 
Indeed, appear to be improved. It is, however, impossible to print with this solution 
of hypochloraus acid, partly because it so rapidly decomposes, and partly because it 
attacks all organic matters with which it is brought into contact. 

In order further to determine the non-existence of hypodorite of zinc, the author 
substituted salts of zinc for tartaric acid, and produced the whites upon coloured 
tissues, which were afterwards immersed in solution of bypochloride of lime. This 
experiment answered perfectly, and it also enabled him by increasing or diminish- 
ing the amount of the zinc salt, to modify the energy of the mordant so as to produce 
diferent shades of colour, some of which are purer and more distinct than those 
obtained by any other process. 

The following is the mode of operation . — 

The tissues previously dyed and soaped, are printed upon by the roller with the 
following mixture:-*sulphate of zinc, 400 grammes ; gum, 500 grammes; water, 
1 litre. When the impression is dry, the tissue is immersed for two minutes in a 
odd bath of bypochloride of lime. It is then well washed and dried.~Coni;i(e« 

At the last sitting of the Imperial Sodety of Medidne of Lyons, the important 
question of the relative advantages of ether and chloroform as antesthetics was fuUv 
discussed. Dr. Barrier stated that, to his knowledge, there were only three wdi 
authenticated cases in which ether had caused death, and that even in those there 
were some extenuating circumstances. The deaths caused by chloroform, on the 
contrary, were numerous. If, therefore, ether was slower in its action, and more 
disagreeable in its effbct, it was, on the other band, infinitely less dangerous. Dr. P^ 
trequin, following on Uie same side, drew a parallel between Uie means possessed by 
science for counteracting the dangerous effects either of ether or chloroform, and 
showed that in this respect the latter was greatly inferior to the former. Several 
other members expressed similar opinions, without there being a single vdce in 
fisvonr of chloroform ; and at length the society, on the motion of Dr. Barrier, passed 
the following resdution:^!. ** That ether, used as an anaesthetic, is less dangerous 
than chIoroform4 2. That ansasthesia is produced as constantly and completely by 
ether as by chloroform. 8. Tliat if ether presents inconveidences from which 
chloroform is exempt, sndi inconveniences are of slight importance, and are prefer- 
able to the danger inherent to the use of the latter. 4. That consequently ether is 
to be preferred to chlorofotm." 

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The oil of the dugong has hcen proposed as a substitute for cod-liver oiL Dr. 
Hobbs, medical health officer of Moreton Bay, Australia, states that he has nsed it 
with great success in those cases in which ood-llyer oil is usually prescribed* The 
dugong is very abundant in the Australian waters, and yields a sweet and palataUe 
OH, which is yery digestible. It does not contain any iodine. The DMim Medicml 
Preu observes that the dugong is a mammal, and, consequently, the oil is different 
from that of a flsh, and probably of the same nature as that of whales, which, the 
writer suggests, might be extracted by cold pressure instead of the mode no(^ 

Pilchar Oil has also been proposed as another substitute by Dr. Andrews, of West 
Malvern, who states in the LaneH of May 14 th that he has found this oil a very 
good substitute for cod-liver oil. The advantages it possesses over the latter are, 
Siat it is not so disagreeable to take, does not rise, and gives general tone to ^ 
system much more than cod-liver oil. 

Dr. Andrews has generally given it combined with iodide of iron, in proportion of 
two grains to the fluid ounce. 



Deab Sib, — With a view to get our body acquainted with the metrical system «a 
soon as possible, I have had some 10 oz. measure glasses graduated thus:— 



^Tn ■■■■■^ 1 m 








■ ■% 







Messrs. Gilbertson & Sons, and Mr. Thomson, the medicine chest maker, have 
made them for me^ and I And them quite accurate; the addition of the cubic 
centimetres in no way interferes with the utility of the meamure, and it is a means 
of keeping! More our eyes their rdative value in oompaiiion with the impecial 

I am, Sir, your obedient lervant, 

P. SQimuk 
S77, Oxford Sirt9i, Londm, Vf., Jime 94, 1869. 

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On Wednesday, May 25th, Mr. Wnkley resumed an inquest, at the Golden Lion, 
Fttlham, on Mr. Charles Edward White, aged 70, proprietor of extensive pottery 
works in Fulham. It appeared that tlie deceased had latterly become very dS- 
spending, arising from his connexion Trith a young woman, with whom he had 
cohabited for the last eight months. He was last seen in her company on Friday 
night, the ISth, when high words passed between them. He was on the premises 
next day as late as half-past five p.m. At six o'clock, when the men were to be paid, 
the foreman went to the counting-house and found the door locked inside, and he 
saw through the window the deceased sitting in a chiur, apparently insensible. Mr. 
QiUingham, surgeon, made a post mortem examination, but could not discover the 
cause of death. The inquest was then adjourned for the analysb of the stomach by 
Dr. Richardson, who found corrosive sublimate in large quantities. Mr. Roulton, 
the foreman, said, on the Sunday morning he found a piece of paper in the store 
marked " Strong Poison," but did not like to mention this on the last occasion 
(when he distinctly said that he found no paper), because he did not wish to hurt the 
feelings of Miss White, who was present. The Coroner observed that witness should 
have mentioned it, as it might have prevented the jury from attending that day. It 
released any person from the charge of murder. The witness handed the piece of 
neper to the coroner, but he and the jury were unable to discover the words. The 
foreman said the peper was scorched, but on patting the pieces together he could 
distinctly resd the words "Strong Poison." The jury then returned a verdict— 
** Died from poison, but how administered there was no evidence to show." 


Cm Monday, May SOth, Mr. Wakky resumed an inquesty which was opened 
fonnally by him on Saturday, at the Castle public^house, in the Holloway Ready 
relative to the death of a young man named John Andrew Cooper Huddleston, the 
son of Mr. Huddletton, surgeon, of Cornwall Terrace, Holloway, who was found 
dead in a field between Qaremont Cottages and the Great Nortbwn Railway, off the 
UeUoway Road, on the S6th of May. The deceased, it appeared, had been brought 
19 to the medical prolession, and had been with Dr. Bainbridge. He purchased half 
an eonoe of pmssic acid at Hooper's, PaU Mall Bast, where he was known throni^ 
his ooonezion with Dr. Bainbridge, the greater part of which he took to put an end 
to his existence. Among the letters found upon him, was one addressed to the jury 
that should sit upon him, explaining why he committed the act of self-destrucUoiL 
and accosiDg his ikther of negligence. Mr. Holmes Coote and Mr. Mitchell had 
UMde a peti morOm examination of the body and head, and they could trace no sign 
of mental disease. It was stated that the deceased had slept in the New Cattle 
Market, and had only had a penny loaf to subsist on for three days, and from dnpli* 
catei foond upon him it was evident he had been pledging such articles as only a 
person in the extremity of distress would so dispose of. Mr . Close, an oilman, stated 
ttat be had taken in the young man out of charity, and that deceased had 
oompiained to witness of the treatment he had l^n subjected to by hfai 
fiUlier. Mr. J. N. Huddleston, the father of the deceased, said his son ceased to 
leride with him about January, 1868, in consequence of his having carried a knile 
with which he threatened to murder witness, and had on one occasion stopped hia 
betae. In April last, feeling alarmed, he had called in the aid of the pohce. In 
auwer to a questkm by a sc^citor, who attended on behalf of the mother and some 
of the creditors of deceased, witness said he believed his son did say that he wai 
starving with hunger, or words to that effect. Among the papers found on the 
dereaeed was one apprising him of a situation of £40 a year, with board and lodghog^ 
which the coroner said would go to show that he had still some prospect when he 
committed the rash aet, as the letter was dated but a few days before he took the 
poison. The jury i«reed to a verdkst, "* That the deceased died from the eflecto of 
poison administered by his own hand, but that there was no evidence to satisfy them 
as to the state of his mind at the time." 

On Saturday, June 4, Mr. Wakley held an hiquest at the Rainbow Tavern, Liverpool 
Road, Islington, touchhig the death of Captain William Arnold WalUnger, lumd 
thirty-four, late of the Ist West India Regunent, and son of Mr. Seijeant Wal- 

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linger, who committed siucide by swaUowiDg a quantity of prasstc odd. It ap« 
peared from the eridenoe that the deceased biad lodged at 61, Qibson-Bquare, sinoe 
ChristmaB last, and he was somewhat irregular and intemperate in his habits, bat 
there was nottiing in his manner to lead to the supposition that he would commit 
•iiicide, although it subsequently transpired that he had twice made the attempt. 
However, on the day of his death, his non-appcaranee at the usual hour excited sus- 
picion, and the landlady entered his room, when she found him lying on the floor 
with a phial that had contained prussic acid by his side. She immediately sent for 
Mr. G. Harslip, surgeon, who, upon his arrival, pronounced life extinct. There was 
a strong smell of prussic acid at the deceased's mouth, and the poit mortem examina- 
tion proved that he had drunk a large quantity of that poison. The phial found by 
his side was an ounce bottle, and it seemed probable that he drank the whole of the 
contents. A note written by the deceased was discovered on the table addressed to 
his father, in which he spoke of his past life in terms of bitter self-reproach. The 
coroner briefly summed up, and the jury returned a verdict of suicide, leaving the 
state of ills mind an open question. The inquiry then terminated. 


This eminent German philosopher and naturalist died on the 6th of May last, 
in his ninetieth year. Frederick Henry Alexander Humboldt was bom at Berlin, 
on the I4th of September, 1769, of an ancient Pomeranian family. His father, 
Migor Humboldt, was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Brunswick during the seven 
years' war, afterwards chamberlain to the King of Prussia. The mother, who 

Spears to have been a highly intellectual woman, was a cousin of the Princess of 
ucher, and, at the period of her marriage to Mijor Humboldt, the widow of Baron 
Holwede. The result of her last marriage was the birth of two sons, who were both 
destined to play an important part in the history of their country. The father died 
about twelve years after his marriage j the care and instruction of the two children, 
therefore, devolved entirely upon the mother, and it is to her they were indebted for 
that judicious training which served to develop their intellectual capacities and to 
guide the labours of their after-life. William, the elder by rather more than two 
years, principally devoted himself to literature and art, and his highest achievements 
were in the department of philology. He was, however, best known as a politidan, 
having filled a succession of diplomatic and administrative ofllces for nineteen years. 

The early instructors of Alexander Humboldt, in addition to his mother, were 
Campe, the author of Robinson AUenumde^ and Christian Eunth, who remained up 
to his death the constant friend and adviser of his former pupil. He afterwards, in 
1783, studied under the Professors of the Berlin University, and his first knowledge 
of Botany was derived from the celebrated Wildenow. In 1786 he went to the 
University of Frankfort, and from there to Gottingen, where it ii stated he com* 
posed an essay on the Textile Fabrics of the Grecians, but which was never pub- 
lished. It is at this time that he became acquainted with the English traveller 
George Forster, with whom he made a number of exploring excursions, and whidi 
resulted in the publication of a work, in 1790, on the Baaalis of the Rhine. He then 
went from Gottingen to Hamburg, and from thence to the Mining School at Frie- 
berg, where he studied under the celebrated Werner, with whom he was a great 
favourite. Here he quallfed himself for the office of Mining Director in the Fruiu 
cipalities of Beyreuth and Anspach, which position he held up to the year 1795, and 
it is during this period that he collected the materials fbr several of his earlier 
works. In 1796, the death of his mother removed the restraint whi^ had prevented 
him from carrying into execution the idea he had formed during his acquaintance 
with Forster, namely, to make a great exploring voyage. 

Humboldt now, therefore, seriously devoted himself to the acquirement of that 
knowledge which would be most essential to him in his travels. Together with 
Leopold von Buch he carefully studied aU the phenomena connected with meteor- 
ology, and proceeding to Paris he possessed himself of the best instruments, per- 
fecting himself, as far as possible, in their use. During iiis stay in this ci^ital he 
met with M. Aim^ Bonpland, who became the fUture companion of his travels 

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Humboldt had inteoded to join the Bandin expedition, which was fitting ont bv the 
French for the exploration of South America; bat impatient of delay he left TkAm 
for Madrid, accompanied by Bonpland. The young trayellen here obtained special 
recommendation and notice from the Spanish Court, and baring paid a hasty visit 
to Egypt, they, in May, 1799, sailed ftom Corunna, escaping through the English 
blockade to the Idand of Teneriflb. From thence they crossed to Cumana, in South 
America, where they first experienced the terrible phenomena of an earthquake. 
And now, for five years, Humboldt and his companion were engaged in travel, ex- 
ploring the forests and wildernesses of the Spanish possessions, and collecting a 
mass of scientific observations of the most extensive order, including astronomical 
determmations, terrestrial surveys, and researches into the botany, geology, and 
mineralogy of the districts through which they passed. They navigated the 
Oronoko and other large rivers in a canoe, resting for a time at the town of Angos- 
tura. They afterwards passed up the Bivcr Amazon, and in 1802 they reached 
Quito. Here they stopped for several months, making a most complete exploration 
<tf the whole district, and in June of this year they ascended Chmiboraxo to the 
height of 19,300 feet, the greatest elevation that had been then attained. Mexico, 
Cuba, and the United States were then visited, and in 1804 Humboldt returned to 
Paris with the most extensive collection that had been seen in Europe, consisting 
chiefly of botanical, mineralogical, and geological specimens, together with the 
means of illustrating the whole natural history of the regions through which he had 
travelled. Humboldt now spent several years of hard work in Paris, preparing a 
series of works descriptive of his voyage. 

These important publications were enriched by the contributions of several 
eminent men of science, and his own division of the work was a specimen of the 
highest order of scientific literature. In 1818, Humboldt revisited Italy with Oay- 
Luflsac, whom he had assisted in making investigations into the composition of the 
atmosphere. He afterwards visited England, and then returned to reside at Berlin, 
where he became a favourite of the king, and was made a Councillor of State. 

In 1829, Humboldt, in association wiUi Bose and Ehrenberg, started on a second 
journey of scientific exploration, travelling to Siberia, and exploring Central Asia 
to the very confines of China. This expedition, which was undertaken at the ex- 
press request of the Russian Qovemment, who bore all the expenses, although it 
only occupied nine months, was exceedingly rich in results. Tlie travellers distri- 
buted most valuable information in the districts through which they passed, more 
especially the mines of Siberia; they also instituted obMrvatories at various points, 
and determined some most important facts in connexion with terrestrial magnetism. 
The store of knowledge and information thus amassed was afterwards published in 
the fragmens AsiatiguM$f the Asie Centrales and Rose's JReUe naeh dem Choral. Pre* 
▼ious to this period Humboldt had commenced that great work which more than 
any other has contributed to his immense reputation. The vast generalization 
which he has attempted to realize in CoBmot^ had been the long-cherished idea 
throughout all his travels and studies, and for which he worked so perseveringly to 
master the various branches of science that he might connect them into one har- 
monious whole, and present a perfect picture of all the varied phenomena of nature. 

It is impossible to give more than a faint outline of the labours of Humboldt. His 
influence on the pro|nress of science has been very great, and scarcely any extensive 
inquiry has been originated during the last fifty years in which he has not taken 
part. He has published numerous books and papers on various branches of science; 
he is, however, best known by his great exploration of South America, and as the 
author of Co8mo§ and the Aspecis of JVature. 

Humboldt was the habitual friend and adviser of the King of Prussia, and was 
charged by that sovereign with seversi political missions. His death was the 
occasion of universal mourning in Berlin, and his body was interred with all the 
pomp and ceremony of a state funeral, the Prince Regent, the Ministers of State, 
and the ^ite of the city taking part in the ceremony. 

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On thb Isfluencb of Wbitc Light, ov thb differbvt Coloursd Rats and 
Dabkmbss, on the Detslopmbnt, Gkowth, and Notretion or Animals. By 
Horace Dobeix, M.I>., &c. 

Or tbb Action or Habd Waters uopn Lbaj>. By W. Laitdbb Lindsat, M.D., 
F.R.B. Edinburgh : prmted by NeUl & Co. 1 859 . 


Mr. PooUy (Batb) suggests the use of a graduated label for 6 and 8 ounce bottles 
where the dose of the medicine is In table-spoonfuls. The label consists of a narrow 
^p of paper, with the word '* table-spoonfuls," and graduated according to the size 
«f the bottle, tite olgect being to avoid the necessity of measuring by a table- spoon 
where a graduated gla«s is not used. 

A Registered Apprentice (London). — (I.) Chlorodyne is a proprietary medicine, 
the composition of which has not been published. — (2.) Yes. 

/. •/. (Wandsworth) regrets that apprentices should hare been spoken of at the 
late General Meeting as possessing such obtuse intellects. 

A. P. S. (London).— In the label referred to» the words ** not to be taken" should be 

" A Member of Ten Yeor^ Standm^^** failing to pav his subscription, would not 
appear on the Register, and therefore could not legally assume or use the title of 
PluirmaceQtical Chemist. 

E. B, V, (Belgravia) calls attention to the Beneyolent Fund, the real nature of 
which, he thmks, is not generally known, and suggests that the requisite information 
should be fully circulated among the Members, with the view of adding to the Fund. 

JuvmxM (llozton^.— Jhciit Eesencee^ vol. zi., page 214. 

A Subicriber (Iilington).— (I.) Cantharides should be kept in well-stopped 
bottles ; when so preserved their yesicating property is not diminished. (2.) For 
the purpose of preventing friction, which would iinure its appearance. 

J. D,—Tinct. Swnbidi, See vol. xr., p. 508, of this Journal; also Beasley's Pocket 

J, R. iV.— The formulas required will be found in vol. iv., p. 243, of this Journal, 

J. C. — M. P. S* (Wandsworth) .—The result described is no doubt due to the action 
of oxide of zinc from the boiler, decomposing the soap and forming an insoluble soap. 

F. H, C. (Southport) suggests an alteration in the formula for tincture of calumba, 
with the view of obviating the difDculty at present experienced in making it bright 
by filtratioD. He proposes the following process : —The quantities of the ingredients 
for the tmcture having been calculated, infuse the finely slice<l calumba in the water, 
boiling, and when cold boil it in the infusion for a minute or so; when again cold, 
make up the quantity lost by evaporation, and add suflBcient rectified spirit to make 
the tincture proof strength; then let it digest in the usual manner. 

A Member^ B. E, (Huddersfleld). — ^The purple dye prepared from certain con- 
stituents of coal tar, is a patented article. It has already been noticed in the 
Journal, but we may, perhaps, give some further account of It. 

A, B^ a ifmnJ^r.— The process of percolation or disphicement has been described 
in several articles in this Journal, but the subject is by no means exhausted. In 
conducting this process a great deal of practical information is required with 
reference to the modifications rendered necessary by the different substances 
operated upon. 

T. H, (Manchester).^We know of no formula for concentrated mixture of ammo- 

M, P. S, (York). — Solution of Persesquinitrate qf Iron, See vol. vii., page 696; 
and vol. xi., page 828. 

Ah A$9ociate (Bishop Aukland).~German Yeaet, Vol. xviL, page 600. 

Instructions from Members and Associates, respecting the transmission 
of the Journal, before tbe 25th ofjbhe month, to the Secretary, Elias 
Bbemridoe, 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Adrertisements (not later than the 2drd) to Mr. Cuurchill, New 
Burlington St. Other conmiunications to the Editors, 17, Bloomsbury Sq. 

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* Jacob Bell, 338, Oxford Street. 


Thomas N. R. Mobson, 38, Queen's Square, Bloomsbuij. 


Daxiei. Bell Hakbubt, Plough Court, Lombard Street. 

BiBD, William Lionel 42, Castle Street, Oxford Street. 

Bottle* Alexaedee ...37, Townwall Street, Dover 

Bkxw, Thomas A. ...Tl, East Street, Brighton 

BucKLEB, William Henby 86^ New Bond Street 

Cupiss, Fbaecis Diss 

Datkhpoet, Johh THisTLEwooD...3d, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbmy 

Dbahe, Hebbt Clapham 

Edwaeds, Gbobge.^ Dartford 

Edwaeds, Jobs B. 50, Berry Street, Liverpool 

Hbeeieo, Thomas 40, Aldersgate Street, City 

HoLLiEE, Elliott Market Place, Dudley 

Lescbeb, Joseth Sibvbt 60, Bartholomew Close 

Mactaelan, John F 17, North Bridge, Edinburgh 

Meogeson, Geoboe 61, Cannon Street^ City 

Saedioed, GfiOEOE Wbbb 47, Piccadilly 

Squibb, Petee ......277, Oxford Street 

Stakdeikg, Thomas •....], Piccadilly, Manchester 

Waugb, GfiOEGE 177, Regent Street 


EuAS Bbemeiimie, 17, Bloomsbury Square. 

« Died Jane 12th, 1859. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Boudet, Felix, Membre de TAcad^inie de M^decine, Paris. 

Brande, William Thomas, F.R.S., Royal Mint, London. 

Cap, P. A., Correspondant de TAcademie de M^decine, Paris. 

Christison, Robert, M.D., F.R.S.E., Edinburgh. 

Clark, Thomas, M.D., Aberdeen. 

Cleghom, Hugh F. C, M.D., Bladras. 

Coindet» — , M.D., Genera. 

Daniell, William Freeman, M.D., F.L.S. 

De Vry, John Elishee, M.D., Bandong, Java. 

Doryault, Francis Laurent Marie, Du«cteur de la Pharmacie Coitraledes 
Pharmaciens, Paris. 

Farre, Frederic John, M.D., No. 7, Montague Street-, Russell Square. 

Garrod, Alfred Barinfl^ M.B., F.R.S., No. 84, Harley Street, Cavendish Sq. 

Graham, Thomas, M.D., F.R.S., Master of the Mint, London. 

Guibourt, Nicolas Jean Baptiste Gaston, Membre de TAcad^mie de Mddecine, 
Professeur k TEcole de Pharmacie, Paris. 

Hamberg, N. P., M.D., Stockholm. 

Hare, Robert, M.D., Philadelphia. 

Herapath, William, F.C.S., Bristol. 

Hoffmann, Augustus William, LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., 9, Fitzroy Square. 

Hoist, FrederiK, Chxistiania. 

Landerer, Xavier, M.D., Athens. 

Liebig, Baron Justus von, M.D., F.R.S., Munich. 

Londley, John, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., Acton Green, near London. 

Madagan, Douglas, M.D., F.R.S.E., Edinburgh. 

Martiny, Eduara, M.D., Salzschlirf, Hesse Cassel. 

Martiny, Julius, M.D., Gaualgesheim, Hesse Darmstadt 

Martins, Carl Friedrich PhiHpp von, M.D., F.R.S., Mum'ch. 
Martins, Theodor Wilhelm Christian, M.D., Ph.D., Erlangen. 
MiaUie, — , M.D., Professeur agr^g^ k la Faculty de M^decine, Paris. 

Miller, William Allen, M.D., F.R.S., Kin^ College, London. 
Mitscherlich, Eilert, F.R.S., University of Berlin. 
Mohr, Friedrich, M.D., Coblentz. 

0*Shaughnessy, Sir William Brooke, M.D. 

Pelouze, — , Membre de 1* Academic des Sdenoes, Paris. 

Procter, William, Jun., Philadelphia. 

Rees, George Owen, M.D., F.R.S., No. 26, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly. 

Reid, David Boswell, M.D., F.R.S.E, Edinburgh. 

Rose, Heinrich, M.D., F.R.S., Berlin. 

Schomburgk, Sir Robert Jlermann, K.H., H.B.M. Consul, Bangkok. 

Schweitzer, Edward Gustavus, F.C.S. 

Stenhouse, John, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Taylor, Alfred Swaine, M.D., F.R.S., No. 15, St. James's Terrace, Regent's 

Thwaites, G. H. K., F.L.S. , Peradenia, Ceylon. 
Ure, Alexander, A.M., F.R.C.S., No. 18, Upper Seymour Street, Portman 

Wedddl, H. A., M.D., F.L.S. 
Wilson, George, M.D., F.R.S.E., Edinburgh, 
Wood, George B., M.D., Philadelphia. 

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Year of 


No. of 


Alexander, James Ljon Sjdnej 

Avice, Charles Ernest Mauritius 

Baeer, Gnstave E. Strasbourg 

Baissac, Pierre Joseph Mauritius 

Baschet, George Constant Mauritius 

Baschet, Pierre Edmond Mauritius 

Bajlis, William Launceston, Tasmania 

Bbhop, William • Wellington, ^. Zealand 

Boulle, Janvier Alfred Mauritius 

Carpenter, Heniy .....Demerara 

Dm, Casimir Theodore A Mauritius 

Fleurot, Emile Mauritius 

Francis, Henry • ...Melboume 

Gniot, Jean Felix E Mauritius 

Lamnsse, Louis A Mauritius 

Lediard, Charles St. Vincent 

Mailloux, Joseph Mauritius 

Mailloux, Auguste Mauritius 

Minet, Alphonse Edouard Mauritius 

Nobrega, Gerardo Jose da Madeira 

Noel, Ferdinand Mauritius 

Begnaad, Charles Mauritius 

Roberts, Henry Florence 

Roberts, Thomas H Gibraltar 

Rogers, Henry Bombay 

Sinimbershi, Nicholas Rome 

Skinner, Henry Kingston, Canada West 

Sparks, John Bombay 

Stewart, F. H Demerara 

de Yalanc^ Charles P. Mauritius 

White, Robert California 





























The Agates in the second column correspond with the number of the Cer* 
tificate of Examination. 

TOL. X. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Tear ot 

No. of 


































































Allchin, Alfred 32, Cole's Terrace, Islinzton 

Allen, George 7, Cowper Street, City Road 

Allen, William 2, Morgan's Place, Islington 

* Ambrose, John 1, Union Place, Commercial Road 

Ambrose, Thomas 94, Whitachapel Road 

Anderson, Charles 23, Lower Belgrave Street 

Andrews, Frederick 8, Store Street 

Appleton, Thomas Cass ...45, Curzon Steeet 

Asnton, William 154, Sloane Street 

Attwood, Al&ed 61, Cannon Street 

Austin, Henry ...161, Bermondsey Street 

BaQey, Delamore J ....30, Conduit Street 

Baines, William H .^.ei. Cannon Street, City 

Baiss, William A 102, Leadenhall Street 

Baissy James 102, Leadenhall Street 

Baker, William J 21, Brecknock Place, Camden Town 

Ball, Thomas M 77, St. George's Road, Southwark 

Balmer, John 94, St. John Street Road 

Barber, Thomas A 2, Scott's PUee, Islington 

Barber, Joseph 7, Oiau;e Street 

Barkley, William 18, Little Tower Street 

Barnard, John 1, Oxford Terrace, Clapham Road 

Barnes, James B 1, Trevor Street, Knightsbridge 

Barron, Frederick 2, Bush Imoq 

Barrs, John Adcock 55 , Fore Street^ City 

Barry, John T Plough Court, Lombard Street 

Bartlett, William 1, Brettin Plaoe> Chelsea 

Bastick, William .2, Brook Street 

Bayley, Edmund 26, LeadenhaJl Street 

Beaton, John 174, Shoreditch 

♦Becket, William E 6, Giltspur Street 

•Bell, Jacob 338, Oxford Stwet 

Bell, William Henderson ...48, Albany Street, Regent's Park 

Bentley, William 11^ Mount Street, Bethnal Green 

Berry, Edward 1 , Prospect Flaee, Dalston 

Best, John D 26, Suffolk Street, Pail Mall 

Bigg, Thomas Great Dover Street 

Biggs, Walter 19, Netting Hill Terrace 

Binge, Thomas 23, Stockbridge Terraee, Pimlico 

Bird, William L 42, Castle Street East 

Bird, Augustus 22, High Street, Kensington 

Bishop, Alfred Mile End New Town 

Blake, Charles T 47, Kccadilly 

Bland, John 57, Penton Street, Pentonville 

Blandfbrd, John F 9, Bruton Street 

Bolton, Willfam 146, Holborn Bars 

Bond, Henry 11, Cross Street, Hoxton New Town 

Boothby, Henry Neal 72, Crawford Street 

Boully, Peter Queen's Road, Bayswater 

Bourdas, Isaiah 10, Pont Street, ]BelgraTe Square 

Bowden, Edward 13, Charles Street, St Jaumbs's 

Bower, William 96, Tottenham Court Road 

• life Members. 

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1846 I 



1857 I 333 


1853 i 

1853 ' 


1853 ! 

1841 • 

1852 ; 
1849 I 

1842 I 

1854 , 191 
1845 I 

1853 ' 
1841 I 
1848 . 
1853 ' 
1853 I 


Bradley, Jobn 21, Belgrave Road, Westminster 

Brewer, £H 43, Doke Street, Manchester Square 

♦Brewer, John AV. N. T. ...5, Liverpool Street, City 
Bromley, Richard Martin... Denmark Hill 

Brooks, Charles Southville, Wandsworth Road 

Brotherton, William H. ...1, Clyde Terrace, Caledonian Road 

Brown, James 27, Aldgate 

Back, Thomas •» Kinosland Green 

Buckle, Christopher F 3, North Place, Gray's Inn Rotd 

*Bucklee, William H 86, New Bond Street 

♦Burden, Edward 38, Duke Street, Gvosvenor Square 

Burden, Thomas...*. 6, Store Street, Bedford Square 

Burfield, Henry 180, Strand 

Burgoyne, James 31, Throgmorton Street 

♦Butt, Edward Northwi^....235, Oxford Street 

Carr, John 171, HighHolborn 

Carridc, James 46, Churton Street, Bdgrave Road 

Carty, John 172, New Bond Street 

Catfeell, George Homerton 

Chard, Frederick J ...13, Ecdeston Street South 

Chubb, James C 59, St. John Street, Clerkenwell 

Clarke, Benjamin Mare Street, Hackney 

Cobb, Robert C 10, Frederick Place, Hampstead Road 

♦Cockrill, James 2, Wellington Street, Waterloo Town 

Cocksedge, Heniy B 20, Bucktosbury 

Colehester, William M 2, Crown Street, Hoxton 

Cole, William H 52, Grracechurch Street 

Coles, John , New Road, Camberwell 

Coka, (Varies 72, Euston Sauare 

Collins, John R. Haverstock Hill 

Collins, Robert N Oxford Court, Cannon Street 

Compton, Charles 14, Brewer Street, Golden Square 

Constance, WiUiam 5, Hanover Place, Regent^s Park 

Constance, Edward 37, Leadenhall Street 

Cooke, John 171, Hoxton Old Town 

Cooper, William T 26, Oxford Street 

Cooper, Robert H ••20, Royal Exchange 

Corfield, Daniel 22, Thrawl Street, Spttalfields 

Cornelius, Joseph Clapham 

Cowdery, Georce T .....SO, Paternoster Row 

Cracknel], Charles 107, Edgware Road 

Crispe, James 4, Cheapnde 

Crocker, Edwin 19, Richmond Boad, Islington 

Cross, Henry 4, Shepperton St., New North Rd. 

Croucher, J^hn T 223, High Street, Shadwell 

Croyden, Charles 37, Wigmore Street 

Cutfen, William 37, Beckford Row, Walworth 

Curtis, Frederick 15, Crawford Street 

Darby, Stephen 140, Leadenhall Street 

Davenport, John T 33, Great Russell Stareet, Bloomsbury 

Davies, Charles 11, Claremont Place, North Brixton 

Davie0, Henry E 43, Wood Street, City 

♦Davy, Charles 100, Upper Thames Street 

Deane, Henry Clapham 

Dickinson, William 16, Cambridge Street, Edgware Road 

» 2 gitized by Google 



Year of 







Doughty, Edward William. .4| William Street, Knightsbridge 

Dovm John 1, Queen's Road, Bayswater 

Drew, James 2, Bush Lane, Cannon Street 

Dyson, William B 4, Gloucester Rd., South Kensington 

Eardley, John 14, Charles St., Westbourne Terrace 

Eddy, Charles W 30, Crown Street, Finsbury 

Edwards, WiUiam S 14, Eltham Place, Old Kent Road 

Elam, Benjamin 196, Oxford Street 

Elkington, Edward 56, Grange Road, Bermondsey 

Ellis, George H 4, Payement, finsbury 

Elvey, Thomas 8, Halkin Street, West 

Evans, John 60, Bartholomew Close 

Evans, John H 60, Bartholomew Close » 

Farmar, Robert A 40, Westminster Road 

Faulconer, Robert II Keen*s Row, Walworth 

Fells, John Stockwell 

Fenn, John T 83, Regent Street, Westminster 

Field, William 27, Queen^s Buildings, Brompton 

*Field, James John 18, Chichester Street, Paddington 

Fincham, Robert 57, Baker Street 

Fincham, Zacariah C 57, Baker Street 

Ford, Charles 27, Canonbury Place 

Forrest, Richard 9, Celbridge Place, Westbourne Park 

Foulger, Samuel 1 33, St. G«orge*s Street, East 

Fowler, Richard. 14, Brewer Street, Golden Square 

Fox, William 48, Church Street, Bethnal Green 

Francis, GreorgeB 2, High Street, Islington 

Francis, George 5, Park Lane 

Freeman, John 13, Blackj&iars Road 

Freeman, Richard 5, Clayton Place, Kennington Road 

*Freeman, Robert 38, High Street, Kensington 

Gadd, Charles 1, New Bridge Street, Vauxhall 

Gale, Henry 3, Miilbrook Place, Camden Town 

Gale, Samuel 338, Oxford Street 

Galliers, George 230, Tottenham Court Road 

Garden, Alexander 372, Oxford Street 

Garden, Felix R 372, Oxford Street 

*Garle, John 12, Kensington Terrace 

Gedge, William Stedman...77, St. John Street 

♦Gerard, Philip Augustus . . .390, Strand 

Gigner, John King's Road, Chelsea 

Gill, George W 15, Crown Place, Walworth 

Glover, Georce ...19, Goodge Street 

♦Gloyne, Charles 5, Terrace, Kensington 

Goddard, John D 6, Arthur Street, City 

Grolding, William 42, Upper Albany Street 

Goodbame, Thomas 13, Charles Place, Charles Square 

Goodbame, Thomas R Homsey Road 

Groode, Thomas 47, Minoriee 

Goodger, David 31, Regent Street 

Goosey, William 5, Ocean Row, Stepney 

Gorton, John G 144, High Street, Whitechapei 

Gosden, Henry 140, Leuienhall Street 

Gould, John Chicksand Street 

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No. of 
































































Gould, John Gran/^r 108, Oxford Street 

Green, Josiah James 6, Henry St., Avenue Bd., St. John^s 

Greenish, Thomas 20, New St., Dorset Sq. fWood 

Greenwell, Baker Queen's Terrace, St. John*s Wood 

Griffiths, John Clerkenwell Green 

Grkdale, John M 216, Tottenham Court Road* 

Gristock, Thomas 42, South Street, Manchester Square 

Gulliver, William 33, Lower Belgrave Street 

Hackman, Leonard L 41, Union Street, Bishopsgate Street 

Haine, John Allen Boad, Stoke Newmgton 

Hall, John Heaton 809, High Holbom 

Hall, Bobert 18, Wigmore Street 

Hanbury, Cornelius Plough Court, Lombard Street 

Hanbury, Daniel Bell Plough Court, Lombard Street 

I *Hanbury, Daniel Plough Court, Lombard Street 

I Harvey, Edward 6, Gutspur Street 

Harris, Daniel B 55, St. «iame8*s Street 

i Haselden, Adolphus F 18, Conduit Street 

Hemingway, Walter 20, Portman Street 

i Henly, John C 213, Upper Thames Street 

Hent^, Henry M 87, Hi^h Street, St. John's Wood 

< Herrmg, Thomas 40, Aldersgate Street 

\ Herring, William 40, Aldersgate Street 

, Herring, Edward Trinity Square, South wark 

I Hewitt, John 1, Wellclose Street, Wellclose Square 

Hewlett, Charles J Cree Church Lane 

Hickley, Thomas P 125, Edgware Road 

HiUgeuberg, Henry 38, Houndsditch 

Hill, Arthur S 11, Little Britain 

Hill, Arthur B II, Little Britain 

Hills, Thomas H 338, Oxford Street 

Hockin , John B 88, Duke Street, Manchester Square 

Hodgkinson, Henry 3, Newland Terrace, Kensington 

Hogg, Robert 9, Albion Place, Hyde Park Square 

Hooper, William 24, Great Russell St., Covent Garden 

Hooper, William 7, Pall Mall East ] 

Hooper, Bartlett 43, King William Street, City 

Hooper, Hugh H 22, Commerce Place, Brixton 

Hopkin, William K 5, New Cavendish Street 

Hopkins, Thomas 34, Montague Square 

Hopkins, Thomas B ...Tulse Hill, Brixton 

Hora, Henry W 58, Minories 

Homcastle, John 12, Stanhope Terrace 

Homer, Edward 20, Bucklersbury 

Homer, James T ...20, Bucklersbury 

Howden, Robert 78, Gracechurch Street 

Howell, Maurice «....Peckham 

Howell, Thomas 61, North Place, Gray's Inn Road 

Itucklebridge, James M. ...103, Upper Ebury Street 

Hughes, William P 171, Hoxton Old Town 

Hudson, William B ,.27, Haymarket 

Hugill, John 61, Cannon Street 

Humpage, Benjamin 44, Chancery Lane 

Hunt, William Camberwell Green 

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Year of 








Huikimosi, John 12^ Swiatoa Street 

^HuskiBion, WiUkun 12, Swiaton Street 

Httskifisoo, Henry 77, Swinton Street 

Hnztable, John .«.»• 104, St. John Street Bead 

Huxtable, WiUiam 104, St. John Street Road 

Ingram, Robert 2, Queen's Terrace, St. Jolin^s Wood 

JadcsoD, John 47, Southampton £ow 

Jamieson, John 49, Davies Street, Berkley Square 

Jeffenon, Ebenezer W 3, Soutbgate Road, I>e Beauvoir Town 

Jeynes, £dward 49, Gt. James Street, Lisson Grrore 

Jeynes, George W 42, PriniSess Street, Edgware Road 

Jobeon, Thomae C 4 , John's Row, St. Lake's 

Jolley, George 13, Curzon Street, May fair 

Jones, Peter 11, Norton Folgate 

Jones, Heury S Fulham Road 

Keating, Thnmafl 79, St. Faurs Churohyard 

Kemp, Robert 2, Queen's Place, Uolloway 

Kemp, Richadfd .»....- Upper Street, Isliogton 

Kent, Thomas 226, Blackiriars Road 

*Kemot, George « 2, Cbrisp Street, Poplar 

Kershaw, George 113, Park Stveet^ Camden Town 

Kettle, Joseph .^ 42, Castle Street East 

Kiug, Robert 21, Princes Street, Hanover Square 

King, Charles T 86,SnowIiill 

Kingdon, William Y 6, Devonshire Terrace, dotting Hill 

, Lacy, Ben)amin W 13, Westboume Grove 

|*LaDgton, Frederick C. R. ...226, Upper Thames Street 

I Large, John H 2, Hok's Place, New North Road 

I Laugher, Charles H Camden Town 

Layers, Richard H 28, Old Street Road 

Lawrence, Frederick 8, New Chapel Street, Kentish Town 

Lawrence, Henry 49, High Street, Kensington 

Lesdier, Joseph S 60, Bartholomew Close 

Lessey, John 97, High Street, JVIarylebone 

Lidwell, Joshua £ 46, Hi^h Street, Notting Hill 

Long, George 114, High Holbom 

Lovell, Fredenck G 37, Newingtou Crescent 

Lowe, William E 8, Stafford Street, Bond Street 

*Luckombe, Charles 86, Snow Hill 

*Macmurdo, Edward 1 00, Upper Thames Street 

MoCuUoch, William 95, Bisoopsgate Street 

McCuUoch, Charles Covent Garden. 

McDougall, William 174, Reigent Street 

Maitland, Alexander 8, Torrington Place, Torrington Sq. 

Maitland, John 10, Chester Place, Hyde Park 

Jdansell, William Plough Court , Lombard Street 

Marris, Joseph 37, Bemers Street 

Marshall Thomoa 2 , Clay land's Place, Clapham Road 

Mason, John W 136, Upper Marylebone Street 

Matland, George 10, Nassau Place, Commercial Road 

May, John Battersea 

!*Mcdlock, Henry 20, Great Marlborough Street 

I Meggeson, George 61, Cannon Street 

Merrell, James ,. 1, Queen*s Terrace, Camden YlUas 

*Michel], Frederic Hampstead 

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Year of No. of 1 








AJjtobell, John 

12, WeU's Sow, Islrngton 

24, Chvch Street, Camberwell 


Moodj^JuMS \ 


MooM. JaoMM £j ..J 

I, Oaven Street, Wertiboume Terrace 
L9, SotttimmptoB Row 


^MonoB^TlioBMifl ....^ ] 



Queen Sqasre, JKoomsbury 


Mosomm £dw«rd H 

L64a, Strand 


Mould, Smm^ ' 

21, Moorgate Siraet 
, Berkel^ Place, Connaupht Terrace 
5, Bathurat Street, Hyde Park 
1, Union Place, New Kent Road 



MoiumQ, Tboaas ^ 1 



Mmnftpd. G^orce •••< 




NoFtbway.Mui ... \ 

27, Great Tower Street 


Oakl^, G«oi«e W J 

^, Umb Street, Spitalfields 


Ogle, Wi»i«a H, ] 

Oldfield Henrr 



3, Radolifi^Terrace, GosweU Road 
30, Bucklersbory 


Orridge, BeBJanuA B 


l^rimw, Rom*! ,..r....M 

33, Wilton Place, Belgrave Squsre 
3, Artichoke Plaee, j£le End Road 


*PanieU, George WtHiazn ... 


Pasmoite. JFaoMs.... 


Pftttiflon, George 

126« St. John Street Road 


Peacock,' Hjun^ton R 

170, Hig^ Street, Poplar 


Pedlcr, George S 

*Penreee, Ax^ur WeUeeley 

199, Fleet Street 


7, Amwdl Siveet, Clcrkenwell 


Pepper, John 

1, Bedford Street, Bedford Square 
25, Princes Street, Leicester Square 


Peppm^denfaMB XL 

PeUifer, EdoMmd Heary...6 



, Southgate Road 



3, Vernon Place, Barnigge Wells Rd. 


Pki^ot, Henry 

32, Praed Street, Pa( Idinirton 


Plummer, George 

Hi'gfaSm«t,Peddm " 


Pollock, TbemM 

129, Fenchnrch Street 


Portello, WilliMU 

91, Chariwood Street, South BelgraTia 


Potts, Robert U 

55, South Audley Street 


Power. Joko Henry 

Denmark HiU 


Pratt, Rdmnad 

1, Bloomsbury Square 


Preston, Joseph T. 

94, Smitfa&ald Bars 


Preston, Stanton W 

94, SmithMd Bars 



Quakr, Charles R. 

IS, Sloaae Square 

t. New Gareadish Street 


Radermacher, Charles J....2 


Rawle, William 

40, Cumberland Street 


Rea, Edward 

115, Wardour Street 


18, Mortimer Street, Cayendish Sq« 


Redwood, ThAophtlas 

19, MoBtegne Street, Russell Square 


Reynolds, James John 

15, Hauoyer Street 


Richuda, James 

40, New Bridge Street, Blackfnars 
12, NarlsDd Haee, dotting Hill 


Richardson, George 


Ridsdale, James. 

1, Wakd&eld Terrace, Caledonian Rd. 


Roftch. PoDe 

8, St. JfuaesV Street 


Ronse, Benjamin R. C 

Rouse, Frederick J 

9, Welliagton Street. Southwark 


1, Wigmore Street 


Rouse, Robert 



Rowntree, Thomas 

2, ArunM Plaee, Istington 



RowsQB, Henry 18, Chichester Street 


Sadke,WiUiamC ^ 

13, Norton Folgate 


Sainsbnry, Samuel ^.•. 

177, Strand 


Sandford, George W 

47, Piccadilly 

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Saxeby, William S 11, TothUl Street, Westminster 

Schacht, William 38, Houndsditch 

*Sharpe, George Young 6, Kensington Terrace 

Sharwood, James Allan 98, Fenchurch Street 

*Shirley, John George 1, Westbonme Grrove, Bayswater 

Simmons, Joseph 38 , Lambeth Walk 

Sims, John F 8, Hemingford Place, Bamsbnry 

Skidmore, John 3, Charles St. West, WestboumeTer. 

Slipper, James 86, Leather Lane 

Smith, William F 12, Keen's Row, Walworth 

Snell, Glanville A 3, Hampton Terrace, Hampstead Bd» 

Snellinj, Francis 23, Farrmgdon Street 

Solly, Stephen F St George's Circus, Southwark 

Southwood, Thomas S Harrow Koad 

♦Squire, Peter 277, Oxford Street 

Squire, William 95, Bishopsgate Street 

Starkie, James 4, Strand 

Stathers, John 43, Norland Road, Notting Hill 

Stead, John M 21 3, Upper Thames Street 

Steer, Philip R. Church Street, Hackney 

Stocken, James 112, Drummond Street, Euston Sq. 

Stuart, John E 172, New Bond Street 

Summers, James R. • 43, Curtain Road 

Swire, Roger 14, Edgware R«ad 

Swire, George Brixton Hill 

Taylor, John 77, Hackney Road 

I Thomas, Henry 7, Upper St. Martin's Lane 

I Tbamas, Richard W 10, Pall MaU 

Hiomas, John Jabez Stoke Newington 

Thompson, Henry A 86, Chiswell Street 

Tibbs, Frederick 47, Blackfriars Road 

Tippett, Benjamin M 8, Sloane Street 

Tonge, George 213, Upper Thames Street 

Towerzey, Alfred 20, Marylebone Street 

Trask, lliomas 14, Albany Street 

Tupholme, John T 38, Lamb's Conduit Street 

Turner, Charles E 63, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury 

Turner, Richard 2, Oxendon Street, Haymarket 

Tustin , Thomas H London Hospital 

Twinberrow, William 2, Edward Street, Portman Square 

Urwick, William W 33, Denbigh Place, Pimlico 

Vint, James ..3, High Street, Bow 

♦Vizer, Edwin B ...63, Lupus Street, Pimlico 

♦Wagstaff, John Henry James Street, Westboume Terrace 

Wa&er, Alexander 10, Ireland Row, Mile End 

*Walker, Henry 35, Skinner Street, Somers Town 

Waller, Arthur 6, Middleton Square 

Ward, Francis 14, Grrosvenor Street 

♦Warner, Charles Heath ,.,65^ Fore Street 

Watts, William 3, Gray's Place, Brompton 

Watts, William M 32, Wbxtecross Street 

WatU, Peter 6, Sol's Row, Hampstead Road 

Watts, Henry T 11, Victoria Road, Pimlico 

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Mflm- Gerti- 



































Waagh, George... 177, Regent Street 

Wegg, William 10, NorQi Place, Ball's Pond 

Westwood, William H 16, Newgate Street 

Westwood, Robert 16, Newgate Street 

Wheeler, Cfarifltopher 56, Hadmey Road 

White, John 228, PiccadiUj 

White, Daniel 19, Park Terrace, Regent's Park 

White, Edmund 19, Park Terrace, R^ent's Park 

♦Whitburn Augostns R 174, Regent Street 

Wilbe, Salmon 33, College Street, Chelsea 

Wilkes, G«qrae IfHayfield Place, Mile End 

Wilkinson, WiUiam 114, Lambeth Walk 

Williams, John 5 , New Cavendish Street 

Williams, Thomas 2, Herefbrd Terrace, Bayswater 

Willmott, William 83, High Street, Southwark 

Willows, John 101, Hich Holborn 

Wilson, Thomas Upper HoUoway 

Windle, William 48, Portman Place 

Wooldridge, John 19, Bath Place, New Road 

*Wrangham, John 3, Acre Lane, Brixton 

Wright, Georae Henry 7, Poultry 

Wright, Willuim V 11, Old Fish Street 

Wright, John 60, George Street, Portman Square 

Wyman, John 122, Fore Street 

Tarde, Giles 28, Lamb's Conduit Street 

Yates, Benjamin 25, Budge Row, Cannon Street 

Young, Frederick 137, Minories 

Young, George 12, Ebenezer Terrace, Mill Wall 

Young, William Herbert ...35, Baker Street 

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Year of 




No. of 








Abbott, John Thomas ^..Darlington 

Abraham, John Liyerpool 

Ackerman, Theophilus Bristol 

Acktill, George Abergavenny 

Acton, Greorge Worcester 

Adams, John Loughborough 

Adams, Jonathan Henry StokeHMi-Trent 

Adldns, Henry James ..Birmhigham 

Ainslie, William ^ Edinbiirgh 

Aitken, William .Edinburgh 

Albright, Henry ^, Liverpool 

Alderton, John Hastings 

Aldridge, Alexander J ohn Brighton 

Alexander, James Greenock 

AUanson, Charles Harrogate 

Allen, Thompson « «. .Boston 

Allen, Adam U Lymin^ton 

Alpass, Horace S Liverpool 

Althorp, James Stamford 

Amoore, Charles Hastings 

Amos, Daniel Canterbury 

Anderson, James Musselburgh 

Anderson, Charles Thomas Jersey 

Anderson, Duncan S ^ Edinburgh 

Andrew, William Aberdeen 

Andrews, John Betts Clare 

Andrews, Thomas William Cox Norwich 

*Anness, Samuel Bichard Ipswich 

Anthony, Jacob Bedford 

Appleby, William H Stockport 

Archer, Thomas Southam 

Argles, Henry Maidstone 

Arglcs, John Maidstone 

Armstrong, Henry Preston 

Arnold, Adolphus Guernsey 

Arnold, Edward Norwich 

Arthy, Joseph , Peterborough 

Ascough, Jesse Wolverhampton 

Ash, James Freer Wiveliscombe 

Ashton, John Swan Leicester 

Ashton, William Southport 

Aslin, John Sunderland 

Asling, Brelsford Spalding 

Astley, John ».. Coventry 

♦Atherton, John Henry Nottingham 

At k ins, Francis Thomas Woolwich 

Atk ins, Francis Thomas Deptford 

Atkins, Samuel Ralph Salisbury 

Atkinson, Bichard Marshall Leeds 

'Atkinson, Stephen Doncaster 

'Atkinson, Matthew Manchester 

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No. of I 







Attwood, George Brompton 

Aubin, James ^•••.Jersey 

Backhouse, William Leeds 

Badcock, John Barnard Castk 

Baildon, William * ^...Edinburgh 

Baildon, Henrj C. ...»«. Edinbargh 

Biuley, Richard Penrith 

Bailey, William ^ .Wolverhampton 

Bailey, Richard Windiester 

Baines, Richard ^...Blackburn 

Baker, William Chelmsford 

Baker, Charles Patrick Chelmsford 

Baker, William ^ Brentford 

Baker, William Retford 

♦Balkwill, Frederick Pryor Plymouth 

Ball, G-eorse Vincent ^ Banbury 

Ball, Joseph « Liverpool 

Ballard, William ^..Abingdon 

Ballard, Edwin Farnngdon 

Balls, George Deptford 

Bally, Edward F Bafdock 

Baly, Henry « Warwick 

Bancroft, John James ....- Ruthin 

Banfield, Harold ^ Bury St. Edmoadf 

Banks, Morris Birmingham 

Barber, Greorge • Liverpool 

Barclay, John «« Falmouth 

Barker, William Henry Biggleswade 

Barker, Joseph Suobury 

Barling, Thomas Weymouth 

Barlow, Samuel Darlington 

Barnes, James « ••••«.Preston 

Bamett, William ^....Brighton 

Bamish, Edwin H ^ Wigan 

Barritt, George Croydon 

Barron, AVilliam ^ ^....Cheltenham 

Barry, George ...^ Northampton 

Barry, Edwm ^ Northampton 

Barry, James Northampton 

Barstow, Charles H. Spoffbrth 

Barton, Henry Brighton 

Barton, Charles ...^...•.^..Brighton 

Barton, William ^ Campbeltown 

Bass, William Thomaa. Enfield ^ 

Bassett, Charles ^ •^..••^- Pontypridd 

Batchelor, Charles .^....Fareham 

Bateman, John Bird ...Manchester 

Bates, John Bicester 

Bath, Richard C Morice Town 

Battle, John Richard ^ Lincoln 

Baumborough, William Wandsworth 

Baxter^ William Walmisley Bromley 

Baynes, James ^ ••...Hull 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Year of 



No. of 


























365 , 









































Bajlis, Thomas Worcester 

Beach, Thomas Bridport 

Beadon, John Taunton 

Beard, James Manchester 

Beardslej, John Nottingham 

Beaumont, William H Gravesend 

Beckett, John Scarborough 

Beech, Joseph Atherstone 

Beesley, Henry Banbury 

Beesley, Thomas Banbury 

Bell,WiUiamD Leeds ' 

BeU, William Carlisle 

Bell, Edward C Dudley 

Bell, James Manchester 

Bell, Francis Bradford 

Bennet, William Bath 

Bennett, George Newark 

Bennett, John W Leigh, Lancashire 

Bentham, Thomas Southsea 

Beny, Henry James Worthing 

Bettison, Joseph Chesterfield 

Betts, George William Spalding 

Betts, John Woodbndgo 

Bevan, Charles F Harwich 

Bew, Robert Bilston 

Biggs, Robert Bath 

Bingley, Thomas Gyles Manchester 

Binns, Samuel Sheffield 

Binsley, James ]^dinburgh 

Birch, Thomas Edwards Mold 

Bird, Ash Rudd Ipswich 

Bird, Alfred Birmingham 

Bird, Charles Worcester 

Bishop, Robert Eye 

Bishop, Thomas Woolwich 

Black, James Leven 

Blacklock, Henry Bournemouth 

Blacklock, Joseph D Brighton 

Blackburn, Bailey Bradford 

Blades, Christopher Leek 

Blades, Holland Nantwich 

Blades, Sherrifi* Northwich 

Blackshaw, Thomas Burslem 

Blake, William F Stroud 

Blamires, Samuel Bradford 

Blanshard, George ...Edinburgh 

Blanshard, Thomas Edinbur^ 

Bland, John Handel Stourbndge 

Bloor, Joseph Derby 

Blunt, Thomas Shrewsbury 

Boast, Thomas Yorit 

Bolton, Thomas ..Tenterden 

Bond, Laurence y Tiverton 

Bond, John Great Yarmouth 

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Year Of 



No. of 




























































Bond, Charles Leaminjrton 

Bond, Jolin Minehei^ 

Boocock, John Leeds 

Boome, Charles Bristol 

Booth, James Blackburn 

Booth, Thomas Buckley Ecdes 

BooUi, John Heckmondwicke 

Booth, Aaron Manchester 

Booth, James Rochdale 

♦Booth, Henry Rochdale 

Booth, Nathaniel «^Rotherham 

Borland, John Kilmarnock 

Bostock, WiUiam Ashton-under-Lyne 

Botham, William Manchester 

Bottle, Alexander Dover 

Bowen, Henry F Rottingdean 

Bowers, Thomas Chester 

Bowers, James D Chester 

Bowerbank, Joseph Cockermouth 

Bowerbank, Fawcett Cockermouth 

Bowker, James Manchester 

Bowles, Charles A Chester 

Bowman, William York 

•Boyce, John Pierce Windsor 

Boyce, John Pierce Chertsey 

Braddock, William Oldham 

•Brady, Henry B Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bragg, William B Market Harborough 

BraQey, Charles Heavitree 

Bramwell, Greorge Liverpool 

Brandreth, John Preston 

Brandreth, Lawrence Preston 

Brayshay, William Bolam Stockton 

Brearey, William A ..Douglas 

Bremner, WilHam Thurso 

Brend, Thomas Swansea 

Brereton, John Manchester 

Breton, Walter Brighton 

♦Brevitt, William Y Wolverhampton 

Brew, Thomas Archer Brighton 

Brewster, William Cambri^ 

Brierley Richard Stalybridge 

Brim, James Tipton 

Bright, Philip Brecon 

Bright, William Bath 

Brimelow, Thomas Famworth 

Bromfield, William : Crewe 

Bromfield, Charles Exeter 

Bromley, Charles Liverpool 

Brothers, William Folkestone 

Brown, Charles Belper 

Brown, Thomas Dudley Coventry 

Brown, William ; Dunfermline 

Brown, John Eccles 

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Year of 













Brcrwn, David R. Edinburgh 

Brown, Thomeon Glasgow 

Brown, Alfred James ... , HaLstead 

Brown, Thomas.... «•.,. Lutterworth 

Brown, William Scott Manchester 

Brown, Greorge...; Selby 

Brown, Samuel Spilsby 

Brown, Thomas •«... '^Ideslej 

Bryant, William Huntingdon 

Brjce, James Dunfermline 

Buck, Richard C • Dudley 

BuUus, William ^„West Bromwich 

Bunn, Charles , Leiston 

Burden, John Durham 

Burdwood, James ^ Plymouth 

Burgess, William ^ Northwich 

Burnett, Robert Frazerburgh 

Bums, James Adam •»,...«, Stirling 

Burrell, George • .Montrose 

Burrow, Walter B ^.^.Great Malvern 

Burrow, John Severn ^ Great Malvern 

Bustin, William ^ ,Siotley Bridge 

Butcher, Thomas ...«. ...Chdtenham 

Butler, Samuel ^ ...Bristol 

Bnder, William Wycombe 

Btitler, Thomas E . . . .^ Leicester 

Butler, John S Liverpool 

Butterfield, James ML York 

Butterworth, Isaac • Ashton-under-Lyne 

Bwve, George ^, Cheshunt 

Gaddidc, John .«« Newcastle-undez^Lyiie 

Caley, Albert Janniui Norwich 

Calvert, Robert Stokesley 

Calvert, James ....Belper 

Campbell, Donald Glasgow 

Cami>bell, Edward D ...Sunderland 

Carmichael, Lauchlan ,^ Edinburgh 

Carr, William Leicester 

Carr, William Graham Berwick 

•Carran, Thomas Peel, Isle ot Man 

Carruthers, Richard Birrell Dumfries 

Cartwriffh t, William *........«•• Newcastle-unde^'Lyne 

Carter, William ' Manchester 

Cattle, James Liverpool 

Chamberlin, William Leicester 

Chantry, George ..Goole 

Chaplin, John liambert Colchester 

Chaplin, Alfred .......Brighton 

Chapman, Richard J. Chipping Ongar 

Chapman, Henry « Clifton 

Chapman, John Cook Congleton 

Chapman, Edward Hull 

Chapman, William Fox .« Hull 

Chapman, William • .Ipswich 

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Year of 














Chapman, Henry r....*. Ipswich 

Chapman, John Timg 

Chapman, William York 

Chater, Jonathan Watford 

Chaundy, Thomas G Oxford 

Chare, John Asst^ ^ Uxbridge 

Chenerj, William U. ..., ..Ipswich 

Childs, James L Southsea 

Chij^rfield, Robert Southampton 

*Ghn8fnn, William .^....^Bipon 

Christian, Francis Birmingham 

Christopher, William ....Crickhowell 

Churchul, John ,,.^ ••.... Birmingham 

Churchonse, William B Chard 

CUfcrtWilUam W. ^ ^ Dorking 

Glark, Bobert ^ Devizes 

Clarke, B^amin Joseph. Cheltenham 

Clarke, Wimam ....-...•«.^ Durham 

Clarke, John Webster.^ Leicester 

Clarke, William Longsight 

Clarke, Thomas Meadows Bichmond 

Clarke, Thomas ^.Somerton 

Clarke, Joseph ^ York 

Clater, Francis Betford 

Clay, Bobert Liverpool 

Clayton, John Oates Leeds 

Clennell, John Morton ^.Newcastle-on-l^^iie 

Clift, Joseph •^.«..- —..Dorking 

Clift, Edward ...««• • Lewisham 

•Coates, William Snaith 

Coates, JohnM Newcastle 

Cobb, John S Yarmouth 

Codirane, Thomas ' Falkirk 

Cock, John Shiodham 

Cocking, Greorge - -...Luolow 

Cockton, John • ^...Maryport 

Golbeck, Greorae Boyde ....Leanungton 

Cole, Walter Thomaa Weymouth 

Coleman, James Cardiff 

Collier, William Lindsey Beading 

Collier, William Sheffield 

Collier, William York 

CoUings, William Henry Bristol 

Colton^ Thomas *.Selby 

Commans, Bobert Dyer • Bath 

Conacher, David — Markinch 

Constable, Edwia. ..« Birkenhead 

Conway, William Pontypool 

Cooling, John ,. Newark 

Cooke, William Norwich 

Cooper, Mark Ward Bridlin^on 

Cooper, George Brown ....Bnghthngsea 

Cooper, James Bobert Birmingham . 

Cooper, James Newbury Clifton 

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Tear of 

No. of 







Cooper, George Exeter 

Cooper, Thomas Leicester 

Cooper, Lewis Reading 

Cooper, Thomas York 

Oorfield, Thomas J. T St. Day 

Cornelius. lEUchard Bussell Teignmouth 

Cornish, Henry Robert .Penzance 

Cornish, William Brighton 

Corrie, Charles BecGford 

Cortis, Charles Worthing 

Cottee, William Salford 

Cotterell, Wlliam Henry Dover 

Cotton, Gilbert Knill Barnstaple 

Coupland, Henry Liverpool 

Coupiand, Joseph Harrogate 

Cousins, Thomas George Oxford 

Coverley, John Scarborough 

OoweU, Silas Canterbury 

Cowgill, Brian Y Burnley 

CrafU>n, Ralph Caldwell Croydon 

Crarer, John Blairgourie 

Craske, Samuel Holt 

Crick, Greorge Edward Maldon 

Cripps, John Hammersmith 

Critchley, John Blackburn 

Crocker, Henry Radcliffe Brighton 

Crofts, Holmes Cheney Chatham 

Croley, William Edinburgh 

Cronsney, James Thetfora 

Crook, George Famham 

Cropper, James Long Sutton 

♦Cross, William Cardiff 

Cross, William Gower Shrewsbury 

Croskell, Charles York 

Crowder, Charles H Barton-on-Humber 

Cro?rther, Thomas Tickhill 

Cuff, Robert C Bristol 

Cumbers, John Wandsworth 

Cumine, Frederick H Southport 

Cupiss, Francis Diss 

Currie, John Glasgow 

Cuthbert, John Mason Bedford 

Cutting, James Bray Leamington 

Cuttinff, Thomas Selby 

Cutts, Thomas Basford 

Dale, George Chichester 

Dale, William James... Portsea 

Dance, William D Stourport 

Dandie, David Perth 

Dandie, Robert Perth 

Davenport, Edward.... St. Alban's 

Davidson, John Berwick 

Davidson, Charles Aberdeen 

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Year of 



j No.of I 




VOL. I. 




881 ; 

Davies, Richard Morgan Carmarthen 

Davies, Thomas Cheltenham 

Davies, John L Hay 

Davies, Peter Hughes March 

Davies, William Henry Pillgwinlly 

Davis, John Dorchester 

Davis, Robert Dorchester 

Davis, John Oliver Folkestone 

Davis, Richard Hay ton Harrogate 

Davis, D. Frederick Leominster 

Davis, Henry Leamington 

Davis, Francis Newbury 

Diivis, John Oliver, jun St. Leonards 

Davison, Ralph York ^ 

Davy, Henry Wiveliscombe 

Dawe, Sampson Monmouth 

Dawe, Sampson R. Swansea 

Dawson, Thomas \ Preston 

Day, George Blackheath 

D«3acon, G^rge F Beccles 

Dearlove, Thomas B Brackley 

Death, John William Brompton 

De Bois, Frederick Glasgow 

De Carle, Joseph Parkinson Modburv 

Deck, Arthur Cambridge 

Dennison, Matthew Dudley 

Densham, John B Plymouth 

Devvar, Peter James Dmffwall 

Dexter, James Eastbourne 

Dickerson, Henry Devonport 

Dickins, Rowland.. Aylesbury^ 

Dingley , Richard Loxley Evesham 

Dixon, Benjamin Norwich 

Dixon, Henry Ryde, Isle of Wight 

•Dixon, William Southampton 

Dobinson, William Sunderland 

Dobson, James Keswick 

Dobson, John Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Dodman, Robeit Thomev 

Dodshon, Edward Sunderland 

Done, John Manchester 

Dores, James .r Alnwick 

Doubell, James Rayleigh 

Doughty, Richard Bushey 

Dowell, William Cuming Bristol 

Dowman, Greorge Southampton 

Down, Richard Haydon Torpoint 

Downes, Joseph Romford 

Downing, Joseph Braintree 

Dowthwaite, William Bamet 

Drage, William F Birmingham 

Dresser, Richard York 

Drew, John Pershore 


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Year of 

No. of 






























































Dron, William Kirkcaldy 

Duck, Daniel Guisborouffh 

Dudden, Richard M Midsomer i^orton 

*DudgeoD, George Nottingham 

Duggan, Henry Hereford 

Duncan, William Rothesay 

Duncan, John Edinburgh 

Duncan, Frederick MacRae Sandwich 

Dunhill, William Doncaster 

Duprey, Jean A. B Jersejr 

Durant, Frederick Dorking 

Durant, Edmund Dorking 

Dutton, John Birkenhead 

Dutton, George Bolton 

Dyer, John Margate 

Dyer, Thomas Exeter 

Dyer, William Halifax 

Dykes, Thomas Worcester 

Dyson, John Andover 

Eastes, Thomas Henley Dover 

Edgar, James Henley-on-Thames 

Edmonds, BeniaminM Lowestoft 

Edmonson, John Preston 

Edwards, George Dartford 

Edwards, William Denbigh 

Edwards, James Leicester 

Edwards, Heniy Lincoln 

^Edwards, John Baker Liverpool 

Edwards, William Sidmouth 

Ekins, William Huntingdon 

Eliott, Samuel Liskeara 

EUaby, John Melton Mowbn^ 

Ellis, Benjamin Shepton Mallett 

Ellis, William Abergele 

Ellis, Richard Thombury 

Ellison, John Liverpool 

Ellwood, William Dubhn 

Elsey, John Homcastle 

*Elsey, Charles Market Rasen 

Ely, George Bingham 

♦England, William Paul Huddersfield 

Ereaut, John Jersey 

Ereaut, George Jersey 

Evans, Evan Aberavon 

Evans, Thomas Aberdare 

Evans, Samuel Caerphilly 

Evans, William Luke Cardiff 

Evans, John Hemel Hempstead 

Evans, Thomas Liverpool 

Evans, Edward Liverpool 

Evans, Henry S Liverpool 

Evans, Thomas B Liverpool 

Evans, John Narberth 

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Year of 




No. of 






Evans, Waiiam Downing Newport, Monmoath 

Eyre, Alfred B Ipswich 

Eyre, Tliomas S Launceston 

Fairbank, James Hack Woolwich 

Fairbarn, Creorge Liveq)ool 

Fairiey, Thomas Sunderland 

Fairweather, John Newcastle 

Falkner, Richard Banburj 

Fane, Gilbert Bridge of Allan 

Farmer, John Putney 

Farmer, James Castle Donington 

Faxnworth, William Blackburn 

Farrage, Robert Rothbury 

Farrant, Henry Ottery St. Mary 

Farrant, Robert Salisbury 

I Farrant, John G Brentford 

Fairer, John Daniel Chester 

Farrow, William Wobum 

FergusBon, John Liverpool 

Fielder, Thomas Warminster 

Finch, John Cheltenham 

Finlayson, Thomas Leith 

Fisher, William Henrjr Edinburgh 

Fisher, John Thornhill Torquay 

*Fi8ber, Henry Christopher Ton^uay 

Fiske, Charles Ipswich 

Fitch, Robert Norwich 

Fitt, Edward Barking 

Fleeming, William Wolvernampton 

Fletcher, Francis Cheltenham 

Flockhart, William Bdinburgh 

Flower, Thomas S Matlock-Bath 

Foggitt, Thomas Jackson Thirsk 

Forbes, William Reiffate 

*Forge, Christopher Bridlington 

Forman, Greorge Birmingham 

Forrest, Richard William Gainsborough 

FoTster, John Whitdiaven 

Forster, John Sunderland 

Forster, Robert Dover 

Forsyth, William Aberdeen 

Foster, Frederick. Brighton 

Foster, Alfred Hood Birmingham 

Foster, Joseph CoUumpton 

Foster, James Fawcett Hull 

Foster, Edward Ludlow 

Foster, George Pitt Tetbury 

Foster, John Uckfield 

Foulds, William Chowbent 

Fowke, George StaflFord 

Fowler, Edward Bedale 

Fowler, Henry Torrington 

Fox, Charles Jamea. Witney 

7 2 

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Year of 

No. of 

























































1841 i 





Foxcroft, Elijah Skipton 

Francis, George Great Baddow 

Franks, Alfred Ramsgate 

Fraser, Charles Largs 

Frazer, Daniel Glasgow 

Freeland, John Barriiead 

Freestone, Thomas Morris Bristol 

French, Grabriel Chatham 

French, Joseph B Williamstown, Victoria 

Fresson, Lewis Francis Stevenage 

Frost, William Henry CoUumpton 

Fryer, Henry Huddersfield 

Funnell, William Henry Brighton 

Furmston, Samuel C Ash 

Gall, Benjamin D Woodbridge 

^Gkunble, Itichard Grantham 

Gammidge, Samuel Leicester 

Garbutt, Cornelius Gateshead 

Garbutt, Cornelius D Gateshead 

Gardener, Charles Tunbridge Well^ 

Gardner, James Edinburgh 

Garland, William Leeds 

I GarUck, Thomas H Halifax 

Garlick, John Hollinwood 

Garnett, Joseph Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Gamham, Barrinston Brighton 

Garratt, John CoTpman Rugby 

Ghirratt, Samuel Rugby 

Garside, Burdett F Southport 

Gay, George Stroud 

Geake, John St. Columb 

Geldard, John St. Austell 

Geldard, Rich ard Kelly Plymouth 

Gerrard, Joseph Longton 

Gibbons, William Plymouth 

Gibbs, WiUiam Ryde 

Gilbert, George Fortsea 

♦Giles, Richard William Clifton 

Giles, Richard Bobbet Clifton 

Gill, Samuel Pendleton 

Gill, William Tavistock 

Gillman, Thomas Rice Newport, Monmouth 

Gilkes, WiUiam Leominster 

Gissing, Thomas W Wakefield 

Glaisby, John York 

Glaisver, Thomas Brighton 

Glanneld, Geor^ Torquay 

Glasier, Samuel Manchester 

♦Glass, JohnT Cheltenham 

Glew, William Selby 

Glover, Samuel Liverpool 

Gloyne, Thomas Hadfield Dewsbuiy 

Glyde, John William Bkndford 

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Year of 


No. of 








Goadsby, Thomas Manchester 

Goddard, Joseph Leicester 

Goodall, Thomas Ensham 

Goodall, Henry , Derby 

Goode, Thomas Congleton 

Goode, Charles Consleton 

Goodrich, George Dursley 

^Goodwin, John Lower Clapton 

Gordelier, Paul William Gibbs Sittingbourne 

Gordon, John Edinburgh 

Goss, Samuel • Barnstaple 

Gostling, Thomas F Diss 

Gould, Frederick •..»... Eineston-on-Thamefl 

Govan, Alexander • St. Andrews 

Gow, Alexander Wolverhampton 

Granger, Edwin John • Upper Clapton 

Gray, Alexander F, Edinburgh 

Gray, John Cupar ^gus 

Gray, William ^ Rothwell 

Gray, Charles Bilston 

Greaves, Abraham Ironville 

Greaves, John •«... Bakewell 

Greaves, Hichard Ripon . -* 

Green, Robert Poynton •.* Witham 

Green, George «. Selby 

Green, John Birkenhead ' 

Green, William M Liverpool 

Green, William Bath 

Green, James Droitwich 

Greenoueh, George Manchester 

GreenweU, William C Gateshead 

Greenwood, John Harrogate 

Gregory, Edward James.... Cheltenham 

Greig, William Glasgow 

Griffith, Robert Carnarvon 

Griffith, Charles Weston-super-Mare 

Griffith, Richard Slough 

Griffiths, John Mandiester 

Griffiths, John Narberth 

Griffiths, William Swansea 

•Grindley, Robert D Chester 

Groom, William Bishop Liverpool 

Grounds, George Fielu Bishop Stortford 

Grounds, Ambrose Ludlow 

Groves, Wellington E Blandford 

Groves, Thomas Bennett Weymouth 

Groves, Edward Hammersmith 

Grundy, Edwin Lenton 

Gudgen, George B KimboUon 

Gulliver, Walker Job Lutterworth 

Gundry, William Bristol 

Gunner, George Winchester 

Gumell, Thomas Dartford 

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Tear of 




No. of 






Guy, Guy Hebtone 

Gwatkin, James Thomas Brighton 

Gwillim, John Cole Newport, Monmouth 

Hadfield, John Congleton 

Hadfield, William Congleton 

Hadfield, William P Newark 

Hajgh, Joseph Leeds 

Haines, John Jenkins Bromsgrove 

Hains, Parton John Hishgate 

Hall, Joseph Salford 

Hall, Thomas „ Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Hall, Richard Brecon 

Hall, Robert Camborne 

Hall, John Richard Canterbury 

Hall, Thomas Grantham 

Hall, George Huddersfield 

Hall, Henry R. F Hull 

Hallaway, John , Carlisle 

Hallsworth, Thomas Manchester 

Ham, Charles H Exeter 

Ham, John .Nether Stow^ 

Hambrook, Odden Dover 

Hambrook, John B Dover 

Hamilton, Julius Poole 

Hamilton, John T Dublin 

Hammon, Richard Folkestone 

Handler, John Wakefield 

Hannell, Edward W Rugby 

Hardie, James Dundee 

Harding, James John Sudbury 

Hardman, Thomas B Liverpool 

Hare, Josiah William Harleston 

Hargreaves, Henry L Oldham 

Harold, William Battle 

Harper, Henry Leamington 

Harriugton, Richard B Honiton 

Harrington, Arthur Rochford 

Harris, William Harry Northampton 

Harrison, Thomas Leeds 

Harrison, Thomas Bradford 

Harrison, James Parker Carlisle 

Harrison, John Nottingham 

.Harsant, William Epsom 

Hart, James Bolton 

Hart, Hugh Glasgow 

Hart, George William Hull 

Hartland, James Bristol 

Hartley, Robert Manchester 

Hartshorn, William H Ironbridge 

Harvey, Thomas Leeds 

Harvey, John Newark 

Harwood, John Putney 

Haselar, Albert Cranbrook 

Hatrick, Robert Paisley 

Hatrick, William Paisley 

Digitized ByCjOOglC 



Taw of 














Hatfull, Bobert 

EktteFsley, John 

Hawkins, Henry Ford 

Hawxby, Thomas 

Haydon, Frederick Walter.. 

*Hay6s, James 

Hayman, Alfred 

Hayward, Samuel H 

Hayward, William G 

Hayward, Edward 

Hayward, Charles 

Hazdl, Robert W 

Head, John 

Headley, Morris 

Heald, William 

Heath, Edward 

Heaihcote, Thomas Sari 

Heaton, John Scholes 

Heelas, Henry Martyn 

Hellowell, Daniel 

Helmrich, William 

Homing, Robert 

Heming, Richard George .. 

Hempsted, Robert 

Henderson, John 

Henley, Henry 

Ilenshall, John 

Hensleigh, Henry.. 

Henson, Matthew 

Henthom, Joshua < 

Herincton, Joseoh 

Hem, William H enry 

Hewett, William Henry 

Howlins, Edward 

Hibbert, Walter 

Hiok, Matthew Bussey 

Hick, Allan 

Hick, Joseph 

Hickman, Joseph Frederick 

Hicks, Robert 

Hicks, Greorge 

Hifley, Richard James 

Higgiss, Thomas S 

Higgins, William 

Higgs, John Seagravc 

Highway, Henry 

Higbway, iienry 

Hill, Charles WilUam 

Hill, Richard 

Hill, Thomas 

Hill, William 

Hill, Simon 

Hill, John 

H^nchdifie, Fenrand G. U. 

IHncks, Thomas R 

Hinds, James 

. . Barton- on-Humber 
..Great Warley, Essex 
..Neath . 

..Bridlington Quay 

. . Newcastle-ander^Lyne 

..St. Leonards 
.i Glasgow 
..Lyme Regis 

..Leighton Buzzard 
..St. Austell 
..Great Yarmouth 

..Market Harborough 

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tear of 


























































No. of 








Hine, Alfred ....BeamiiiBter 

Ilinffston, Andrew H Liyerpool 

Hipkins, Matthew Birmin^hiim 

Hitchcock, Charles Kdmund Colchester 

Hitchcock, William Richards Taunton 

Hobson, Charles Bererlej 

Hodder, Henry Bristol 

Hoddy, Beniamin Halstead 

Hodgeton, David Brechin 

Hodgson, Edward Stockton 

Hodkinson, Henry Macclesfield 

Hogg, Henry Bristol 

Hogff, Thomas Bideford 

Holden, Richard York 

Holdsworth, Thomas W Birmingham 

Holland, William Market Deeping 

HoUier, Elliott Dudley 

Holt, George Palmer Dexley Heath 

Holt, lUchard Wylde Seacombe 

Hooker, Thomas E Wellington 

Hooper, Henry Brighton 

Hopper, Richard Sunderland 

Hopwood, Henry J . S Richmond, Surrey 

Homcastle, Henry Sheffield 

Homer, Stephen Hartlepool 

Homsby, John Harwood Odiham 

Homsby, George G Cheltenham 

Horsey, James Portsea 

Houghton, James Liverpool 

Houshton, Thomas Oxford 

Houlton, James Wethcrby 

Howard, Robert Stcatford-le-Bow 

Howard, John Eliot Stratford-le- Bow 

Howard, Richard Tunbridge Wells 

Howard, John Manchester 

Howman, Philip Winchcombe 

Howorth, James Doncaster 

Howson, Thomas J Gateshead 

Howson, Thomas B Oxford 

Hubbard, Robert W Kenilworth 

Hudson, Richard Kendal 

Huggins, George Thomas Bamet 

Hughes, Edward Altrincham 

Hughes, Samuel Stourbridffe 

Hulbert, Robert Skeat Basin^toke 

Hulme, John Hughes Norwich 

Hulme, Thomas Oldham 

Humphreys, Matthew Nottingham 

Humphreys, Thomas Birmingham 

Hunt, Henry Wandsworth 

Hunt, Thomas Luton 

*Hunt, Richard ..Andover 

Hunter, David Edinburgh 

Hunter, John .....Gosport 

Huntley, John Wimbome 

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Tew of 


No. of 1 








Hurdon, James Appledore 

Hurman, John Briagewater 

Hurst, William T. H Hempstead 

Hunt, John l..Loutn 

Hu8band,|Matthew Exeter 

Biffe, Thomas Nuneaton 

Ingham, Henry Wellingore 

Ingham* Richard H Manchester 

Isaac, Georee Washington Bristol 

Iverach, Wmiam Kirkwall 

Jaap, John Glasffow 

Jackson, William George Haruepool 

Jackson, Thomas Manchester 

Jackson, William Stowmarket 

Jackson, Henry Liverpool 

Jackson, Clay Chesteriield 

Jackson, Edmund Lancaster 

James, John Truro 

James, John Parry Cardiff 

James, Henry Bognor 

Jameson, Walter C Bath 

Jefferson, Peter Leeds 

Jeffery, Russell Cheltenham 

Jeffery, Moses Williams Devonport 

Jenkins, Henry Maine Christchurch 

Jenkins, John Peterchurch 

Jenner, William M Sandgate 

Jennings, John Edgell Southampton 

Jennings, William Halifax 

Jennings, Reginald Hereford 

Jennings, John £. H Sheffield 

Jessop, Jonathan Halifax 

Jobson, William Dundee 

Johnson, George Birmingham 

Johnson, Thomas Leek 

Johnson, John H Liverpool 

Johnson, John B Uttoxeter 

*Johnson, Samuel Liverpool 

Jones, John Aberdare 

Jones, Charles Birkenhead 

Jones, Edward Bowen Carmarthen 

Jones, Charles Hanley 

Jones, William Hastings 

Jones, John Holywdl 

Jones, William B Kingston-on-Thames 

Jones, Samuel Urwidc Leamington 

Jones, Owen Lewis « Liverpool 

Jones, William Liverpool 

Jones, Humphrey Llangollen 

Jones, David Narl^rth 

Jones, Thomas J... • Newport 

Jones, Ellis Powell Rhyl 

Jones, James Saiford 

Jones, William Thorpe Southwell 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



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No. of 








Jones, Oliver Ellis Welshpool 

Jones, Thomas Welshpool 

•Joy, Francis William Cardiff 

Judson, Thomas :Ripon 

Judd, William Hertford 

Jull, Thomas Horsham 

Keall, Powell Skinner Bristol 

KeeUng, Greorge Batdifie Epsom 

Keene, Alfred Leamington 

Keith, James Aberdeen 

Kemp, David Portobello 

Kemp, Grover Brighton 

Kemp, John ^...iBrighton 

*Kenu>, William Horncastle 

Kendall, Frederiek .43tratford-on-Avon 

Kendall, George Masham 

Kennedy, William Glasgow 

Kent, Alfred Basingstoke 

Ker, Tliomas Foster Manchester 

Ker, Thomas Edinburgh 

Kemick, Samuel Penrose Cardiff 

Kemot, Joseph Naples 

Kemot, Septimns .'Naples 

Kershaw, James 'Southport 

Kiddy, Samuel Belper 

Kimbell, Henry Knowle 

fiinch, Charles Henley-on-Thames 

Kinder, John Glossop 

King, Joseph Raymond .Bath 

King, William George Market Drayton 

King, Thomas Simm<ms Rochester 

King, William ....• Soham 

King, Charles Montague ;Southend 

King, Ellis Southend 

'Kinninmont, Alexander Glasgow 

Kirk, John Mai£tone 

Kirk, Charles ^ Hartley Row 

Kirk, Thomas ...^ Liverpool 

Kirkbride, William Penrith 

Kirkman, Georse B Plymouth 

Kitching, Charles Haverhill 

Knapman, John Exeter 

Knight, Joseph Bath 

Knight, Edward Sackville Bridport 

Knight, John Cambridge 

^Knott, Thomas Exeter 

Knowles, Ridiard John Demerara 

Knowles, John J Sandwich 

Laen, William PemT>roke Dock 

Laird, William Dundee 

Lamotte, Thomas Gallye Bristol 

Laneaster, Henry Croydon 

Lane, Joseph Hampstead 

Langford, William King^s Lynn 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 













Langnum, Peter 

Lansdak, Ralph 

Larse, Henry 

Lasham, John 

Lathbunr, Robert 

Layers, Thomas Howard .. 

Law, William 

Lea, Henry Clatrmont 

Lea, Samuel 

Lea, John Wheeley 

«Lea, Charles Wheeley 

Leach, J(^n 

Leadbetter, William Austin 

'Leay, Joseph 

Le^ffett, John Tudway 

Lei^ton, John H 

Leith, James , 

Lever, William 

Lewtn, Edwin 

Lewin, William ; 

Lewis, Thomas y 

Lewis, Thomas Cooper 

Lidington, George »...;. 

Ltmon, Henry 

Lindsay, Robert 

Lingwood, James Grace 

Lines, George 

Linsley, Thomas 

Lister, George 

Littlefield, James *Wayell .. 

Lloyd, Ecbnnnd 

Lloyd, Henry 

Lloyd, Henry 

Lock, William 

Lo<^yer, Greorge 

Lofthonse, James 

Logan, Richard 

Loggin, Charles Frederi<^ .. 

Long, William Elliot 

Long, Henry 

Longfield, Joseph 














..Melton Mowbray 








..Ebbw Vale 









. .Ventnor, Isle of Wight 








. .Stratford-on- Atod 




Lord, Charles 

Loveitt, George 

'Loveridge, Thomas . 

Lorett, John 

Lowe, Thomas 

Lowndes, Henrey.... 

Loye, PhiUp 

•Luff, WiUiam 

Lumsden, James .... 
Lupton, Tliomas .... 
Lynch, J<^R. ... 




..Merthyr Tydfil 









Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Tear of 




No. of 








Mabeon, William Great Yannouth 

Macfiirlan, John F Edinburgh 

Macfarlane, Wardlaw Edmburgh 

McDiarmid, John B Deal 

McGregor, Andrew Glasgow 

McGuffie, John R Liverpool 

Mackaj, John Edinburgh 

Mackenzie, Duncan Edinburgh 

Mackintosh, Archibald Rothesaj 

Mackintosh, James Galashiels 

Maddock, William Tunbridge Wells 

Madge, James Devizes 

♦Maggs, Samuel Blount St. Leonards 

Magffs, Thomas C Yeovil 

Maleham, Henry Sheffield 

Maling, William Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Manfield, John W Salford 

Manifold, John J Weaverham 

Manthorp, Samuel Colchester 

March, William Newark 

Marder, John J. W Lyme Regis 

Maries, Henry Davies Watford 

Marks, George Bradford-on-Avon 

Marks, Edward L Swansea 

Marlor, Jabez Lees, near Oldham 

Marnson, Geoxge O. R Tasmania [dale 

Marsden, Joseph Middleton*on-Tee8- 

Marsh, William M Sevenoaks 

Marshall John F Gwnsborough 

Marshall, Robert Boston 

Marshall, James A Waltham Abbey 

Marston, Richard Ludlow 

Martin, John Bristol 

Martin, Edward W Guildford 

Martin, Thomas Lewes 

Martin, Thomas Liverpool 

Martin, Henry G St. Albans 

Martyn, John Jones Brighton 

Massey, Joseph Oldham 

Mason, Joseph W Cirencester 

Mason, William W Manchester 

Mason, William Hastings 

Mather, William Manchester 

Maunder, Alexander Weston-super-Mare 

Maunder, Frederick Sheffield 

Mawson, John Newcastle-on-l^ne 

May, Enoch Tewkesbury 

Maynard, Robert H Brandon 

Mays, Robert James John Souih Shields 

Meadows, John Leicester 

Mease, Solomon North Shields 

Mease, Robert D North Shields 

Meatyard, Robert Basingstoke 

Medd, Joseph Gloucester 

Medcalf, Benjamin Ware 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





Bhlp . 
























































No. of 








Medcalf, Ebenezer Lower Tooting 

Medley, William Derby 

MedwiD, Aaron ..Blackheath 

Meredith, Edwin Richard Bristol 

Merrick, Thomas J Northampton 

Merr3rweather, Charles Leicester 

♦Metcalfe, Christopher L Hull 

Michell, John A Falmouth 

Michell, Frederic Ilampstead 

Millais, Thomas Jersey 

Miller, Jeptha Safiron Walden 

Miller, Charles Oxford 

Miller, Robert P Reading 

Miller, William Henry Sheffield 

Miller, John Thomas Sheffield 

Mills, James Arthur Dereham East 

Mills, Robert Mason Bourne 

Mitchell, John Manchester 

Mitchell, Thomas Sunderland 

Mole, William Tingey St. Neoto 

Monro, Henry L Gateshead 

Moor, Joseph Hull 

Moore, John Blackpool 

Moore, R. C Brighton 

Mordaunt, Alfred Southampton 

♦Mordaunt, John Tunbridge Wells 

Morgan^ William Pillgwinlly 

Morris, Alfred Philip Stourbridge 

*Morse, George Mortlake 

Morton, John Durham 

*Morton, Jameson Ramsbottom 

Morton, Henry Ramsffate 

Morton, George Stratford-le-Bow 

Moss, William Carlisle 

Mount, William Canterbury 

Mount, John Manchester 

Mousley, William Redditch 

Mullett, Charles Bminster 

Mumbray, Robert George Manchester 

Mumby, Charles / Gosport 

Munday , Edward Smith Worthing 

Mundy, William Melksham 

Murdoch, David Falkirk 

Murdoch, William Glasgow 

Murdoch, George Glasgow 

Murdoch, James Glasgow 

Muriel, Harry Brooke Brighton 

Muskett, Charles DeAy 

Muskett, James Harleston 

Musson, Telemachus G Birmingham 

Napier, James Edinburgh 

Narracott, Henry Torquay 

Naftel, Thomas S Guernsey 

Needham, Slater Leicester 

♦Negus, Samuel Northampton 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Tear of 



No. of 






Newbery, Henry Biggleswade 

Newby, William Henry Perth 

Newcome, John Grantham 

Newman, Robert Bewdley 

Newman, Thomas Hartley Row 

Newman, Walter F Falmouth 

Newton, George Newcastle 

Newton, Christopher Edinburgh 

Niblett, John Stroud 

Nicol, George Pulteney Town 

Nicholas, John Narberth 

Nicholls, James Stourbridge 

Nightingale, Henry L Egham 

Nind, George Wandsworth 

Nix, John K Billericay 

Noakes, Richard Brighton 

Noble, Alexander Bdmbureh 

Northcroft, Jonathan Plymout-h 

Norwood, Thomas Hastings 

Oakey , Joseph Malpas Preston 

Oliver, John Liverpool 

Orange, John Portsea 

Otter, William Bloxham 

OverbTiry, Henry Alcester 

Owen, Griffith Caernarvon 

Owen, William Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Owles, James Bungay 

Owles, John Yarmouth 

Paine, William Canterbury 

Palk, Edward Southampton 

♦Palk, John Exeter 

Palmer, Charles F Birmingham 

Palmer, Henry Birmingham 

Palmer, Faithful Cheltenham - 

Pabner, Thomas J East Grmstead 

Parker, Edward Carlisle 

Parker, Frederick Derb;r 

Parker, John Binmngham 

Parker, Matthew Bath 

Parker, William Henry Nottingham 

Parker, Thomas Halifax 

Parkes, Joseph Atherstone 

Parkes, Thomas Woolwich 

Parkes, John C. ..< Woolwich 

*Parkes, John P Manchester 

Parkinson, Thomas ..Liverpool 

Parkinson, Robert Bradford 

♦Pamell, John Peterborough 

Parsons, Thomas Leicester 

Parsons, William Portsmouth 

Parton, Joseph Nantwich 

Pasmore, George Portsmouth 

Pate, Henry Thomas Ely 

Paterson, William Aberdeen 

Patterson, George Stamford 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Tew of 

No. of 










•Patterson, Dougks Jolm Mansfield 

Pattinson, Richard John .....Carlisle 

Paul, Horace Halsted 

•Paulden, William Altrincham 

Payne, Reuben Craven JBridgewater 

Peake, Henry Dover 

Peake, James Walmer 

Pearce, Thomas Gloucester 

Pearless, John East Grinstead 

Pearman, Henry Stourbridge 

Pearson, Charles James Loughor 

Pearson, Edward Liverpool 

Peart, David Ewelf 

Peat, Walter Fareham 

Peatson, Henry Robert Salford 

Pegg> Herbert Birmingham 

Penney, William Poole 

Penrice, Joseph Workington 

Peppercorn, Benjamin Lincoln 

Perfect, George Portsea 

Perrins, William Worcester 

Perry, Solomon • Tavistock 

Pertwee, Edward Romford 

Pertwee, Alfred R Chelmsford 

Phillips, John Birmingham 

Phillips, Edward James Newport, Monmouth 

«?MvP^'i?.ll? -a;; Newport, Monmouth 

Phillips, Wdliam Thomas Carmarthen 

Philpott, John .Bromyard 

Pickering, Henry T^icester 

Pickering, Atkinson Hull 

Pickup, Thomas Hartley Blackburn 

Pickup, John Manchester 

Pickup, Varev Salford 

Picnot, Charles Strood 

•Pidduck, John Brompton 

Pidgeon, Henry , Shrewsbury 

Pidgeon, John Taunton 

Pierce, Edward Lloyd.. Shelton 

Pilley, Samuel Boston 

Pilley, John Boston 

Piquet, John Jersey 

Pissey, William Rayleiffh 

Ktts, Robert Christopher NorwiSi 

Place, William Thomas Wakefield 

Player, Edmund Bristol 

Plomley, James Foulis Rye 

Pocklington, James Sydenham 

Pollard, William J Nailsea 

Pouting, Thomas Cadby Bristol 

Pooley, John Carpenter Bath 

Porter, William Henry Rochester 

Portway, John Bury St. Edmnndf 

Potts, Thomas Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Poulton, John Newton Abbott 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Year of 




No. of I 








Powell, Frederick W Leith 

Powell, John Shaftesbury 

Powell, Edward Winchester 

Power, Edward Walton-on-Thames 

Pratt, John Chichester 

Pratt, John Bradford 

Pratt, Richard Munton Otley 

Priestlay, Henry Pontefract 

Priestley, John Henry IdTerpool 

Prince, Henry Taunton 

•Pring, Walter Taunton 

Prior, Georp; T Oxford 

Prockter, Bichard Edgcutnbe Cheltenham 

♦Procter, William Liverpool 

Procter, Joseph Barnard Castle 

Proctor, William Newcastle 

Proctor, William B Newcastle 

Proctor, Barnard S Newcastle 

Prosser, Thomas Evan Woodstock 

*Prott, William, jun Huntley 

Prout, Robert Milton Abbott 

Prowse, Charles Bristol 

Pryer, William Symes Axminst€r 

Pullin, Edwin Northampton 

Purdue, Thomas Witney 

*Pyne, Joseph J Manchester 

Quine, James Douglas, Isle of Man 

Radford, Isaiah C Devonport 

Radley, William Valentine Sheffield 

Rae, James Chicago, U.S. 

Raimes, Richard ...Edinburgh 

Rait, Robert C Partick 

Ralfs, Henry Charles Brentford 

Ramsey, Henry P Ashford 

Ramskill, Parson Leeds 

Rand all , Edward Mayor Southampton 

Randall, William Brodribb So uthampton 

Randall, Thomas Wareham 

Raudleson, William Whitehaven 

Ranken, James Anderson Forfar 

Rankin, William Kilmarnock 

Ransford, Samuel Cleveden 

Ransom, William Hitchin 

Ransome, Thomas Manchester 

Rastrick, George T Geelong 

Rastrick, William Henry Portsea 

Rastrick, Joseph Linington Southsea. 

Rastrick, John Alfred Woolwich 

Raw, John Preston 

Rawdin, Joseph Jedburgh 

Rayner, John Nottingham 

Rayner, John Uxbridge 

Reading, Robert Grant Warwii 

Readman, William Leighton Buzzard 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






No. of 







Redfon, John Ashbj-de-la-Zouch 

Redmayne, Ofarifltopber Warrington 

Rees, William Henry Dartmouth 

•Rdd, David Aberdeen 

Reid, John Montrose 

Reid, Neil Perth 

Reillr, William Charles Uampitead 

Reinbardt, Jobaan Christian Hull 

Remhardt, George Leeds 

Rendall, John M. Torquay 

Reynolds, William Halesworth 

R^olds, Richard Leeds 

^Rhodes, Frank Wycombe 

Rhodes, James Manchester 

Rich, Thomas Weston-super-Mare 

^Richards, William Falmouth 

Richardson, Allen Manchester 

Richmond, Robert Leighton Buzzard 

Rimminffton, Felix U Bradford 

Ritson, John George Sunderland 

Ritson, Thomas Sunderland 

Roberton, James Manchester 

Roberts, Thomas A Conway 

Roberts, Griffiths J Holyhead 

Roberts, Charles Westbury 

Roberts, Albinus St. Albans 

Roberts, Edwin Liverpool 

Roberts, Peter Denbigh 

Robertson, James Edinburgh 

"Robertson, Thomas Berkley Cullen 

Robinson, Levi Alford 

Robinson, James Mowld Beverley 

Robinson, Ralph Durham 

Robinson, Charles S Hammersmith 

Robinson, Benjamin Pendleton 

Robinson, James Nottingham 

Robson, Thomas Brighton 

Robson, Georae Durham 

Rodgerson, 'mlliam Liverpool 

Roe, Septimus Salisbury 

Roe, Thomas Ollerton 

Rogers, John Robinson Honiton 

Rogers, William Maidstone 

Rogers, John Ledbury 

Rogerson, Michael Bradford 

Rome, Robert M Langholm 

Rook, Edward Sittingboume 

Rooker, Abel ..; Chepstow 

Roose, Robert Ruthin 

Ross, Stephen Lancaster 

Row, Charles Devonport 

Rowe, John Plymouth 

Rowlands, Thomas Spping 

Rowlands, William S Uevizes 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






No. of 









Ruffb, Frederick Tamworth 

Russell Thomas South Shields 

Russell, Charles J. L. •••Windsor 

Rust, James Harwich 

Rutherford, Thomas H Seaham Harbour 

Sasar, Henry Leeds 

Safisbury, John • Sheffield 

Salisbury, William Bryan Leicester 

Sanders, Henry WotUm Briatoi 

Sandiland, Robert B Bicester 

Sangster, John ...Aberdeen 

Satterley, William B (ruenisey 

Saunders, David Price Hayerfordwest 

Saunders, George J Oswestry 

Savage, William Dawson Brighton 

Sawer, William Stroud 

Sawyer, Thomas • Ramssate 

Sawrer, James CarliiSe 

Saxby, Henry Lewes 

Scarrow, William Sunderland 

Schacht, Frederick George. - Clifton 

Scholcfield, George Birkenhead 

Scott, Edward , Birmingham 

Scott, George Bury St. Edmunds 

Searby, William M Norwich 

Seath, Alexander .•• Dunfermline 

Seaton, John Love Hull 

Seaton, George Chelmsford 

Selfe, Isaac Bristol 

Sessions, Joseph James Godalming 

Severs, Joseph Kendal 

Sewell, James C Sheffield 

Sewell, John Holmes Swindon 

Seyde,JohnF ^ WiUenhall 

Shackel, John Well Maidenhead 

Shadford, Major ...•• Spalding 

Sharland, Edmund T ^stol 

Sharp, Benjamin Warrington 

Sharp, Henry • Christchurch 

Sharpe, Joseph JSalford 

Sharpies, William •••Pteston 

Sharpies, George Preston 

Shattock, John Taunton 

Shaw, John •..«•• «. Liverpool 

Shaw, Alexander Henry Stockport 

Shenstone, James &• ...Colchester 

Shepherd, James • Aberdeen 

Shepherd, George Prentis Guildford 

Shepperley, James ••Nottingham 

Shield, Spooner Liverpool 

ShiUcock, Joseph Bradley Bromley, Kent 

Shum, Henry Swansea 

Sidebottom, William New Mills 

Silvester, Joseph Knutsford 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





1853 I 

1842 > 

1842 ; 

1853 I 











1859 454 





1853 169 







1856 416 




1843 31 



I Sim, James Aberdeen 

I Simonds, Wiliiam Boston 

I Simpson, John Hull 

I Simpson, Thomas Stowmarket 

i Sinclair, William Aberdeen 

Sinoock, William Andover 

Sircom, Richard Bristol 

Sirett, George Bnckingham 

Slater^ William Boooock Blackburn 

Slayter, George Reading 

I Smale,- William Oswestry 

Smale, Richard Bill Oswestry 

Smallwood, John Wright MacclesHeld 

Smart, Nevill Littlebampton 

*Smeeton, Edward Leeds 

Smeeton, William Ironbridge 

Smethurst, Richard L Salford 

Smith, John Aberdeen 

^Smith, William Abinffdon 

Smith, William Bridhngton 

Smith, William Brighton 

Smith, Nathaniel Chdtenham 

Smith, Hiomas Colchester 

Smith, Henry Eccleshall 

*8mith, Thomas Edinburgh 

Smith, Henry Edinburgh 

Smith, James 8. T. W Haltwhistle 

♦Smith, Thomas J Hull 

Smith, Josias Hyde 

Smith, William North Shields 

Smith, William St. Andrews 

Smith, John , Southampton 

Smith, William Sutton Coldfield 

Smith, Alfred Tenterden 

Smith, James Russell Woodbridge 

Smith, William Woolwich 

Smyth, Walter Merthyr Tydvil 

Snape, Edward • Birmingham 

Southall, William Birmingham 

Southall, Thomas Birmingham 

Southall, William, jun Birmingham 

Sowerby, John Carlisle 

Spenee, Thomas B Dundee 

Speneer, Charles Gravesend 

Speneer, William Monmouth 

Speneer, William Henry Bumham Market 

Speneer, Thomas Wokingham 

lancer, George Lincoln 

Spettigne, Joseph Launceston 

Spiemr, Thomas Lfracombe 

Spaces, Peter , Reading 

Spong, Thomas WiUsden Biggleswade 

« 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 







No. of 












Spurr, John York 

Squire, William Hanwell 

Squire, William Nottingham 

Squire, William Goole 

Stafford, William Gloucester 

Standring, Thomas Manchester 

Stantial, John Corsham 

Stead, William Horbury 

Steel, Henry Shefford 

Steel, Samuel Becdes 

Steele, David Edinburgh 

Sterriker, John Driffield 

Stephens, Thomas Merthyr Tydvil 

^Stephenson, John B Edinburgh 

Steyens, John Birmingham 

Stevens, George Strood 

Stevenson, Richard Derby 

Steward, Charles S. Dale Yarmouth 

Steward, Alfred Yarmouth 

Steward, William Bridgnorth 

Steward, Josiah Kidderminster 

Steward, Theophilus Kidderminster 

Steward, John Brierley Hill 

Stewardson, Henry Bedford 

Stiell, Gavin Dunfermline 

•Stirling, George Dunoon 

Stoddart, William Walter Bristol 

Stone, John Exeter 

Stonham, Thomas G Maidstone 

Stott, William Sowerby Bridge 

Strange, William Bond Bristol 

StrawBon, Henry Crewkeme 

Stroud, John Bristol 

Stuart, Henry James Ingatestone 

Stuart, Charles Woolwich 

Stuart, Henry W Woolwich 

Sturton, Joseph Cambridge 

Sturton, John Peterborough 

♦Sturton, Richard Peterborough 

Sugden, Samuel Newchurch 

Suggate, Henry Ezra Great Yarmouth 

I Sumner, Robert Liverpool 

I Sumner, William Birmingham 

I Sumner, John Birmingham 

I Sutcliffe, William Stalybndtre 

Sutherland, John Aberdeen" 

Sutterby, Jonathan N Long Sutton 

Sutton, Francis Norwich 

Symonds, John Aylsham 

Symons, William Dunster 

Sympson, Charles Lincoln 

Tait, William Edinburgh 

Talbot, JohnH Liverpool 

Tanner, Nicholas WDliam Exeter 

Taplin, Joseph Bristol 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





No. of 





Tarzewell, Richard BraiDtree 

Tatham, John Walkingame Barnstaple 

Tatham, Leonard F Bradninch 

Tajler, William Henry Warminster 

Taylor, John Usher Bedford 

Taylor, James , Manchester 

Taylor, Henry Manchester 

Taylor, Thomas H Manchester 

Taylor, Sydney Pendleton 

Taylor, John , Preston 

Taylor, John Hawarden Preston 

Taylor, Thomas John Preston 

Taylor, John Rawtenstall 

Taylor, Edward Rochdale 

Taylor, Richard Ryde 

Taylor, Thomas Stolybridge 

Taylor, John Wakefield 

Taylor, Stephen Westbury 

Teasdale, Thomas B Darlington 

Teear, John Manshaw Leicester 

Telfer, Frederick Oxford 

Templeton, John Glasgow 

Thomas, John HoUiday Boston 

Thomas, Robert East Loo'^ 

Thomas, Richard Burnley 

Thomas, Morgan Cardiff 

Thomas, John Cowbridge 

Thomas, James Bridge, Kent 

Thomas, James Hythe 

Thompson, George Alston 

Thompson, Andrew Carlisle 

Thompson, John Liverpool 

Thompson, Henry Middlesborough 

Thompson, Henry Norwich 

Thompson, Edward Otley 

Thompson, Thomas Richmond, Yorkshire 

Thompson, William Sunderland 

Thompson, John Thirsk 

Thonger, Gilbert Birmingham 

Thome, John Bedford 

Thornton, John Wedmore 

Thornton, Edward Lyme Regis 

Thornton, Samuel Exmouth 

Thornton, John Barber Dover 

Thurknd, Edward Oxford 

Tleman, Robert Liveipool 

Timothy, Thomas Norris Reading 

Titherington, Thomas A Liverpool 

Tomlinson, Charles Knowles Lincoln 

Tonge, James Scawin York 

Toone, Joseph Vidler Warminster 

Townsend, John H Bristol 

Townson, Thomas Leamington 

Tozer, lUchard John Exeter 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Yew of 1 Ttf^ ^- 
Member- !^No.<>f 











Tribe, John Chatham 

•Trix, John Exeter 

Trotter, Greorffe East Linton 

Trueman, Wifiiam Durham 

Truman, Francis C Jersey 

Tryon, William George Portsea 

Tuck, William H Torquay 

♦Tuck, Francis Oxford 

Tucker, Charles Bridport 

Tucker, James Gloucester 

Tuff, John Enfield 

Tunley, John West Bromwich 

Turner, Robert Oundle 

Turner, Thomas Newcastle-under-Lyne 

Turner, Walter Mold 

Turner, Frederick E Holywell 

Turner, William Henry Birkenhead 

Tumey, Samuel B Cambridge 

Turton, Luke Bradford 

Turton, Thomas J Howden 

•Twinberrow, John Worcester 

Tylee, John P Bath 

Urquhart, James Aberdeen 

Urwin, John Bedlington 

Veitch, James Dunse 

Veitch, William Shildon 

Vincent, Philip Fulham 

♦Visick, Robert Goodyear Brighton 

Vose, Thomas Liverpool 

Wain, William Ripley 

Wainwright, James Howden 

Waite, Joseph Cheltenham 

Walker, John C Birminffham^ 

Walker, John Bradford 

Walker, George Clarite Doncaster 

Walker, Edward Hawxby Doncaster 

Walker, Thomas D LiveiT)ool 

Walker, William Malmsbury 

Walker, Edward Newcastle-on-iyae 

Walker, William N Southport 

WaUdnton, William Tenby 

Wall, William James Tottenham 

Wallworth, David Maldon 

Walsh, Edward Manchester 

Walsh, William Oxford 

Walter, Joseph Homcastle 

Walton, John Sunderland 

Warbnrton, Thomas Bolton 

Ward, James FaUdngham 

Ward, James Richmond, Yoifahire 

Ward, Francis Battle 

Ward, William Sheffield 

Wardle, William Henry Stalybridge 

Warran, James Portsea 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




No. of 






Warrior, William 

Waterall, George 

Waterall, George Edwards 

WaterfiOl, WilJiam 

WatkiDS, George H 

WatkiDfiOD, Thomas 

Watlock, John Dawson 

Watson, Henry 

Watson, Edward M 

Watt, James 


Wearing, William 

Wearing, William Henry . . . 

Wearing, Richard 

Weaver, Frederick 

Webb, Thomas S 

W ebber, George William . . . 

Webster, Edwin P 

Webstw, Samuel M 

Weeks, Caleb :. 

Welch, Charles 

Weller, George 

Wellmgtoo, Frederick G. K. 
Wellington, James Martin ... 
Wellman, William Richard... 

Webh, Alexander 

West, Henry James 

West, Isaac 

West, William 

WestaU, Richard H- 

Westmacott, George 

Wharrie, Decimus 

•Wheeler, Francis 

Wheeler, John 

Wheeler, James Edward 

Whimpray, John 

Whitail, James 


White, Robert Rowles 

White, Luke P 

White, Thomas 

White, Georae 

Whitehead, Edwin 

Whitehead, John 

Whitfield, John Lockley 

Whitfield, John 

Whitlock, Edwin 

Whittaker, William 

Whittaker, Ellis 

Whittle, Samuel 

Whitton, George 

Whitwell, John 

Wibmer, Lewis Hiefaael 

Wice, Jonathan Haigh 















. . WolverhamptoD 



. .Newcastle-on-Tyne 





..South Fetherton 











. . Chipping Sodbury 




.. Nottingham 

















Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


.Tew of 




No. of 









Wickham William Deptford 

Wigpj, John Goddard Lynn 

Wiggin, John Ipswich 

Wild. Joseph Hyde 

Wild, David Oldham 

WUde,EIi Manchester 

Wilkes, Seth Martin Tewkesbury 

Wilkes, Doctor Tyers Upton-on-SeTero 

Wilkes, William Bromyard 

Wilkes, Darid Bredon 

^^kinson, William Manchester 

Williams, Joel D Bodmin 

Williams, William Haverfordwest 

Williams, Walter Hereford 

Williams, Philip Horsham 

Williams, John Leamington 

Williams, Robert Liverpool 

Williams, Terrick J Liverpool 

Williams, Edwin Manchester 

•Williams, Henry Levi Newport, Monmontb 

Williams, William Nottingham 

Williams, David Pwllhdi 

♦Williams, Thomas Kemble W^elchpool 

Williamson, James Hunslet 

Willmott, Charles Brighton 

Wills, Thomas D Barnstaple 

Wilshaw, James Wordslev 

Wilson, Thomas Bradford 

Wilson, Joseph Canterbury 

Wilson, John Harrogate 

Wilson, Joseph Penrith 

Wilson, Edward Sheffield 

Wilson, Charles Thomas Swansea 

Wilson, William York « 

Wine, John Bristol 

Wing, Thomas N Melton Mowbray 

Wingate, Stephen Gloucester 

Withers, Richard .• Blackwater 

Witherington, Thomas Worcester 

Withey, William Henry Stroud 

Wood, Edwin Abersychan 

Wood, Anthony Arnold 

Wood, Henry Brentford 

Wood, Edward Brighton 

Wood, Benjamin Halifax 

Wood. John Edward Harlow 

Wood, William Webb Pontypool 

Woodcock, Page D ..LincoEtt 

Woods, William Worcester 

Woodward, Charles Ryde 

Woodward, WilUam Langport 

Woodward, William Jfottingham 

Wooldridge, Thomas Windsor 

♦WooUey, George Stephen Manchester 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





No* of 







Woolley, Daniel Stockport 

Woolrich, Thomas Stone 

VVootton, William Wolverhampton 

Wortlej, John Durham 

Wreaks, Thomas Peacock Glossop 

Wreaks, Georse D Sheffield 

Wright, Joseph. Ardwick 

Wright, James Chesterfield 

Wright, William Liverpool 

Wright, Georee Warren Macclesfield 

Wright, Charka Manchester 

Wright, John James Sheflield 

Wyatt, Samuel Tottenham 

W^lde, John Manchester 

Wylde, James Manchester 

Wyley, John Coventry 

Tonng, James R Edinburgh 

♦Young, John Sunderland 

Young, Tonkin St. Ives 

Youngman, Edward Bury St. Edmunds 

*Youngman, Robert Cambridge 





Bugentv William H. ...London 

Baker, Garrad Chebnsford 

Bannick, Henry Stokes. London 
Barber,'William Jas. ...London 
Beaton, John William Lohdon 

BeU, William Carlisle 

Bowman, William London 

Brewster, Grodfrey W. . . . Cambridge 

Brown, Henry F London 

Buss, Thomas London 

Chadwick, Henry London 

Charity, William Alford 

Dallas, John London 

Dew, Joseph Jennings..London 

Dunn, Edward London 

Handsley, Tajlor London 

Hindsley, Henry London 

Holt, iMac Manchester 

Lee, James London 

Mackay, John Worcester 

Mackey, John B London 

Middleton, Francis London 

Morgan, William B. ...London 



Momement, Henry J. London 

Peat, William H Ryde 

, Roberts, William Bolton 

Ryder, William Henry.. Birmingham 

Sawyer, Henry Ramsgate 

Scholefield, Efenry London 

Scott, Thomas Coleshill 

Selleck, Edward London 

Soulby, Henry Beaoonsfield 

Steele, John W London 

Sylvester, Paul ...Birmingham 

lliompson, Morley London 

TObum, Robert J. Sheffield 

To wnsend, Charles London 

Turner, George Honiton 

Walker, Henry London 

Walker, William Malmsbury 

Warren, William A. ...Malmsbury 

Webb, John W Glouoestep 

Were, Ellis London 

Williams, Walter C. ...Brentwood 
Wood, John London 

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1853 1 






































































Alexander, William Peckham 

Andrew, Lejshon Swansea 

Anthony, John Lilley Bedford 

Ashton, John Belper 

Atkins, Ernest R Woolwich 

Baldock, John Henry London 

Banner, Siunnel Liverpool 

Barker, Matthew Mark York 

Barnsby, Robert David Tours 

Barry, Thomas Aberavon 

Bates, James Burslem 

Beach, James Bridport 

Bennett, Robert Lincoln 

Berser, Yolcy Clapham 

Bladcbum, Irancis Ramsgate 

Bloye, Henry Holt 

Bolton, Horatio Nelson Boston 

Boucher, John Belper 

Boyce, George Chertsey 

Calvert, John Durham 

Chappie, Edwin Bideford 

Chater, Edward Mitchell Watford 

Christopher, James Crickhowell 

Clark, John Grantham 

Copney, William London 

Cornelius, James Clapham 

Cornell, William .Ibswich 

Cortis, Edward Charles Worthing 

Cotton, John L..... Barnstaple 

Cracknell, Benjamin Halesworth 

Crossby, Joseph Pftrker Bakewell 

Cutting, James Stowmarket 

Daines, Thomas London 

Davies, William G Shrewsbury 

DeightouL Thomas Milner Worcester 

Dowse, Thomas Stretch :.Bradford-(m-ATOii 

Duncaason, William Glasgow 

Dunhill^ William Workman Doncaster 

Edman, Bonner Lincoln 

Esseiy, WiUiam m... Plymouth 

Evans, William H Haverfordwest 

Eyre, Joshua J Manchester 

Featherston, John F London 

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Fiflher, William F London 

Fouracre, Robert Salisbury 

Fowler^ Robert John Leeds 

Francis, Thomas Harper Dulwieh 

FVeeman, William Devizes 

Fyfe, John L Brighton 

Gibbons, George Olillon 

GiU. Hugh Selby 

Gray, Frederick London 

Gteen, John Oundle 

Griffiths, Alfred William London 

Groves, Henry Weymouth 

Halliday, William Jabez Pontefract 

Hayward, Charles John Lincoln 

Holroyde, William Henry Bradford 

Hopwood, Thomas S Richmond 

Houghton, William Warrington 

Humphreys, Ri<^ard London 

Icke, Henry Soott London 

Iverach, John G Kirkwall 

Johnson, Joseph London 

Jones, Huffh Lloyd '. Chester 

Jones, Wlfliam Withers Welchpool 

Jones, Peter Cooke London 

Kemp, David Skinner Edinburgh 

Kiddle, William L Bath 

Lawrence, William P Macclesfield 

Lee, John William Liverpool 

Linford, John .....Canterbury 

Lomas, Joseph W London 

M'lntyre, Peter S Warkworth 

Marks, Nelson S Cardiff 

Matterson, Edwtfd H York 

Mee, Geoi^ Woolwich 

Mercer. Kathan Liverpool 

Mercer, Nicholas...^ Liverpool 

Morgan, William Richmond 

Nidiolson, Frederick London 

Nicholson, John Jos^h Sunderland 

OUver, Jdm Hamer Salop 

Owles, John Fidward Southampton 

Paine, Standen Brighton 

Parrott, John S. Birmingham 

Parsons, Francis H Southam 

Payne, John Leishton 

Pearson, George B lieeds 

Peel, James Canterbury 

Penton, Charles W Maidstone 

Player, Jacob H Bedford 

Preston, Richard London 

Rayner, William Canterbury 

Rayner, John Charles Uxbridge 

Reeve, Edward London 

Reynolds, Arthur Watton 

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No. of 






























































































Richards, Charles Weymouth 

Richardson, John G. F Lon^^ton 

Richardson, Robert Ipswich 

Roberts, John Albinus.... Horsham 

Robbins, John Laonceston 

Rolfe, William A Wokingham 

Rowell, Charles Frederick .Uppingham 

Sarsfield, William Durham 

Scholefield, Arthur Basingstoke 

Scott, Thomas Birmingham* 

Sidlej, Thomas Insall Edinburgh 

Skrimshire, lliomas London 

Smeeton, George H ^,... Leeds 

Smith, Joseph ••..• Birmingham 

Smith, Richard Reigate 

Smith, William Glasgow 

Southall, Joseph Sturge Leeds 

Starkie, Richard S London 

Steevens, Joseph G Guildford 

Stewart, Charles John London 

Swann, William H London 

Taplin, Frederick Bristol 

Taylor, John N Lincoln 

Thompson, John Robert Thirsk 

Thompon, Henry Jjeatherhead 

Tiplady, Frederick York 

Tollinton, Richard B Siowmarket 

Tucker, Henry Hc^ley-on-Thamefl 

Tyler, Henry Wing Leicester 

Walmsley, Samuel Wem 

Ward, Philip D Halifax 

Watson, David Belper 

West, Robert G : Liverpool 

Weston, Charles Lincoki 

Wheldon, Henry William London 

Whitfield, Henry Worcester 

Willett, Edmund ". Brixton 

Williams, David Martin Truro 

Williams, John Thomson Carmarthen 

Williamson, David Brighton 

Willmott, William Bristol 

Wilson, James Edinburgh 

Woodcock, Joseph Leicester 

Yates, William Bridgnorth 

Yates, Francis London 

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No. of 











































































































tJlaD, William Dumfries 

Allingham, Creorge Samuel London 

Applegate, Edwin Bradford 

Arnold, Spencer Maidstone 

Attfield, John Walworth 

Austen, Henry Felix London 

Baker, Alfred Philip Cosham 

Barnes, Edwin Durham 

Baxter, George Chester 

Bearcrofb, Richard James Cheltenham 

Bell, William M Stonehouse 

Benger, Frederick Benger Harlow 

Bennett, George Blandford 

Birrell, David Detroit, U. S. 

Blackman, Thomas Woolwich 

Bond, Charles RadcKffe Ware 

Briggs, John Aston Tipton 

Brown, John ^ , ..London 

Brown, Charles Hills Devonport 

Buchanan, James Edinburgh 

Buzzard, Thomas Harley Spilsby 

Cameron, William Edinburgh 

Clapham, Edward : Leeds 

Clin^an, William M Edinburgh 

Cocking, Thomas Maldon 

Cobb, John Vinset Deal 

Cookj William Grantham 

Coles, Ferdinand London 

Cutting. Thomas John Selby 

Dakin, John Chester 

Dallas, Clement Woodbridge 

Davies, David Cardigan 

Davis, Richard Walworth 

Ereaut, John ..Jersey 

Farr, Archer Lambeth 

Fleetwood, Thomas Stratford-on-Avon 

Fletcher, John Camberwell 

Fowler, Charles Henry London 

Gill, Levi John Bridport 

Goddard, George Lowestoft 

Goldfinch, George London 

Green, James Bath 

Green, Conrad Samuel Stratford-on-Afon 

Grimwood, William Ipswich 

Grundy, Thomas London 

Haines, John Jenkins Bromsgrove 

Hinton, Henry Archibald London 

Harden* Charles Bristol 

Hartley, William Birmingham 

Harrow, Henry Tunbr&e Wells 

Hawkes, James Birmingham 

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1859 ! 584 

























































1856 430 

1857 - 460 





1855 551 



























Hughes, Joshua Crickhowell 

Hunneman, Charles Julius Hanover 

Huskisson, William J London 

Ingally Joseph , Wath-npon-Dearne 

Jamie, Robert Edinburgh 

Jefferson, Thomas Cambridge 

Johnson, Benjamin M CoUumpton 

Jolley, Horace London 

Jones, Robert William Norwood 

Keeling, Thomas G Howden 

Laming, Welberry Market Rasen 

Leighton, Thomas Edinburgh 

Lloyd, David L Caernarvon 

Long, Henry London 

Longstaff, Thomas Sunderland 

Mao&wick, William Butler Alresford 

Matthews, William London 

Maudsley, William Preston 

Medwin, Aaron Greoirge Greenwich 

Miller, Thomas L Blandford 

Mills, William P Macclesfield 

Moore, Francis Samuel •.« Bristol 

Murray, William S Berwick 

Muskett, Edwin Burrell Holt 

Nesbit, John Berwick 

Nock, Thomas Frauds .Newcastle -und. -Ly ne 

Nooten, Ernest Van Edinburgh 

Noswortby, Robert Exeter 

Ostler, Charles Galashiels 

Paris, Thomas Salisbury 

Partridge, William Dudley 

Pearson, Edward Smith Liverpool 

Perrot, Pierre B^noni Mauritius 

Rawling, John Wray Wisbeach 

Rees, iRiomas George J?embroke Dock 

Rhind, William W. Berwick 

Richards, Thomas Lewis Chester 

Roberts, Owen ...«^^ Pwllheli 

Robinson, John Woolwich 

Robinson, William P Liverpool 

Routledse, Henrv London 

Sanger, William Albert. London 

Scott, Joseph Robinson Sheffield 

Serpell, Samuel Truro 

Seymour, Greorge ....Oldbnry 

Simpson, Robert ..*.. Edinburgh 

Simpson Henry David Louth 

Simnson, Thomas Walsall 

SlacK, John Lawrence Ormskirk 

Speechley, George Peterborough 

Stedman, James Lower Tooting 

Stewart, James Soi^caldv 

Steward, James Rdinbnrgh 

Stoneham, Philip London 

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No. of 





















































Street, Edward Salisbury 

Satton, Charles William Lincoln 

Taplin, George B^ 

Tasker, William London 

Thompson, Charles Henry Huddersfteld 

Thomson, John Edinburgh 

Tieftrunk, Julius London 

Todd, Thomas Edinburgh 

Towl, Edward London 

Tuck, John .^ « Trowbridge 

Videon, Charles London 

Warner, John London 

Watson, James Montrose 

Watton, Edward Jdanchester 

Waugh, Alexander Southampton 

Weller, James William ...^^ Bbxwich 

Weston, Samuel John ..Leicester 

Wigff, Hennr John ^jT'"^ 

WiSiams, Thomas CJarmarthen 

Willmott, Edwin London 

Wilkinflon, Geofrge Manchester 

Wilson, Charles WallAce London 

Young, John Musselbuxgh 

Young, William Banbury 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Alderaon, Frederick H. Mr. Hempsted St. LeonardB 

Allison, Richard B Mr. Howorth Doncaster 

Allott, Frederic .Mr. Greaves Bakewell 

Ambrose, John D. L. ...Mr. Farmer Putnev 

Andrews, Enos Mr. Cropper **^^j Sutton 

Appleton, Robert Mr. Wilson Sheffield 

Argles, Robert Mr. Deane Clapham 

Aston, George Mr. Grindley Chester 

Atherton, Charles Isaac .Mr. Bromley Liverpool 

Atkinson, George J Mr. Wilson Harrogate 

Atkinson, John P Messrs. Hurst & Morton Louth 

Atkinson, Edward F. ...Mr. Kirton Hull 

Atton, JohnT Mr. Mllns Spalding 

Atwood John Charles . . .Mr. Cracknell I^ndon 

Backhouse, Noah Mr. Rowntree London 

Badcock, Henry Mr. Feat .Lymington 

Bagshaw, James Mr. Handley Wakefield 

Baker, Thonuis Messrs. Groves & Son.Blandfor d 

Bamber, John Kelway Messrs. Savory &MooreLondon 

Barber, Tom Mr. King Rochester 

Barber, William Mr. Nunn Bury St. Edmunds 

Barlow, John Podmore..Mr. Barlow Manchester 

Barton, Frederick Mr. Wilson Bradford 

Batchelor,GeorgeH.W...Mr. Watts Chatham 

Bate, Henry Mr. Davies Chester 

Beach, Thomas C Mr. Beach Bridport 

Beach, Wesley Mr. Beach Bridport 

Beach, Tom Clarke Messrs. Lea & Co.... Great Malvern 

Beaton, Walter ]Mr. Beaton London 

Beddard, John Mr. Cross Shrewsbury 

Bedford, Joseph Mr. Bolton Dover 

Bell, John Mr. Sowerby Carlisle 

Bell, James Alfred Mr. Noakes Brighton 

Bell, William Mr. Cuthbert Be&rd 

Bennington, William ...Mr. Mortimer Sidmouth 

Bentle V, William J Mr. Fryer Axminster 

Berrell, Charles Mr. Farmer London 

Bingley, Frederick B. ...Mr. Tanner Exeter 

Birch, Henry C Mr. Clarke Richmond 

Bird, David L Mr. Wilson Canterbury 

Bishop, William Mr. Gay Stroud 

Bland, Percy Owen Mr. Fox London 

BlaxdX Arthur S Mr. Blanchflower Loddon 

Blenkin, Peter S Mr. Lodhouse Hull 

Blundell, Joseph A Mr. Groves Weymouth 

Blyth, William J. Mr. Hurworth York 

Bourdas, Isaiah Mr. Bourdas London 

Bourdas, John Mr. Bourdas London 

Bowler, Harvey F Mr. Hitchcock Colchester 

Bradley, Edwin S Mr. Parker Derb^ 

Bradley, John Perry ...Mr. Parker Birmingham 

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I of 

























































Brajsbay, Thomas Mr. Brayshay Stookton 

BreretOD, Matthew B. . . . Mr. Mabson Yarmouth 

Brew, John Mr. Brew Brighton 

Bridges, Charles 'WllliamMr. Biscoe London 

Brock, George Walter.. .Mr. Fairbank Woolwich 

Brooks, SamT. Brewer... Mr. Lawton Wakefidd 

Brown, Charles B Mr. Thome.. Bedford 

Brown, William H Mr. Corder North Shields 

Brown, George Mr. Forge Driffield 

Brown, Edwud Mr. Button Birkenhead 

Browne, John Edwin ...Mr. Bartlett Chelsea 

Burdock, James Mr. Reading Warwick 

Burt, James .....Mr. Allanson ...Harrogate 

Burton, Joseph Mr. Wick Sheffidd 

Burton, John Mr. Parker Derby 

Butler, Edward D. B....Mr. Penney Poole 

Cam{>bell, Robert Mr. Mackay Galashiels 

Canning, Charles W. ...Mr. Keene Leamington 

Capem, Alfred l^Ir. Anthony Bedford 

Carre, Louis C. A Mr. Tylee Bath 

Carrington,£benezerT.JiIr. Toone Warminster 

Carter, Thomas Mr. Dresser Xork 

Gartner^ David Mr. Bell Cariislo 

Chambers, William Mr. Dresser York 

Chapman, Francis C. . . .Mr. Green Droitwich 

Chirke, WiUoughby Mr. Brown Oxford 

Clarke, CaudeU Mr. Searby Norwich 

Clarkson, Sidney Mr. Macarthy Romford 

Colby, John Mr. Colby Brighton 

Cole, Alfred Mr. Groves Hammersmith 

Collier, William Mr. Collier Sheffield 

Conder, George Mr. Smith Walworth 

Cooper, Frederick Mr. Cooper Leicester 

Cooper, Henry Mr. White Nottingham 

Cornish, Thomas R Mr. Cornish Penzance 

Cornish, William Mr. Cornish ..Brighton 

Coulson, Henry Mr. Coulson Scarborough 

Coulthard, Chri8topher...Mr. Harrison Carlisle 

Coward, John Senior ...Mr. Butler Pontefract 

Cozens, William Mr. May Reading 

Crease, James R Mr. Mackay Edinburgh 

Crussell, James W Mr. Cooper London 

Cumpsty, Georse C. . . .Mr. Warburton ..... .Bolton 

Curtis, Albert AugustusMr. Chnrchouse Chard 

Dallas, Clement Mr. Gay Woodbridget 

Dalrymple, William Mr. Luff Oxford 

Davenport, John M. ...Mr. Davenport London 

Davies, Robert John ...Mr. Roberts London 

Davies, William Mr. Coleman Cardiff 

Davison, William Mr. Greaves Bakewell 

Dawson, James Henry. . .Mr. Telfer Oxford 

Dawson, John Mr. Goddard Yarmouth 

Dean, Samuel Mr. Fox London 

VOL. j; B 

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1858 Denne, Henry Mr. Kingdon London 

1853 Diekins, Benjamin Mr. Kendall Stratford-on-Avoii 

1858 Dodflhon, Edward Mr. Dodsbon Sunderland 

1 857 Dooghty , Edward T. • .»Mr. Doughty London 

1853 Dowsett, Arthur Mr. Baker Chehnsford 

1856 Draper, Henry Foulger..Mr. Arnold ^.Norwich 

1 858 Dumolo, John Thomas..Mr. Parker Birmingham 

1853 Earland, William Mr. Davies Hay 

1856 Easoii, John Mr. Gilkes ^Leominster 

1858 Eastman, Jabez ......... Mr. Clark Hackney 

1857 Edwards, Frederick H... Mr. Medcalf Lower Tooting 

1854 Eland, Edward F Mr. Telfer Oxford 

1853 Elliott, Robert Mr. Steward Yarmouth 

1859 Elliott, Robert Messrs. Proctor & Son... Newcastle 

1859 Ellis, Henry Brook Mr. Collins Bristol 

1849 Else, William Mr. Jones J)erby 

1856 Eminson, John Mr. Marshall Gainsborough 

1853 Evans, William Mr. Ferris Bristol 

1857 Evans, Alfred Paget . . .Mr. Cutting Leamington 

1853 Evans, Edward Mr. BancrcSk Ruthin 

1857 Eve, Charles Mr. Wilson Holloway 

1 854 Fairley, Robert Mr. Mackay Edinburgh 

1856 Farrar, William Mr. Homing Sonderbmd 

1854 Fidel, Albert J Mr. Telfer Oxford 

1853 Fielder, Henry Thomas.jyir. Fielder Warminster 

1845 Flood, William W. Mr. Goodman Exeter 

1857 Foggitt, Thomas JSir. Smeeton Leeds 

1852 Foster, Michael E Mr. Sturton Peterborough 

1854 Foster, Thomas U Mr. Weston Sleaford 

1856 Fox, Edward M Mr. Michell .* Fahnouth 

1 853 Fresson, William Mr. Fresson Stevenage 

1858 , Fuller, Thomas G Mr. Fuller Burntisland, N.B. 

1846 I George, Henr^ Mr. Davis Leominster 

1853 , Gething, William Mr. Tomlinson Lincoln 

1857 , Gibbs, Thomas Mr. Steward Yarmouth 

1858 ' Giddings, Wm. H. C Mr. Stocken London 

1851 Gilliatt, William Mr. Gamble Grantham 

1859 Gillies, Wm. Jonathan.. .Mr. Dunn St. Austell 

1855 Goodchild, Nathaniel ...JVLr. Wood Brightoa 

1859 Goodwin, Medmer Mr. Telfer Oxford 

1855 Goodwyn, Charles S Mr. Chapman Ipswich 

1 853 Graham, Bal ph Mr. Fair weather .... N ewcastle 

1859 Greaves, Wm. Samuel .. .Mr. Greaves Ironville 

1858 Greig, Francis l^lr. Mackay Edinburgh 

1851 Green, Robert Mr. Knott Exeter 

1855 Gregory, Richard Mr. Lavers London 

1855 Grigor, William Mr. Macfarlan Edinburgh 

1853 Gunn, Frederick T Mr. Cross Shrewsbury 

1859 Hadley, Thomas Mr. Harris Hereford 

1856 Hall, Thomas H Mr. HaU Southampton 

1856 Halsey, Benuet Mr. Husband Exeter 

1854 Ham, Charles Mr. Foster Collumpton 

1852 Hampson, Thomas Mr. Woolley Manchester 

1854 Ilarley, Edward Mr. Foster ... Ludlow 

1858 Harper, Wm. James. ...Mr. Gent Macclesfield 

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Date of 






Harrison, Stephen Mr. Breary..- Douglas 

Haslam, Frederick B. ...Mr. Dakin Poplar 

Hasselby, Thomas J. ...Mr. Chantry Goole 

Hatch, Richard M Mr. James Bognor 

Hatchard, Stephen Mr. Huggins Alresford 

Hatchett, Thomas Mr. Hemingway London 

Head, John T Mr. Head Lewes 

Reald, Alfred John Mr. Barley Wisbeach 

Heanly, Marshall Mr. Babbinglon Peterborough 

Heap, Edward Mr. Wylde Manchester 

Herbert, Henry Mi-. Groves Blandfbrd 

Highway, Matthew H.... Mr. Caddick Newcastle-u.-Lyne 

HiU, William Mr. Howe Plymouth 

Hill, William R Mr. Tylee Bath 

Hill, William Mr. Gardner Edinburgh 

Hill, Francis Mr. Reinhardt Leeds 

Hoare, James Roper ...Mr. Gigner Chelsea 

Hodgkinson, John S. ...Mr. Brooker ., Macclesfield 

Holgate, Walter Mr. Barber Liverpool . 

Holland, William Mr. Sibary Longton 

Holliday, Joseph Mr. Wilding Liverpool 

Holmes, John Thomas... Mr. Botham Manchester 

Holmes, William C Mr. Stocken Tendon 

Holmwood, William C... Mr. Coppock Bridport 

Holt, George F. W. ...Mr. Obbmson Sleafbrd 

Holt, William Henry ...Mr. Paulden Altrincham 

Hopgood, Rich. Cooper..Mr. Hopgood Chipping Norton 

Horn, William Mr. Longrigg Appleby 

Huggins, Richard Mr. Tanner Exeter 

Hughes, Evan Mr. Deane Clapham 

Hughes, Griffith Hugh.. .Mr. Hughes Holyhead 

Humphries, Henry A.... Mr. Grounds Ludlow 

Hunter, George Mr. Garbutt Gateshead 

Hustwick, Thomas H....Mr. Coupland Harrogate 

Biffe, Frank Mr. Brown Coventry 

Ince, Joseph Mr. Ince London 

Isherwood, James Mr. Greenwell London 

Ive, William .....Mr. Lawrence Kensington 

Jackson, Warwick Mr. Hitchcock Colchester 

Jackson, John Messrs. Wilson & Co. Bradford 

Jacob, John R Mr. Bowers....... ...Chester 

Jakins, George S Mr. Golding Jf**^^^, 

James, Robert Mr. Fletcher Nottingham 

Jones, Charies W Mr. Jones Carmarthen 

Jones, Richard L Mr. Jones Narberth 

Jones, Jas. Davenport... Mr. Marston Ludlow 

Eeene, John... Mr. Savage Brighton 

Kemp, Francis Mr. Smeeton Leeds 

Kent, Frederick W Mr. RandaU Southampton 

Knight, John A. Mr. Arnold Norwich 

Knowles, John Hiles ...Mr. Anthony Bedford 

Lacey, Walter Mr. Meredith Bristol 

Lamplougb, John Mr. Stevenson Derby 

LangleyTwilliam Mr. Tylee Bath 

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Ke^is- KAME. 



Layers, Thomas F Mr. Layers Lewisham 

Lawrence, Gleorge Mr. Wriffht London 

Lawrence, Henry ...Mr. Waudns Stratford 

Lees, James Mr. Clarke •« ...Richmond 

Le Feuvre, Francis Mr. Ereaiit Jersey 

Leppard, James Mr. Williams Horsham 

Long, Alfred Mr. Noakes Brighton 

Loyatt, John Hammond.Mr. Wilshaw Wordsley 



859 ' Lucas, Philip John Mr. Martin Guildford 

858 *' ^ ,- ^ . ^ -. 


MacGeorge, William ...Mr. Carruthers Dumfries 

Machon, £dward Mr. Parkes Manchester 

Malin, Edmund C. M...Mr. Huggins ...Bamet 

Manby, Thomas Mr. Chenery Ipswidi 

Manthorp, George Mr. Manthorp .*. Colchester 

Marrack, George M. ...Mr. Searle Crediton 

Marrack, Philip Mr. Searle Crediton 

Marston, Alfred Mr. Cocking Ludlow 

Martin, James Mr. Palk Southampton 

Martin, Benjamin Mr. Handley Wakefield 

Mason, John l^fr. Mason Hastings 

Mathias, Thomas Mr. Jones Narbenh 

Matthews, Charles Mr. Gostling Diss 

Maudsley, William Mr. Barnes* Preston 

Maudson, Joseph W. ...Mr. Maunder Sheffield 

May, Augustus S Mr. Greenwell London 

McCabe, Dunbar Mr. Macfarlan Edinburgh 

859 I Merrick, Charles Jas. ...Mr. Bateman Manchester 

857 ! Midgley, John James ...Mr. Reinhardt Hull 

858 I Midgley, Charles Mr. Rimmington ....Bradford, Tork 

858 Midgley, J. E....MesBrs.Lynch & Wilkinson.. Manchester 

Miller, Duncan S Mr, Pooley Bath 

Mohun, Martin Messrs. Ar^es & Co. .Maidstone 

Monser, Hamilton S. ...Mr. Gay Stroud 

Monkhouse, Joshua Mr. Dayies Grainsbrough 

Moore, Abraham Mr. White Birmingham 

Morley, Edward Mr. Aslin? Spalding 

Morley, Georj|;e Mr. Wheeler Hackney 

Moysey, William Mr. Moon Ilfracombe 

Moyerley, Robert Mr. Dingley .Maidstone 

Murrell, John Friday . . .Mr. May niurd Brandon 

Newby, John Mr. Hughes Altrincham 

Norrish, James Mr. Searle Crediton 

Olliyer, George £ Mr. Groyes Weymouth 

Orpe, Thomas M Mr. Watton Derby 

Orton, Thomas J Mr. Hiffe Nuneaton 

Ough, William Mr. Jeffery Deyonport 

Oyerton, William Mr. Fowke Stafford 

Owen, Thomas R Mr. Mease North Shields 

Owles, James Mr. Owles Yarmouth ' 

Parry, William Mr. Christopher Crickhowell 

Pasmore, Fred. Rich. ...Mr. Pasmore Chelsea 

Paxton, William M Mr. Mitchell London 

Peacock, Hamerton Mr. Peacock London 

Pearce, Henry T Mr. Pearce Gloucester 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


__ tof 






Peaicej, Herbert A Mr. Bim London 

Pertwee, Frederick Me88r8.Tincham .... .London 

Phillips, Jobn Dutton . . .Mr. Dennison Dudley 

PhiUips, Jonathan Mr. Christian Godalming 

Philpot, Arthur Walter...Mr. Wimble Maidstone 

Picton, John T Messrs. Picton & Hatton. . .Warrington 

Pickup, Robt. Lan8dale..Mr. Pickup Manchester 

Pissej, William F Mr. Pissey Rayleigh 

Pistrucci, Illippo Mr. Kine London 

Pitman, John Mr. Fendick Bristol 

Postans, Arthur Wm. ...Mr. Banfield Bury St. Edmunds 

Potts, Robert A Mr. Potts London 

Power, Thomas M Mr» Williams ...Nottingham 

Pratt-, Henry Mr. Loggin Stratford-on- Avon 

Prioe, Thomas Mr. La^ Pembroke Dock 

Pritchard, George F. . . .Mr. Barnes Knightsbridge 

PruBt, Richard Mr. Brend ^Swansea 

Pryce, Alfred C Messrs. Picton & Hatton. . .Warrington 

Pullin, William H Mr. Parkes AthersUme 

Quinlan, Joseph Mr. limes London 

Radermacher, George ...Mr. Bartlett Chelsea 

Rae, John Ing^is Mr. Mackay Edmburgh 

Rainnie, Alexander Mr. Stewart Edinburgh 

Rayner, Gilmour G Mr. Brend Swansea 

Rea, James Parker Mr. Rea London 

Reed, Alfred Mr. Gordelier Sittingbounie 

Reeves, Robert M^. Gordelier Sittmgboume 

Renand, Monchery Mr. Deane Clapham 

Reynolds, Freshfield. Mr. Martin Guildford 

Riley, James Mr. Smith Sutton Goldfield 

Ritchie, John Moffat . . . .Mr. Medlev Derby 

Rivers, Henry Mr. Homsby Odiham 

Roberts, John L Mr. Sibary Longton 

Roberts, Charles /...Mr. Handley Wakefield 

Robertson, A. G.... Messrs. Macfarlan& Co.... Edinburgh 
Robinson, James F. . . .Messrs. Picton & Hatton Warrington 

Rochford, Percy Mr. Burden London 

Romans, Thomas Mr. Cutting Selby 

Rosselloty, John C Mr. Couch Islington 

Roulston, Beniamin W..Mr. Chantry Goole 

Rowell, Joseph Mes8r8.Sturton & Son Peterborough 

Rubbra, Frank Mr. Hope Wellingborough 

Salmon, Heiury L Mr. Moore Brighton 

Savage, W. Wallace Mr. Savage Brighton 

Savage, George Henry.. .Mr. Savage Brighton 

Savory, Thomas H. ......Mr. Savory London 

Savory, Charles H Mr. Savoiy London 

Sazby, Henrr. Mr. Saxby ..* Lewes 

Say,£dmondH Mr. Cooke Norwich 

ScarUn, James H Mr. Marohant Ipswich 

Scott, James Fumess . . .Mr. Smith Dunstable 

Scruby, William Yull ..Mr. Pertwee Romford 

Seaton, Charles A Mr. Hill Sherborne 

859 Shadford, Thomas Mr. Shadford .........Spalding 

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Pate of 







Shaw, Ward Mr. Lofthouse Hull 

Shaw, Benjamin Mr. Gissing Wakefield 

Shepheard, Thomas Mr. Gulliver •• Lutterworth 

Sheplej, Samuel Mr. Ciau^hton Chesterfield 

Sheriff, Thomas Mr. Macrarlan Edinburgh 

Simpson, Thomas Mr. Allen Boston 

Simpson, A. Lankester . . .Mr. Simpson Stowmarket 

SUter, Henry Mr. Asling Spalding 

Slater, Thomas Mr. Pilley Boston 

Smart, Benjamin Messrs. iJea and Co.. Worcester 

Smith, Edward Mr. Lynch Manchester 

Smith, William Mr. Sumner Birmingham 

Smith, Frank de Carle... Mr. Wright Lond<Mi 

Smith, Frederick Mr. Foster Ludlow 

Smith, James W Mr. Coulson Scarborough 

Smith, George Henry ...Mr. Tonge York 

Smith, Hubert Mr. Luff. Oxford 

Soole, Seymour Henry. . .Mr. Jessopp Bishop Stortford 

Spearing, James Mr. Bowman Southampton 

Stanley, Robert S wan . . .Mr. Wortley D urham 

Stan way, William H. ...Mr. Blandfbrd London 

Stapleton, Thos. Giode..Mr. Collins London 

StoLea, Edward H Messrs. Lea and Co..Malvem 

Stokes, Walter Edw Mr. Boully London 

Stone, George Mr. Tonge York 

Stretton, Charles Mr. Parker Derby 

Sturges, William T Mr. Giidgen Kimbolton 

Sturton, John R Mr. Sturton Peterborough 

Swinnerton, William . . .Mr. Woods Worcester 

Syer, John Witham Mr. King Soham 

Svmes, Charles Mr. Ellis Thombury 

Tanner, Augustus F Hfo. Dickinson London 

Taylor, Samuel Mr. Tonge York 

Taylor, Greorge Spratt . . .Mr. Coupland Harrogate 

Teasd^e, Thomas Mr. Myers Newcastle 

Teed, David Mr. Pasmore Exeter 

Thomas, George S Mr. Outhwaite Bradford 

Thomson, Denzil Mr. Witherington ...Worcester 

Thomson, George G. ...Messrs. Macfarlan... Edinburgh 

Tilden, William A Mr. Allchin London 

Tolbert, Thos. W. H....Mr. Froud Dorchester 

Touzeau, James Fred....Mt. Arnold Guernsey 

Touzeau, John Arnold... Mr. Arnold Guernsey 

Towerzey, Alfred G Mr. Towerzey London 

Trewaras, Richard J. ...Mr. Job Truro 

Trotter, Joseph Mr. Brown York 

Truman, George F Mr. Wellington Oakham 

Turner, John Mr. Payne Aylesbury 

Twinberrow, James K....Mr. Twinberrow London 

Umney, Charles Mr. Corrie Bedford 

Underdown, Fred. W....]Mt. Hall Canterbury 

Vacher, A Messrs. Bullock & Reynolds ...London 

Vooght, William Mr.Twinbmow London 

Wakefield, Cecil H Messrs. Lea & Co.... Worcester 

Walker, Chatles Mr. Walker Hogsthorpe 

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Walker, Joseph Mr. Witheringion . . .Worcester 

Walker, George Mr. Goodall Derby 

Walker, William Mr. Headley BridlingtoD Quay 

WaU, John Thomas Mr. Butcher Cheltenham 

Walls, Thomas Mr. Barber Liverpool 

Walsh, Edward Mr. Argles Maidstone 

Walters, William Mr. Tanner Exeter 

Walton, Ralph Mr. Ritson Sunderland 

Warner, Greorge T Mr. Williams Nottingham 

Warren, Thomas P.B... Mr. Pasmore Exeter 

Waters, Alexander Mr. Corrie Bedford 

Watson, James B Mr. Fitt Barking 

Watson, William Mr. Chapman Ipswich 

Watson, Richard T Mr. Dobinson Bishopwearmouth 

Watson, Thomas D. Messrs.Martindale&SonCarlisle 

Watts, John Newton ....Mr. Watts London 

Webber, Charles F Mr. Edwards Sidmouth 

Webster, G«orge O Mr. Seddon Manchester 

Webster, George W. ...Mr. Webster Warrington 

Wells, Edwin Mr. Grounds Ludlow 

Wheeler, James Mr. Payne Aylesbury 

Wheeler, Joseph Mr. Owen iJondon 

White, JohnG Mr. Ransome Hitchin 

White, James W Mr. Iverach Kirkwall 

Whitehouse, George H...Mr. Tonge York 

Wiffginton, Joseph Mr. White Nottingham 

WiilaD, James R Mr. Pratt Wolveniampton 

Willcox, John Mr. Hollier Dudley 

Williams, Frederick Mr. Anderson Worcester 

Wilbher, Stephen Henry .Mr. Bolton Tenterden 

Wilson, William Mr. Rainey Spilsby 

Wilson, Frederick Mr. Lord... Rochdale 

Witherioffton, Henry ...Mr. Witherington • . .Worcester 

Wood, Edmund Mr. Pooley Bath 

Wood, John Robert. ..... Mr . Simmonds Boston 

Wood, Albert Mr. Watkins Walsall 

Wootton, Alfred C Mr. Wootton Luton 

Wyman, John Mr. Gulliver Lutterworth 

Terworth, Edmund Mr. Binge Pindico 

Young, John Mr. Ma&ay Galashiels 

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VOL. L— No. II.— AUGUST 1st, 1859. 

Thobb who have witnessed the disinterested sacrifices and exertions which 
were made by the hite Mr. Jacob Bell in farthering the objects of the Pharma- 
oeutical Society, feel that the great value of the services thus rendered call for 
some marked recognition, and that the gratitude of those for whose benefit such 
services were bestowed should be expressed in the form of a memorial which 
shall permanently connect the name of Jacob Bell with the institution he so 
largely contributed to establish. The proposition for founding scholarships to 
be called "the Jacob Bell Memorial Pharmaceutical Scholarships,*' emanated 
simnltaneoaaly from several sources, and seemed to be unanimously approved of 
by those to whom it was made. The only questions that arose had reference to 
the mode of carrying out the object, and to the means required for its accomplish- 
ment. The Council of the Pharmaceutical Society at once gave their sanction 
to the proposition^ and steps have been taken for raising a fund by subscription, 
which it is hoped will justify the anticipations of the warmest promoters of the 
undertaking. The Committee to whom the subject was referred have recom- 
mended that there shall be two classes of scholarships, and, as each scholarship 
would probably be of the value of £30 or £40 a year^ it is obvious that a large 
sum will be required to give effect to this recommendation. When, however, 
it is considered for whom this memorial is to be established, and who are the 
parties to whom the appeal is made for the means of establishing it, there can be 
no doubt of the liberal spirit in which it will be responded to. It shall not 
surely be said of the^members of the Pharmaceutical body that they are insensible 
to the merits and claims of their late distinguished member, who, although born 
to wealth, endowed with natural abilities which enabled him to excel in any 
pursuits in which he engaged, qualified by education and enabled by inheritance 
to take a high position among those engaged in the practice of Pharmacy, 
nevertheless made common cause with his less favoured brethren, became their 
unpaid advocate^ nay, expended his means in Airthering their interests, and, 
disregarding the advantages of his own professional position, sought to lessen 
the disparity existing between himself and others by elevating all to the higher 
standard of qualification. His was a noble sacrifice of personal advantages in 
promoting the general advancement of the body to which he belonged ; and the 
members of this body have now an opportunity for making a graceful acknow- 
ledgment of their high appreciation of the valuable services which have been 
rendered by Mr. Bell, and at the same time of furthering one of the principal 
objects for which he laboured so long and so ardently. 

VOL. I. 

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Warwick Baly, James 

Dublin EUwood, WiTIiain ^ 

Pbbsioni^ ^Houghton, WiUiMn 


Cook» William Grantham 

Green, Conrad Samuel Strattbrd-on-ATon 

Perrot, Pierre B^itoni Mauritina 

Street, Edward Saliabuy 


Bothamley Valentine. Newark 

Hall, Thomas Howard Southampton 

King, James ^ » Bristol 

Long^ Alfred Thorby Brighton 

Monger, Hamilton Stacey Stroud 

Powers, Edward Stamrbridgs 

mBax8TBmBi> affrbhtzoes. 


Earaahaw, Benjamin King ^.„.^ Messrs. Garratt Rugby 

Hudson, John William Mr. Pratt Bradford 

Jones, John Reed. Messrs. Ghurraiti^ Ragby 

Richardson, Richard Messrs. Carruthers & Allan... Dam&ies 

Warland, Francis William Mr. Penney Fool 


Barnes, Edwin Dnrham 

Davies, David .^^.Cardigan 

Ereauty John.. .«.«.^ Jersey 

Fleetwood, Thomas Stratford-on-Avon 


Allen, James Hore Barnstaple 

Mathew, John Alfred ..... Cape Town 


Present — ^Messrs. Bird, Bucklee, Cupiss, Darenport, Deane, George Edwards, J. 
B. Bdwards, HolUer, Macfinrlan, Meggeeon, Morson, Sandfoffd, Squire^ Staadring, 


*^ The Council of the Pharmaceutical Society, on this its first meeting after 
the death of its President, Mr. Jacob Bell, desrres to record its ^ratefiil sense of 
the inTalnable seiricea rendered by him to thia Society, firom its earliest com- 
mencement to the day of his death, and of the total self-abQegation in which 
thope services were ever given. Li order to give permanence to this ex|R%S8ion 
of gratitude: — 

Resolved— ^^ That a Committee be appointed to take the requisite atepa for 
forming a Capital Fund, out of which one or more Scholarsh^Mi, bearing the 
name « Jacob BeU, may be estaUished in connexion with the Society.*' 

22e«o^(2— -^^That the following be appointed a Committee for carryinj^ oat 
the preliminary arrangements connectea with the above resolution :^Pre9ident» 
Vice-President, and Measurer ; Messrs. Deane, G. Edwards, Lescher, fibmdfordp 
Squire, and Wau^h, with power to add to their nomber ; and that they report 
to a Special Meeting of the Council." 

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«' 25, Cavenditk Square, W,, 20<& June, 1859. 
^ GsnTLBifnr, — By the direeiioii of Mr< James BeU and Mr. Thomas Hjde 
BiDs, the execQton of the late Mr. Jacob Bell, I forward to jon an extract of 
bn will, whereby the sum isi jCSOOO b bequeathed to the Trustees of the 
Phannaceatieal Societj. 

^^ I have the honour to be, Crentlemen, 

*' Yowr yery obedient Servant, 

** Gbo. Bbacb. 
" To the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.'* 

Extract of the WiQ of Jacob Bell, Esq., deeeamd^ late of No. 15, Langham Flace^ 
and No, dS8, Oxford Street. 
** I give and bequeath the sum of Two Thousand Pounds to the Trustees for 
the time being of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, wludi Two 
Thousand Pounds are to be pud exdusively and in priority to other legacici 
out of such part of my Personal Estate as is by law applicable to such payment, 
and to be expended in establishing or otherwise increasing ike efficic&eyof a 
School of Pharmacy, or in promoting Pharmaceotical^dueaiioiit in sudi 
manner as the CounciLl of the said Society may deem expedient, bat so that the 
nocfpti of the Trustees shall be good discharges to my £xecutors.*^ 

f James Bjezx, Esq., 

C 15, LanghamFlaee^ Marfflehme. 

It was moved by Mr. Staubsixo, seconded by Mr. Cupiss, and 
Besdved—^^ That the Council gratefully acknowledge the announcement of 
the beonest of iC2000 \^ their late highly respected President, Mr. Jacob BeU, 
to the rharmaoeutical Society, and pledge themselves faithfully to carry out hb 
expressed wishes in the disposition tnereof, to the best of their ability." 

SLScnoir or FBismsaT aho mxmbkk of cguitcil. 

In conseauenee of the death of Mr. Jacob Bell, the Council declared a 
vacancy in the office of President and one Member of Council. 

The dection for the office of President having been taken by baUot, was 
dedared to have fallen on Mr. T. N. R. Morsoa. 

In the same manner Mr. Adolphus F. Haselden, of 18, Conduit Street, was 
elected to fill the vacancy in the CounciL 

The office of Yice-President was declared to be vacant; the election to take 
place at the next meeting of Cotmcil, in accordance with the bye-laws. 


Present— Messrs. Bird, Davenport, Deane, Hanbury, Haselden, Meggesoo, Morson, 
Sandford, Squire, and Waugh, 

The election for the office of Yicx-Pbbsidxiit having been taken by ballot, wis 
declared to have fallen on Mr. Squire. 

The following Beport was presented :— 

The Committee appointed to consider the preKnunary steps to be takm 
for carrying out the proposed estaUishment of Pharmaceutical Schoittahips 
as a Memorial of the late Mr. Jacob Bell, report^— 

1. That they deem it desurable, if the amount suhseribed be snffident, to 
establish two or more scholarshipe^ to be in the gift of the Council of the Phar- 
maceutical Society for the time being. 


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2. That they recommend that one or more of these scholarshipa be open to 
Registered Apprentices and Associates of the Society who are under 21 years 
of a^e, and wno shall be considered to have established their daim thereto by 
capability, industry, and general good conduct ; and that in addition to these 
there be others of a higher srade to be offered, with the yiew of encouraging 
the further prosecution of scientific study, to Associates under 24 years of age 
who have passed the major examination. 

3. That they propose the following form of circular to be sent to the 
Members, Associates, and Registered Apprentices of the Society : — 


<*Many Members of the Pharmaceutical Society and friends of the late Mr. 
Jacob Bell having expressed a desire that some Monument or Testimonial should 
be erected to the memory of their late President and friend, as a proof of their 
high estimation of his disinterested exertions in promoting the advancement of 
3E!barmaoeuticai knowledge, thereby elevating those engaged in the practice of 
-^Pharmacy to the social position occupied by their brethren in other countries, and 
also his activity in defending them from injurious legislation, the Council have 
resolved, that no more appropriate mode of accomplishing this olject, nor one more 
in accordance with the expressed opinions and wishes of the man they desire to 
honour, could be adopted than the establishment, by a general subscription, of 
Pharmaceutical scholarships, to be called 'The BeU Memorial Pharmaceutical 
Scholarships,' which shall be awarded under suitable regulations, to industrious, 
wc^-conducted, and competent Registered Apprentices and Associates of the Phar- 
maceutical Society. 

*<The details, mcluding the extent of the proposed Scholarships, and the con- 
ditions on which they shall be awarded, must necessarily depend on the amount of 
subscriptions obtained, but the Council feel assured that such a sum will be sub- 
scribed as will enable them to establish not only minor scholarships for young men 
less favoured by fortune than by industry, but aTso one at least for the advancement 
of high scientific attainments, so that there may thus be two classes of scholarships 
tending to advance the reputation and dignity of the Pharmaoeutical Society." 

Eesolved — **• That the Report now read be approved and adopted." 
Resolved^** Thtit the Secretary be instructed to issue the Circular to the 
Members, Associates, and Registered Apprentices of the Society, and to 
advertise the same in the Fmes^ Daily News, Post, Star, Telegraph, Standard, 
Lancet, Medical Times, and Marylebone Mercury^ 

Resolved-^** That Subscriptions be received by the Secretary, Mr. Bremridge, 
17, Bloomsbury Square, and that the Local l^cretaries be requested to lend 
their viduable assistance, and to receive subscriptions. That Mr. Hanbury be 
requested to act as Treasurer, that the money as received be paid over^to him, 
and that the first list of subscriptions be published in the August number of the 


£ 8, d, 

Andrews, John Betts, Clare 110 

Anthony, John Lilley, Bedford 1 1 

Ball, G. v., Banbury 1 1 

Ballard, Edwin, Farringdon 1 1 

Barnard, John, Clapham Road 5 5 

Bennett, George, Blandford 110 

Bentley, Professor, 17, Bloomsbury Square 5 t5 

Binge, Thomas, Pimlico 110 

Bird, Augustus, 22, High Street, Kensington 5 5 

Bird, WiUiam L., 42, CasUe Street, Oxford Street 5 5 

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£ •. d. 

Bottle, Aleacaader, DoY0r 5 5 

Brady, Henry B.J Newcastle 110 

Bremridge, EUas, 17, Bloomsbury Square 5 5 

Backlee, Wm. H., 86, New Bond Street 5 5 

Churchill, John, 11, New Burlington Street 10 10 

CocktoD, John, Mamort 110 

Daines, Thomas, London 110 

Darby, Stephen, 140, Leadenhall Street 5 5 

Dayenport, John T., 38, Great Bussdl Street 5 5 

Dayis, John Oliver, Folkestone 110 

Deane, Henry, Clapham 5 5 

Gale, Samuel, 3dS, Oxford Street 2 2 

Garle, John, 12, Kensington Terrace 5 5 

Graham, Thomas, F.B.S., Master of the Mint 5 5 

Groyes, Henry, Weymouth 110 

Hammon, Richard, Folkestone 110 

Hanbury, Daniel Bell, Plough Court 21 

Haselden, Adolphus F., 18, Conduit Street 5 5 

Hills, Thomas Hyde, 838, Oxford Street 105 

Hooper, William, Covent Garden 5 5 

Jenner, William M., Folkestone 110 

Kemot, Georffe C, 2, Chrisp Street, Poplar 110 

Macfarlan, J<mn F., Edinburgh 5 5 

Machray, William, 838, Oxford Street 110 

Mawson, John, Newcastle 110 

Megseson, George, 61, Cannon Street 5 5 

Midlleton, Francis, 338, Oxford Street 2 2 

Morson, Thomas N. R., 38, Queen's Square 21 

Nicholson, John Joseph, Sunderland 110 

Orridge, Benjamin B., 30, Bucklersbury 10 10 

Paine, Standen, Brighton 110 

Palk, Edward, Southampton 110 

Palmer, Robert, 33, Wilton Phice, Belgrave Square 5 5 

Pollock, Thomas, 129, Fenchurch Street 3 3 

Proctor, Bernard S., Newcastle > 110 

Proctor, William, Newcastle 110 

Redwood, Dr., 17, Bloomsbury Square 5 5 

Russell, Charles L., Windsor 1 1 

Sandford, George W., 47, Piccadilly 5 5 

Seaton, Charles, Sherborne 110 

Smeeton and Son, Leeds •••• 5 5 

Squire, Peter, 277, Oxford Street 21 

Veitch, William, Sheldon 1 

Waugh, George, 177, Regent Street 21 

Waugh, Alexander, 177, Regent Street 5 5 

Weston, Charles, Lincoln 110 

Wigg, Henry John, Lynn ^ 110 



Thsbk was a special meeting of Council held in the Society's rooms, George 
Street, Edinburgh, on Tuesday forenoon, June 28th. The President having taken 
the chair, the following li^ute was unanimously agreed to: — 

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^The CouDcily and as vepreieiitiiig the Pharmaoeuticid Society thrGugfaoiit 

Scotland, hereby record their deep And heartfelt regret for the loss sastained by the 
death of Jacob Bell, Bsq., President of the Society m London. No mere words can 
ei^pross the depth of sadness and sorrow which fiUed the hearts of aU on the anaiMace- 
meot of his death. 

**£'or full twenty years he has lived in the affections of many, while his cooataiitt 
unwearied, and snccessfnl efforts on behalf of Pharmacy can never be fully estimated, 
^roe, fortune, talents, and labour were all freely devoted to the well-'h^ng and im- 
provement of his profession, while no sacrifice was ever considered too great, when 
by his personal exertions he could prove of service in the cause with which he had 
truly bound up his very existence. 

'* The present generation of Pharmaeeutists owe Mr. Bell mndi, whfle aU cannot 
but feel a debt of gratitude to him as the founder of the Society, which suooeeding 
years will only tend to strengthen and increase, as the full benefit of Mr. Bdi's 
vntiring exertions becomes known and appieeiated. 

"At such a time, and while the leading journals throughout the kingdom aoe 
teeming with notices of this highly gifted and esteemed individual, the praseat 
meeting feel that it would be entirely out of place to say much in thus reeordting the 
great loss, which not only their own Association but society at lai^ge have sustained; 
and yet they cannot allow such a sad event to pass without giving this expression 
of their intense regret at Mr. Bell's early death. Many fond recollections crowd 
upon the minds of some of those now present, and they feel it is not too much to 
say, that few men have ever died so much respected and so universally regretted as 
Mr. Jacob BelL Highly honourable, benevolent, intrileetual, and trnfy good, Mr. 
Bell has left an example which all may strive to emulate, but few, very few, may 
iver expect to attain. 

*^The Council feel it is not their province, in these diort and drcnmscrihed 
lemarks, to refer to the high position which Mr. Bell occupied in the literary as 
well as in the scientific world, and can only in conclusion resolve that a copy of tius 
Ifinute be transmitted to the surviving members of Mr. Bell's family, as an e3E- 
pression of sympathy, accompanied with every respectful and sincere feeling of 
eondolenoe on this melancholy occasion.** 

The Pkksibent proposed, and the Tice-Presidkht seconded, *'Tliat the thanks 
of the meeting be given to Mr. John Mackay for having summoned the Conncil on 
this occasion, and giving the Members of it an opportunity of unanimously adopting 
the foregoing resolution." 

The meeting thereafter adjourned. 


Foyal Institution, June 29rd, 1859. 
Tkis being the last'meeting of the session, the Council determined that a general 
eonversazione should be held, in consequence of which tickets were issued to all the 
members, each ticket admitting a lady or gentleman in addition to the member. 
The company began to arrive about half-past six p.m., -and continued to do so until 
eight o*dock, at which hour about 150 were present. The whole of the rooms of 
the Royal Institution, including the Gallery of Art and Museum of Applied Science, 
were thrown open for promenade, and the numerous and valuable collection of 
objects of natural history and works of art were viewed and examined with great 
interest. A number of the members of the Microscopic Society had kindly accepted 
invitations to the meethig, and several of them brought their microscopes in addi- 
tion to those belonging to the members of the Association, and exhibited some very 
interesting micro-photographs and numerous very beautiful objects belonging both 
to the organic and inorganic kingdoms, and throagh the kindness and liberality of a 
number of the members and friends, an excellent assortment of the stereoscopes and 
views were exhibited; also a large solar camera was placed on the table, with por- 
traits, taken size of life. Some very beautiful specimens of photographic art were 

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also on Tiew ; thete, horn their highly-finished character, commanded general 

At eight o'clock tea and coffee were senred in the library, after which the com- 
pany adljoiinied to the laige lecture room, where Br. Edwarda deliTored a short 
address on the relation betw«en Magnetic^ Voltaic, and Statical Electric Pheno- 
mena, illustrated by a powerfol RumkorfiTs induction coil and battery. He also 
e^iibited the brilliant phenomena of electrical discharges in vacuous tubes contain- 
ing highly rarefied gases, &&, iUustrating the peculiar stratifications Which the 
]%ht undergoes when trsTersing rarefied media. The addness was listened to with 
great interest, and the illustrations, fimn their brUliaat and successful character, 
elicited r^teated rounds of applause. Dr. Edwards also exhibited the combustion of 
kydrasea gas by means of an argand burner surmounted by a platinum cage. 

In bringing the business of the meeting to a dose, the President, after thank- 
ing Dr. Edwards and the numerous other gentlemen who had so materiidly 
contributed to the enjoyment of the ereniog by bringing forward so many 
brilliant and norel objects of interest, reminded the meeting that exactly ten 
years ago the Association was inaugurated by a meeting, held on the 9Sod June, 
1849, and they were now engaged in bringing to a very sucoessful terminatiou the 
fnA aesnon. It would be gratifying to all present to learn thaA this tenth soasimi 
kad been move succ ewfu l than any preriona session ; for, while they were leas dfr* 
pendent upon extraneous aid lor lectures at their ordinary meetings, the true olyects 
ef tlM Assacsation were becoming more appreciated, and a greater desire evideiioed 
tqr naeBBbess to brii^ fi>rward interesting and important topics for discussion. But. 
while ooDgratnlating themselTes upon this result, they were painfully reminded 
that the meeting of 1849 resulted out of resolutions arriyed at in a former meeting 
of the whole pr^Gsssion of the town, which was conyened and enlightened by one 
who, alas ! had been so recently removed from amongst them— by one whose phi- 
bnthxopy and earnest zeal in the cause of human progress generally, but espedaDy 
in the cause of Pharmacy, warmed them into enthusiasm, and had been the basis alike 
of whatever eneoess had attended their labours or those of the Pharmaeentieal Society 
in London. That meeting was addressed by tiieir lamented friend Jacob Bell, and 
to the very simple and lumd manner in which he then laid before the assembly the 
tepertaaoe of self-elevatioa mi^ be traced the origin of that Association. Nor had 
they been permitted alone to depend on that meeting for the aid of his powerful 
Toioe; for fiequently, suod, indeed, on the veiy laat occasion of their holding a similar 
meetin g in that place, he was amongst them enoouraging and leading £bem on to 
Increased exertion. 

But in the prime of his strength and energy he had been removed fh>m them ; in 
blm they had. lost a valiant leader. It would be vain for him to recount his many 
eervices to their cause ; suffice it to say, his genius, ever in advance of the time^ 
Ibresaw the necessity for combined efforts for the elevation of tiieir profession to its 
proper sodal position. His genius had elevated them, and, he trusted, so stionilated 
flwm, that his premature removal from thmr midat would not retard their onward 
p ro gmas to the attainment of that position it was his desire to see his brethren 
^etwpy. The intelligence of his demise must have aff'ected one and all with a deep 
Mose of personal loss, as of the loss of a faithful tried friend, whose memory was 
dear to their hearts. Nowhere could they find a champion more devoted and self- 
denying than he had been. 

But, while deeply lamenting his loss, might they not improve the occasion ? Had 
Huj not rdied too much upon Mr. Bell's known ability and readiness to antidpate 
9^ every want, and with energy to undertake whatever duty the interests of Pliar- 
macy dictated ? Had they not allowed him to overtax his mental and phyncal 
powers, and so accelerated his untimely death, instead of bending themwlTes to 
wHed adfon ? Let them, then, for the future endeavour, by cordial and united 
flffvts, to supply the bfamk his removal had caused. 

Hr. Btaks said it was with deep regret he had alluded to ao painAil a subject oo 

■Mhan oocaaion, bat he fdt he should not be doing justice to his own feelings or to 

the sedef^ at huge, or to the memcnry of Mr. Bell, had he not afforded the Sodelgr 

thia of^ertBBity of endorsing the resolution of their CounciL 

The thanks of the meeting were voted to the Pi^aideut, and the proceedings 

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BY M&. ▲. 7. HA8BLDEN, 

" 0, be some other name ! 
What's in a name ? that, which we call a rase, 
B7 any other name would smell as sweet." 

Thus spoke, through one of his lovdiest and sweetest heroines about three 
hundred years ago, one of the brightest ornaments of English literature ; and 
often since that day have those words been quoted to suit an occasion, but, had 
the author of them lived and flourished in these days of advertising vans and 
illuminated pillars, he would probably have thought and written diflSrently. A 
rose by any other name might smeU as sweet, but by no other word could it 
now be so well expressed, and having so Ions enjoyed that name, by no other 
oould it be so fully appreciated or understood, no other word or appellation 
could convey the same meaning or conjure up so many pleasant thoughts and 
reminiscenaes — ^there is a charm in the very name of rose. 

The rose of England never could flourish under any other desiffnation, it 
would no more be received by any other name than would the thistle of Scotland, 
the shanurock of Ireland, or the uly of France. One might as soon think of re- 
christening Punch, the genuine wonder and delight of our boyhood, or the eo- 
called weddy periodical, which does for our manhood what the original did for 
our youth, efi&cing for a time our cares, and bringing smiles and sunshine in 
spite of ourselves. 

One might as well attempt to call roast beef^ boeuf ^ la mode ; giblet pie, pl^t^ 
de foie gras ; or the all-powerful, prevailing, fashionable colour mauve, plain 
mallow. Any one seriously so incLned, if not looked upon as an enemy to his 
country or a person entirely void of taste, would, without the least hesitation, be 
viewed in the light of a harmless lunatic. 

If, then, there would be so much obvious opposition to, and so much seeming 
disadvantage attending any chance in the designation of things so simple in 
themselves, and purely and simpfy because time and custom had rendered them 
so familiar to us that we could never recognize, value, or comprehend them so 
efficiently under any other name ; if in such every-day simple matters we should 
be found so obdurate to iJteration, and so perfectly satisfied with them as they 
stand at present^ how much more cautious should we be, how much more should 
we weigh, consider, reconsider, and demur ere we change the already established 
and well received names of any of those preparations of Chemistry, Pharma<nr, 
and our own especial Pharmacopoeia, which, in the hands of the skilful and well- 
informed, are means and ways of health and enjoyment of future days to 
thousands of thousands, but which might become, in the hands of the careless, 
or from an alteration imperfectly understood or faintly remembered, instruments 
of error, accident, or even death itself. However desirable it may be in a 
scientific point of view that a substance or preparation should be known and 
called by that name which is generally snpposea to be correct or to convey the 
most pmect representation of its component parts or of its true structure, yet, 
when we see, as we have often, even amons the most learned and scientific, such 
a diversity of opinion respecting them ; when we find men of recognized qusJi- 
fications speaking of the same substance with a diflerent prefix to its real name, 
it would seem better even here to leave matters in the condition they so long 
and so securely enjoyed, rather tiian risk anything by a change, but when we 
turn to medicine and pharmacy, and contemplate the amount of danger arising 
or likely^ to arise from the misconception of a name, a very slight deviation in 
the writing of a word, the annoyance to practitioners to have to re-study the 
vocabular]^ of Pharmacopceia names, or the difficulty young dispensers have to 
contend with (but which is of much less importance, youth being the proper 

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season for study) in becoming acquainted with the nomencUture retained hj old 
practitioners, to say nothing of the fact that the very framers of the names or 
mstigatora of a change become ever and anon disappomted with the result^ and 
when an opportunity occurs, return once more to the discarded of otiier days, 
we are still more impressed with the necessity of caution. Again, tiie simple 
and undeniable fact that many prescribers rather than run the gauntlet between 
hydrargyri chloridum and hrdrargyri bichloridum, prefer writing calomd in 
plain English, and allowing the patient to see what is to be taken, in face of any 
diance of disapproval (this being but one amongst many instances that might 
be quoted, but tnat it would only be enlarging upon a i>oint which has ahready 
been much commented upon), should induce every thinking person who has any 
influence in the matter to pause and consider before the well-understood and 
established name of any preparation is changed, even though it should seemingly 
be for the better ; but if certain names must for the satisfaction or gratifi- 
cation of some who think a change absolutely necessary be altered or remodelled, 
if possible, let some real, substantial, and visible advantage be evident, and the 
probability of error diminished. 

yVlth preparations containing opium it might be wiser and safer to let the 
opiate nature of the compound be apparent — ^thus, tinctura opii camphorata 
seems to me a more suitable name than tinctura camphorss oomposita. The 
comp. may mean any of the many things which enter into compound prepara- 
tions, it may signify ammonia, or a hundred simple substances, or as u many 
would-be large mercantile firms, it may stand for next to nothing and nobody. 
By its present title the camphor is made to f^pear as the chief feature or in^- 
dient, whereas the opium is the important agent, and should be plainly visible 
as such. In the pilula saponis composita the same oversight is very marked, 
the ojnum is the aU-important substance, and should (at least it has always so 
suggested itself to my mind) be ever before the eyes of the prescriber and dis- 
penser, the more so that a pill has been introduced into tne Pharmacopcsia 
oearing an excellent name, and under such, well known and establbhed — ^vic. 
pilula aloes diluta, but which it was deemed expedient to metamorphose into 
pilula aloes c. sapone. It has been advanced as a reason for the alteration in 
these compounds containing opium that the prescriber might find it expedient 
that a patient should remain unconscious of takmg opium ; but in such a ddemma 
there was already the pilula styracis composita, which might be resorted to, or 
the numberless hquid preparations, such as tinctura thebaica, liquor sedativus, 
nepenthe, &c. The same mig^ht be said, with equal Justice and as little real 
reason, of a hundred other similar cases and remedies. Every ph^ic taker 
arrived at years of discretion knows perfectly well the nature of moiphia, chloro- 
form, henbane, foxglove, and even strychnine, but they are daily prescribed and 
swallowed without the slightest hesitation. 

A patient who has not sufficient faith in the skill of his M.D. to take a dose 
of opium, unless it is given secretly, and does not appear upon the surface of 
the prescription, woiSd be equalfy anxious to dispute about a dose of aloes, 
rhubarb, or calomel, and such a case should not be allowed to stand in the way 
of general utility and security. Such a disputant had better discard hb regpular 
attendant, and take his case into his own hands; a proceeding which, if it 
did not restore his health, would be the quickest and surest way of bringing 
him to his senses. 

Ilnctura guaiaci composita and tinctura Valerianae composita, were indifferent 
substitutes for tinctura guaiaci ammoniata and tinctura valerianse ammoniata, 
the comp., as before observed, may signify a variety of things. Ammoniata 
defines at once the nature of the preparation. Spiritus camphors was not well 
changed to tinctura camphorse ; tne same alteration might with as much reason 
hftve been made in fitvour of spiritus rosmarini, mynsticse, juniperi co., &c. 
The impropriety became obvious to the firamers of the FhannaoopoBia names in 
IS61, and consequently they returned to the old name of spiritus camphorse. 
Extractum aloes purificatum, a good sound name, indicating so plainly what 

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wai iBtended, that no mkteke or miiooDoepfioii could trnknowinglf be nude, wm 
eoDTerted into extrafetmn aloes, thus giviag to the waTorer, or the man of eaa7 
conscience, an excuse for using the ordinary resinous inspissated juice ; for the 
commercial article is decidedly an eztnust of aloes, whilst the preparation of the 
FkarraaoopflBia was, and is, Turtnallj a purified extract of aloes, and it is now a 
oommon practice with manjpreaertbera to write eKtraetum aloes a^uMumj ta 
ensure the artide they desure, leading it pnttj clear that in their opiniiNi 
eoctractum aloes does not conreir the same meaning. Similar remarks appear itt 
A great aMaaure equally appltesMe to estraetum opii pnrifieatum, which ii nov 
styled extraetum opiL 

The resin of guaiaenm » now called guaiacum ; one would naturally have 
supposed tiiat &e wood from which the resin is' obtained would have becA 
designated as guaiacum, and the product aoeoiding to its nature or properties^ 
or by tiie same rule resin of palap might haye beoi called jakp; it would be 
somewhttt analogous to bestowmg die real title upon the son of an eari, whilst 
tlw good*iiatnred old gentleman remained content with the second, or title of 

Many more instances might be cited, but enoug^ has been written, " would it 
w«re worthier," to liiow mat a good and suffioent reason for the change of 
certain names has not always hitherto been sufiiciently perceptible. In reference 
to those changes which hare already taken place, it would, I feel, be unwise to 
return now to any former name, even should it haye been proved to be the 
better; use has made the alteration famiUar, although the experience of the 
last eight yean may not have shown the advantage or usefulness thereof, but 
for the future, in framing Our names, let there be no change without a cocre- 
spondii^ adyantafte, or where the gain tn a scientific point of view is inoom- 
patihle with the inconTcnience and danger incurred. But to return to our 
starting point, what^ in a name ? we hare onlv to turn our eyes in any directioi^ 
east, west, north, or soutii, and from that which we hear and see, it becomes 
dear to the most obtuse intellect, that to create a name» a good name^ is every- 
tUng to evefybody. The height of one man^ ambition is to mafae a charitable 
nmne, and consequently every institution finds him a subscriber 4 another to be a 
peiitician, and so every debating society upon legislative measures finds him A 
member; another as a great plwuler, and he makes his way to the bar ; another 
as a 2[reat general, and so he is to be found, regardless of the horrors and 
miseries of war, calculating the destruction of his fellow-creatures, and passing 
with the greatest sang firoid to and firo the battle-field, heedless alike of the dving 
Slid the &ad. As with the professions so it is with trade and commerce, if we 
wish to create a sale for a particular article, or to attract general attention^ 
having prepared or devised the commoditjr, the next thing to be done is to hit 
upon a good name, somethinff trite, easily remembered, neatly turned and 
taking; whether it be an artide of personal sdcMiiment, housdiold furniture, 
culinary convenience, dietetic or memcinaly the name is the thing upon which 
its future rise or ftll mainly depends. 

Widi medicinal compounds or preparations it is by no means uncommon to 
flttd them offered for sale under a name which does not convey a just description, 
but where the name is made c^uite subservient for the purposes of profit. 
Although a lon^, if not a goodly list might be put together, I shall only mention 
two more especially touchmg the Pharmaceutical Chemist, because he is some- 
times called upon to speak ss to the validity of the artides in question ; one of 
these is the castor ou capsule, supposed to contain an avera^ dose of that 
medicine in a condensed or compressed state, whilst in fact it is a mixtura of 
castor and croton oiL Another preparation is the efiervesdng ctfre/e of mag- 
nesia; of the aumy productions sailing under this (deasant name, there are 
some that contain little more than a trsce of, if any, citric acid, and a verr 
homoeopathic quantity of magnesia; 8i^;ar, bicarbonate of soda, tartaric acid, 
and essence of lemcm, with a small amount of macnesia, beii^ in truUi the real 
GOmpositioB. 31iis is a pleasant prepaiattoo, may he equally useful, but certainly 

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18 ntt that wyoh ite name ivpMente it io be. There aire otiian erideetlj 
composed of carbonate of magneaia, bicaibonate of eoda and citric acid, the acid 
being riijgiidj in ezoen, and all carefully and well dried. The efferrescing 
cxtratea in general are yerj unstable compounds, and as such cannot be kept anj 
length of time in a state of themselves to produce mudi effervescence. The 
true citrate of magnesia is not a readily soluble salt. A form was mentioned 
some time ago in the Pharmaceutical Jounud for preparing a soluble citrate of 
magnesia, but I have not yet been able either bj that or any other form to 
produce a eby citrate of magnesia soluble to any great extent, or poaseaaing 
any very distinct effervescing property. 

jN'ow one of the consequent and natural results of offerine any preparation to 
the notice of the profession which is not virtually what it is represented to be, 
18, that a trial of the preparation is not satisfactory, a more particular inquiry 
18 made respecting it, the practitioner discovers to his evident annoyance and 
disappointment tmit his patient has not been taking what he believed, he is 
disgusted at the discovery, turns a deaf ear to the next introduction of probably 
a genuine preparation, looks upon it with distrust, and discards all novelties for 
a considerable period of time. 

There is but one more class of names which I shall at present venture to touch 
upon, that is, where several names are seemingly used towards the same prepa- 
ration, and this is particularly to be observed m the syrup of phosphate of iron, 
sometimea called syrup of superphosphate of iron, and Bometimes syrup of 
pyrophosphate of uron. I have no doubt that generally the sajne preparation is 
tooJced ibr, bat in Ae first, if prepared as the name would imply, an opaqoe 
sjnrap of an insoluble compound is the result ; in the last two, an excess of aoKl 
to tbe phosphate enables the operator to produce a clear preparation, but this is 
mioertain in its strength and unstable m its nature. In order to meet this 
difficulty, the General Apothecaries* Company have introduced a preparation by 
the assistance or addition of citrate of ammonia, to the phosphate of iron, and 
thus a preparation in scales is obtained, analogous to the ammonio-citrate of iron, 
which atni saihi under the name of pyrophosphate of iron, and with which a 
light brown or dark straw coloured syrup is prepared, bearing the tide of syrup 
of pyrof^osphate of iron. .Thus die nanae, well sounding in itself, is given to aja 
article <tf which it does not truly rennesent its real character. With thia 
ooofusioii of nanMs and prtparations the Pharmaoeiitical Chemists and dispensers, 
whether in a large or small way, are sometimes overwhdmed, and the aecumular 
tion of specimens of many of these producdons fills up a large space, without 
any one of them being brou^it to ugfat above once or twice in a lifetime, and 
then, alas ! how changed I 

In partipg with my subject, which has already been too much lengthened, I 
cannot resist repeating how much appears to depend upon a name ; in giving new 
names or altering old ones, let that which shall oonvey the best accounts of the 
preparadon, coi]S>ining as far as possible simplicity ana utility, be the chosen one, 

IB, Coadmi SireU^ Jml^ la, 1859. 



Ob the Composition of Vegetable Cells.— M. Fremy has been engaged in 
some researches on this subject, the results of which he has presented to the French 
Academy. The nature of the liquids wliich are found in the vegetable cell have 
been several times accurately determined, but our knowledge of the insoluble portion, 
or oeQwalb, is very impcarfect. We know that solid matter Is deposited on the 
interior of the cellular membrane, and increases its thickness; several reagents show 
that the chemical composition of these layers is often ternary and often nitrogenous, 
but the insolubility of these bodies in neutral liquids renders their separation at the 
pcetent time impossible, and prevents their composition being properly established. 

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The examination of the regetable ceUular membraneft posseisei, however, very great 
interest both to the Chemif t and the yegetable phyBiologist. We Bee, in fact, these 
membranes undergo during yegetation some remarkable modifications*, in certain 
cases their thickness increases rapidly, while in other cases it diminishes in as notable a 
manner. The latter phenomenon is presented during the ripening of almost all 
fruits. The cell walls of green fruit are at first very thick, and formed of several 
concentric membranes; at the period of maturation, however, these walls become 
rapidly tibihi, as indicated by the changes which take place in the hardness and 
transparency of the fruit. It can also be rigorously determined by analysis. The 
following are the results of the examination of the solid pericarp of two spedes of 
pears taken at different periods of their development and maturation:— 

Per-oeutage of membranous tissue. 
Winter pear. Summer pear. 

Jane 16 17.7 13.4 

«« 24 17.4 13.4 

July 1 14.8 ll.O 

•< 9 14.0 11.0 

«' 17 12.5 11.0 

«« 26 9.2 6.7 

August 4 5.8 6.0 

'* 12 4.8 6.1 

" 20 3.8 4.4 

" 28 3.4 3.5 

Similar analyses to the preceding were mode upon fruits, such as apples, which ripen 
after they are detached from the tree, and which do not alter in size during matura- 
tion. From these experiments it results that the cell walls in these fruits undergo 
a notable diminution of weight during the period of maturation; it therefore became 
interesting to know what were the membranes in the cell walls which were thus 
absorbed at a certain period of the growth. M. Fremy, several years back, showed 
that vegetable tissue contains an insoluble substance, which he named pectose, con- 
stantly accompanying the cellulose, and that under very slight influences this 
body becomes soluble, and is converted into pectine. This modification explained 
the origin of a gummy substance which appears in the juice of fruit which has 
ripened or has been decocted; and it appeared probable that the interior membranes 
of the cell, which become altered, are composed of pectose, whilst the exterior mem- 
brane is formed of cellulose, which is a very stable body. The solvent for cellulose, 
cuprate of ammonia, discovered by M. Sdiweitzer, and sucoessfoUy^employed by M. 
Feligot in determining the composition of the skin of silkworms, afforded the 
nxeans for ascertaining the chemical nature of the walls of vegetable cells. The 
ammoniacal solution of copper may be prepared by the direct action of solution of 
ammonia and atmospheric air on metallic copper, or by dissolving hydrated oxide of 
copper in caustic ammonia. The solution prepared in either of the above ways is a 
perfect and immediate solvent for cellulose. To determine with this reagent the 
composition of the vegetable cells, thin slices of fhiits or roots -re cut up and left to 
digest for some hours in the solution. The cells assume a green colour, swell out, 
and appear to disaggregate. After the action of the reagent, the tissue, examined 
under the microscope, had preserved its original form, but the outline of the cells 
was less distinct. In these experiments care was taken to employ tissues which con- 
tained no trace of starch, in order to avoid any secondary reaction. On examining 
the ammoniaoo cupric solution which had readted on the cells, it was found to contain 
the traces of nitrogenous bodies, and all the cellulose which formed the primarr 
membrane of the cells and fibrous tissue. The proportion of cellulose which 
has been dissolved may be readily determined by saturating the liquor with a weak 
acid, and washing the precipitate with a dilute solution of potash. The green in- 
soluble matter, which has preserved exactly the form of the original cells, consists 
of the poetic substance modified by the action of the reagent. Analysis proves that 
it is formed of pectate of copper ; it is decolorized by the action of acids, and 
leaves a residue of pectic acid which may be entirely dissolved in the alkalies, only 
imponderable traces of mineral matter remaining in the liquid. Thus then, the new 
reagent dissolves the cellulose and the nitrogenous bodies, and it transforms the 
pectose into pectate of copper without, however, at all affecting the shape or form 
which it had in the cell; the acids decompose the pectate of copper, leaving the 

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pectic add iiuolabie. Potash dissolrei the peotic add, predpitating the traces of 
mne sidta. These fiusts leare no doubt of the important part whidi the pectic com- 
poimds play in vegetable organization. In certain cdls these bodies are more 
abundant than the ceUolose itself, they incmst the cells and augment the thickness 
of their walls. 

This new reagent does not attack all cellular membranes. Thus, the pith of 
certain trees and the spongy tissue of diampignons resist its action. It may 
therefore be iniiBrred, seeing that this body instantly dissolTes the cellulose of roots 
and fruits, but exerts no action upon the cells which form the pith of trees, that 
■eyeral species of cellulose ma^ ezisl^ differing in their chemical properties. 

In the coarse of his experiments, M. FTemy obtained from the cells of fruits a 
new and interesting body, which he terms ceUuUc aeuL It is readily obtained by 
submitting the pulp of fruits or roots, from which all soluble matter has been 
remoTed by washing, to the action of Ume. Cellulate of lime is produced, which 
remains disw^Ted in the water, and is predpitated by alcohol. This salt» decom- 
posed by oxalic add, gives the pure cellulio add. This body is soluble in water. 
its addity is comparable to that of malic acid. It forms soluble compounds with 
all the bases, and reduces with gieat facility the salts of gold and silver. This add 
is not derived from cellulose or from pectine, beeause these bodies properly purified 
do not yield it. M. Fremy is still engaged in the investigation of this Ix^y. It 
appears, however, to be of some importance, in a practical point of view. In one 
pooess for prepsring sugar from beetroot, the pulp is subndtted to the action of 
lime before being pressed. The vegetable membrane is thus modified, it loses its 
elastidty, and is more easily expressed, the pectic compound being changed into 
pectate of lime. A juice is then obtained, which is very easily worked, but it 
retuns an alkaline reaction, which carbonic add does not remove, and retains in 
solution a notable proportion of lime salt, which prevents the crystallizing of the 
sugar, and gives it a disagreeable odour. This body proves to be cellulate of lime. 
From the foregoing experiments M. Fremy condudes that the cell walls of fruits or 
roots are formed of different membranes, which microscopic observation cannot 
distinguish, the external membranes being formed essenti Jly of cellulose, and the 
interzuJ of pectic substances. This latter substance is associated in the cell to a 
new principle, which under several influences produces an energetic acid, which he 
terms celliUic acid. 

On the Preparation of Proplonie Acid. — M. Wurtz has shown that when dry 
lactate of lime is heated in a retort with pentachloride of phosphorus, a colourless 
fuming liquid is obtained, consisting of a body, which he has termed chloride of 
lactyle, and to which he assigns the formula C« H4 Os Cls, mixed with some of the 
pentachloride. Dr. Ulrich, in the course of some experiments upon the constitution 
of this body, considered by Wurtz as a chloride of lactyle, found that when, 
decomposed with water it furnished, not lactic add, as it should do according to 
Wurtz's views, but chloropropionic add, together with hydrochloric acid. Dr. 
mrlch therefore regards the body, according to the views of Professor Eolbe, as a 
chloride of cbloropropioxy 1 : — 


To prepare the propionic acid, dry lactate of lime is first distilled with penta- 
diloride or phosphorus, and the dlBtUled Uquid allowed to drop gradually into a 
Tessel of water, xept pwfectly cool, and containing some finely granulated zinc 
An abundant evolution of gas immediately takes place, and when at length the 
drops of oil have entlidy msappeared, and the odour of the distilled product no 
longer perceptible, the add liquid is decanted, diluted with water, and distilled. 
The watery distillate contains a considerable quantity of puro propionic acid, with 
traces of hydrochloric add. This liquid may be neutralized with carbonate of soda, 
the solution evaporated to dryness, and again distilled with sulphuric acid. 

This process is said to be so productive, and to yield so puro a product, as to be 
preferable to all other methods. 

On the Proparatlon of the Red Staphlde, or VermUlon of Antimony.— M. 

Kopp has recently published a process for the proparation of sulphide of antimony, 
which consists in reactbg on chloride of antimony with hyposulphite of lime. He 
does not prepare the ddoride of antimony in the usual manner, by dissolving the 

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nathre nilphide In hjdrodiloiie add, but the nilphide if preriovtlyTOMted, by which 
it it conTerted into oxide or glass of antimony, wliich is then dissolTed in the acid. 
The hyposulphite of lime is prepared hy acting on sulphide or ozysulphide of cakavm 
with the sulphurous acid which is fonned during the roasting of the native snlphide 
of antimony. The oxysulphide, together with water, is put into a wooden box or 
cask, wliich is fitted with an apparatus by which the contents can be k^eonstantly 
agitated. The snlphnrons add gas is then passed through the ressel until the liquid 
becomes slightly acid. The dilute sdution of hyposulphite of line so obtained, after 
aUowing tlw impurities to settle down, is decanted off into a tub^ fitted with a coil of 
pipe, through which steam can be passed so as to heat the liquid. Some of the cfakiide 
of antimony is then poured into the solution of hyposulphite^ while still cold, as long 
as the white precipitate of ozycfaloride which is first formed, oontinQes to dissolve. 
A clear colonrless liquid is thus obtained, which should always contain an excess of 
tiie hyposidphite. This solutioB is then gradually heated and kept coaetantfar 
agitated; in a short time it becomes ydfew, then orange-yeliow, orange, oraage-red, 
sad lastly, almost pure red. The heat must be arrested before the orange tint hu 
entirely disappeared, because if it be too much prolonged, or beeoaws too high, the 
colour will pass to a brown or blackish shade. The vessd is covered over and the 
Termilion of antimony allowed to deposit^ the clear supernatant liqaid is thn 
decanted off into ano^r tnb, and sulphide or ooKysulphide of cafcium adiied milil a 
permanent blaek precipitate of sulpUde of iron begins to form, carefhUy aToidiag 
the addition of an excess of sulphide. Hyposulphite of lime is thus again obtained, 
and may be used for a fteah operation. The mother-liqiiors may thus be used a 
number of times for the reproduction of the hyposnlphtte^ until they beeoao 
saturated with chloride of caldnm. 

The iron wbidi is present in the raother-liqnor is due to the iron whieh always 
aecompanies the cmde antimony, and its presence is an advaatafle, as the hyposul- 
phite of iron acts in the same way as the hyposulphite of Ume, wlidle it also indicates 
idien the liquid is saturated with the sulphide of oaldum. 

The sulphide of antimony deposited at the bottom of the tub is collected, repeatedly 
washed and dried at a gentle heat. It constitutes a pigment wlueh is unaJfecttA by 
ahr, li^t, sulphuretted hydrogen, or the weak adds. 

On the Maawfactiire of Snlpbate of Basrta.— Some manufacturers are in 
the habit of preparing sulphate of baryta, or ** baryta white,*' for use as a pigment, 
by dissolTing the natire carbonate in hydrochloric acid and predpitating with sul- 
phuric add; the hydrochloric add is thus again set frt^ and may be used for a fheah 
operation. M. Pelomee has shown that this process may be much simplifled by 
treating the natire carbonate^ in sraidl lumps, with diluted sul|jfanrie acid, to which 
a rery small quantity of hydrodikric add has been added, and keeping the mixture 
heated to near its boiling point. Under these drcumstanoes, the lumps of caAonate 
are speedily attacked and resolred into a fiae whifee powder, consisting entirely of 
the sulphate of baryta. If the same exp eriment be poformed, omitting tlie minute 
quantity of hydrochloric add, scarcely any action whaterer takes |^ce. The 
hydrochloric acid acts as a carrier of the baryta to the sulphuric add. M. Pdonae 
found, upon treating pieces of marble in a similar manner, that the reaction took 
place with much less readiness, and was rery imperfect. This process is not, there« 
BNre, ayailaUe for the deeompositioa of muble. 

Ankydnraa Snlpliata of Alnmlna.— M. PersoK has pofaited mrt a means by 
which this body may be readily prepared. We know that when biehroraate of 
potash is heated with a considerable excess of concentrated snlphnric add, a 
portion cf oxygen of the chromic add is expdled, and anhydrous sulphate of 
chromium, together with bisulphate of potash, results. If this residoe be washed 
with water, the bisulphate of potash is dissdTed out, and tlie pure anhydrous 
sulphate of chromium remains insduUe. So, if ferrocyanide of potassium is heated 
with a Tery large excess of oil of Titriol, carbonic oxide gas is liberated, and 
anhydrous persulphate of iron formed, which, in consequence of its insohibility, may 
be readily purified from the soluble sulphates which accompany it. This sslt^ 
•abmitted to the peolongsd action of water, gradually becomes bydrated» and 
assumes all the dNnacteis which we recognise as belonginf to persalphate of irao. 
It appears, therefore^ to be an ener,in aMny cases where peroxide of iron and strong 
sulphuric add react together, to suppose that an inaolnhla j«6-salidiate is foimed, 
the result being due to the anhifdrtnu neutral sulphate. 

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ftom the greet analogy which ezntt between the ozjgen compevndt of alnmt- 
iinim, chromimn, and iitm, it may be presamed that anhydroiM sulphate of aluauDft 
may be fbnned under analogont, if not identical, conditions to those by which the 
corresponding salts of iron and chromium are obtained. When alum or the sulphate^ 
the chloride, or the nitrate of alumina — ^in fact, any salt of id«niia immediately 
attackable by sulphuric acid — is treated with a great eicess of concentrated and 
boiling sulphuric acid, an abundance of anhydrous sulphate of alumina is pioduoed 
in the form of a white farinaceous powder, rather haiyier than the oil of yitrioL 

If some pure alum, with about ten times its weight of strong sulphuric acid, be 
heated in a platinum yessel until thrae-quarten of the add employed is driyen away, 
a residue is obtained, which may be washed three or fo«r times witii water,* to re- 
Bioye the bisulphate of potash and excess of acid, and the insoluble portion collected 
on a filter and pressed. A soft white powder is thus obtained, without taste or 
odour, without any action on test papers^ and which, when subinitted to analysis^ 
ftimishes sulphuric acid and alumina in the proportions to form a neutnl but anhy- 
dnnu salt, thus: — 


t * n 

I. n. OUenbted. 

SC 70.113 70.048 7a07 

AkOt 29.943 29.898 29.98 

Tfaie onaposition can be ooDflrBsed by a simple experiment, which consists in 
bollhig a pertisn of the substance in water fbr some time; the salt slowly dissolves^ 
tenishmg^ a perfectly transparent solution, which strongly reddens litmus paper, 
mad whsdb, eyaponrted to a syrupy oonsistence^ and mixed with a little alcohol 
depos ita definite crystals of hydrstcd sulphate of alumina. M. Persoz also 
■niUl/iils that thia piooeos might constitute a means of manufiEicturing alum from 
kryolile, « doable fiuoiide of sodium and aluminium, in case that mineral should 
ultimately beoome BMoe abundant By distiUiag this substance with oil of yitiio!, 
hydroflnorie acid mixed with sulphuric add would pass oyer, and anhydrous sul- 
phate of alumina be obtained, which might be washed, then boiled in water, and the 
salt of potash addedL 

Ob Acetate of AlomiBa.— M. 'Hsner has indicated that if gelatinous alumina 
be dissolyed in acetic acid, so as to obtahi a Kquid haying a dend^ of 8^ or ^^^ 
Bkom^ and the solution be presenred in well-stoppered bottles for any length of 
time, a more or less crystalline white precipitate is deposited, contaiDing the whole 
of the alumina; and the liquid becomes strongly aeid, but tetains only a trace of the 
base. This precipitate is insoluble in water, dissolyes with difllci^y in the weak 
adds, and yery readily in caustic dkaliee. Seyeral analyses of this body established 
Ibr it the following formula: — 

Al, 0. 2 (C4 H, Ok) + « HO. 

It does not oontnn any trace of pota^ or soda. 


WW M. wanrnLUN bbstbxuw. 

( Gntiimud jTCiM poff^ 480./ 

5> Action of a MixHtre of ^uJIphidt of Carbon, Su^huretted Hydrogen, and Oxide of 

Carbon upon Metallic Jroa.— The preceding experimenU establish the formation of 

marsh gas in the simultaneous action of sulphide of carbon and a hydrogenated gas 

upon the metal. The formation of defiant gas, howeyer, although demonstrated by 

its regeneration fVom the bromide, is not yery considerable, and it became desirable 

to deyise some means of augmenting its proportion. It was thought that this object 

might be attained by using, instead of a single carbon compound which would tend 

te produce a caibide but little condensed, such as marsh gas, a mixture of two 

eompouadfl, ae being mure Ukdy to form olefiant gas, which contains twice the amount 

ef ^'ft ^ ^ff q in an equal yoUune. In fact, the process which has furnished the best 

BBsnlts censiste in adding to a mixture of sulphide of carbon andsulphuietted hydrogen 

* Dilate aloohd may be used to remoye the last tracss of acid without risk of bydiatiDg ths 

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ftoother gas, oxide of carbon, and making the whole to react on metallic iron. Under 
these circanuitances the affinities of the iron and the hydrogen are concurrent, and 
nascent carbon results £rom two different sources, namely, the sulphide of carbon 
and the oxide of carbon. It therefore tends to enter into a higher order of combina- 
tion. The following are the details of the experiment:— 

Currents of sulphuretted hydrogen and oxide of carbon are passed into a tri- 
tubulated bottle where they are mixed, they are^then dried by chloride of calcium, 
and passed through a flask containing smphide of carbon; the mixture of the 
three bodies is then directed over metallic iron heated to dull redness, from thence 
the gases pass through the condensing yessels to the pneumatic trough. 

The sulphuretted hydrogen is produced by the action of diluted sulphuric acid 
upon sulphide of iron prepared by the wet method. It is purified in a washing bottle. 
The oxide of carbon, prepared by the mineral process, is preTiously dissolved in an 
add solution of chloride of copper; 4 to 5 litres of this solution are then placed in a 
flask and gently heated, when the gas is disengaged with perfect regularity. It is 
washed, fist with water, then by passing through a layer of bromine under water, 
and lastly with a strong solution of caustic soda. The metallic iron intended to 
decompose the gas is contained in a copper cylinder, having each end shaped in the 
form of a hemisphere, into which a copper tube is soldered. This apparatus, which 
has a capacity of above a litre, is the only one which answers the purpose well. It 
has a considerable internal capacity, thus enabling a large quantity of material to 
be operated upon at once, and being of an elongated form, it gives time for the 
reaction to be completed. Copper also is the only material which can be conveniently 
used, as the vessel has to sustain considerable and sudden variations of temperature, 
whidi excludes the xise of glass or earthenware. It is necessary to close the apparatus 
with very fine corks without the use of any kind of luting. In the copper cylinder 
is introduced as large a quantity of iron turnings as possible, which have been 
previously well washed, sorted, and then calcined, to destroy all organic matter. 
The cylinder, arranged horizontally, is then heated to redness, and a current of pure 
hydrogen passed through, in order to reduce all the iron to the metallic state. To 
attain this result requires nearly three days. During this reduction the tubes 
passing from each end of the cylinder are kept cold by means of water, in order to 
protect the corks. When the reduction of the iron is complete, the mixture of gases 
U passed through while the apparatus is at a dull red heat, and a regular current is 
continued imtil the heated copper, contained in a green glass tube following the 
metallic cylinder, is attacked by the sulphur compounds. The experiment is then 
stopped. The gases, after belDg desulphurized in the cylinder, and having traversed 
the glass tube which follows it, pass through a cooled fiask and then into a washing 
bottle containing acetate of lead, intended as a test. From these they bubble through 
an eprouvette containing bromine, are washed by a solution of soda, and then 
collected over water. The bromides formed during the experiments are isolated by 
treating the bromine fh>m the eprouvette with solution of soda, and separating the 
heavy neutral liquid, which is insoluble in the aqueous liquor. The larger part of 
the bromide thus obtained distilled between 125<> and 130° C. a very small quantity 
of a compound remaining in the retort which appeared to contain a derivative o( 

The gas regenerated fh>m the bromide by means of water, copper, and iodide of 

eDtassium. heated together in a sealed tube to 275° C, was found by amdysis to 
ave the following composition :-« 

defiant gas 90 

Hydride of ethyle 5 

Carbonic acid 2 

Nitrogen 3 


These results establish the formation of defiant gas by means of sulphide of carbon. 
A notable proportion of the sulphide contributes to this formation. The proportion 
of carbon contained in the defiant gas rising to a sixteenth of the carbon contained 
Id the sulphide : that is to say, 32 Utres of the vapour of suli^ide of carbon may 
furnish 1 litre of defiant gas. The proportion of carbon which contributes to the 

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temation of marsh gas is mnch more considerable, for 9 litrefl of rapoar of stilphide 
famish upwards of 1 of marsh gas. 

The marsh gas obtained by these procofises may be separated ftom the hydrogen 
with whieh it is mixed, md obtained in a state of purity. The gas, baring been 
washed with bromine, is agitated with absolute alcohol, previously boiled, and, after 
a sufficiently prolonged agitation to saturate the alcohol, under a pressure slightly 
superior to the atmosphere, a small flask Is exactly filled with the solution, and then 
boiled. Ordinary means are adopted to isolate the gas which is disengaged. 

To demonstrate the complete identity of the oleflant gas prepared by means of 
sulphide of carbon with the ordinary oleflant gas, it was considered necessary to 
conrert it into the characteristic alcoholio oompounds. The gas obtained in the 
experiment last described was agitated with concentrated sulphurio add. The 
absorption took place in the characteristic gradual manner, requiring rery prolonged 
agitotion. When terminated, the acid was diluted, aroidmg any notable rise of 
temperature, saturated with carbonate of baryta, and the suIphoTinate of bai^ta 
dystallized out This salt was then heated in an oil bath to between 200^ C*) and 
SSO® C, with benzoate of potash and benzoic ether obtained. 

These experiments, therefore, furnish another method by which the synthesis of 
marsh gas, of oleflant gas, and of alcohol may be realized by means of the simple 
bodies of which they are constituted, 

Aetiaii of tnercU Hydrogmated Bodies on Sulphide of Carbon,^^Th9 experiments 
winch have been described are the most decisive as to the transformation of sulphide 
of carbon into carbides of hydrogen : seyeral others, however, were made, which are 
interesting as showing in all lights the affinities which concur to the union of carbon 
with hydrogen. 

Ist Direct action of the hydrogenated gases upon sulphide of carbon. The action 
of hydrogen upon sulphide of carbon at a dull red heat gives rise at first to a 
deposition of sulphur arising from the oxidation of the sulphide by the air in the 
apparatus, but after that no further change appears to take place. 

Arseniuretted hydrogen, saturated with the vapour of sulphide of carbon and then 
heated, is decomposed with the formation of a little sulphide of arsenic and sulphu- 
retted hydrogen, but without any sensible deposit of carbon. A little marsh gas 
appears to be formed. 

The action of hydrochloric acid gas at a dull red heat upon sulphide of carbon is 
practically nothing. Ammonia gas, even in the presence of copper, also furnishes 
no gaseous carbides. 

It is diffivent, howerer, with hydriodic add gas ; this reaction is efiected by 
directing the mixture of this gas with sulphide of carbon through a porcelain tube 
heated a littie above a dull red heat. There is formed some carbon having a metallic 
appearance, iodine, some firee sulphur, and probably hydrosulphuric acid. At the 
same time there passes unaltered some sulphide of carbon, hydriodic acid, and some 
pbosphoretted hydrt^gen (resulting from the iodide of phosphorus employed). A 
little oxide of carbon and carbonic acid are produced by the air in the apparatus, 
and hydrogen, and a certain proportion of gaseous hydrocarbons, are simultaneously 
formed. The volume of the latter is small, amounting only to 20 cubic centimetres 
io an experiment in which 50 grammes of iodide of phosphorus were operated upon. 
The gaseous mixture obtained in this experiment was analyzed by removing the 
hydriodic add vrith water, and taking out fh>m one portion the sulphuretted hydrogen 
and carbonic add together with potash, and then the phosphoretted hydrogen with 
sulphate of copper, while from Uie other portion the phosphoretted hydrogen and 
sulphuretted hydrogen were removed together by sulphate of copper, and then the 
carbonic add with potash. The oxygen was afterwards absorbed by pyrogallio acid, 
the vapour of sulphide of carbon by potash moistened with alcohd, and the gas 
washed. One portion of this gas was tiien exploded in the eudiometer, and another 
portion treated with bromine to remove defiant gas, then with chloride of copper to 
absorb the oxide of carbon, the residue exploded in the eudiometer, and the nitrogen 
determined dbrectiy. The last combustion enables the proportion of hydrogen and 
marsh gas to be determined, and, by comparing it with the first, it should verify the 
defiant gas ; some uncertainty exists with the latter gas, however, arising firom the 
difiiculty of previously separating the. whole of the phosphoretted hydrogen and 
sulphide of carbon . The following was the result :— 

YOL. I. K 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Mtinhgr« •• 17-5 

defiant gas 7 

Oxide of carbon.... » 2 

Hydrogen 83.5 

Nitrogen 40 


The Reciprocal action of hjdrLodic acid and sulphide of carboo, therefore, at * red 
heat» gives birth to marsh gat, and probably to oieBant gag, supposing the phospho- 
letted hydrogen takes no part in the phenomena. The reaction can be conceived in 
consequence of the fiMuUfc/ with which hydriodic acid is decomposed, furnishing 
nascent hydrogen ; but it is not easy to state precisely the true play of affinities 
which contribute to the formation of carbides of hydrogen . The proportion of these 
carbides obtained is rery small in relation to the weight of the hydriodic acid gas; 
for, to obtain 1 Utie of hydrocarbons, it is necessary to employ 3 kilogcanuues of 

3nd. Action of nascent hydrogen upon auYphoxybromide of carbon. If we'.leavefor 
several months a mixture of bromine and sulphide of carbon in presence of water, a 
particular liquid compound is formed, which contains bromine, sulphur, oxygen, aod 
carbon. It suffices to mix the two bodies for tlie formation of this compound to 
commence. To isolate this body the mixture is agitated with potash uatil 
decolorized, and a heavy liquid, colourless or slightly orange, and having a peculiar 
»nd extremely tenacious odour, is separated, and submitted to distillatioo, the more 
volatile portions being rejected, as consisting principally of sulphide of carbon. The 
portions passing over between 1 50° and 200° Cent, contains carbon, bromine, sulphur, 
and oxygen, but no hydrogen. Treated with a strong solution of soda, it slowly 
dissolves, forming sulphate of soda, bromide of sodium, &c^ and a particular salt, 
crystallizing in rhomboidal tables, containing the above elements with sodium. The 
sulphoxybromide of carbon heated to 250° with water and zinc, yielded hydrogen, 
carbonic acid, and a small proportion of a combustible carbonized gas. Heated to 
275^ C. with copper, water, aud iodide of potassium, it yielded carbonic acid, hydrogen, 
and oxide of carbon. With water and iodide of potassium it produces carbonic 
acid, sulphide of carbon, oxide of carbon, &c This compound^ in lact, did not give 
satisfactory results in the production of hydrocarbons. 

3rd. Decomposition of sulphide of carbon by nascent hydrogen at 275** C. Sul- 
phide of carbon, zinc, and water, were heated in a sealed tube to 225° for fifteen 
hoars. The tube was then opened under mercury, and the gas disengaged analyzed. 
It was treated with moist sulphate of copper for several minutes to remo*ve sulphu- 
vetted hydrogen (a small quantity of sulpliide of carbon is removed at the same time), 
then with caustic potash to take out the earbonic acid. FyrogaUic acid and potash 
produced no alteration. Tlie remainder was treated with potash and alcohol, to 
remove the sulphide of carbon, and theu with bromine, which effected no alteratioa 
)n its volume i the residue was then exploded iu the eudiometer, aud gave 

Marsb gas .....^ ^. 3.7 

Hydrogen ..«.•,......»«... 76L6 

IfitrcfM 19.T 


To tike mixture of sulphide of carbon, water, and zum, waa added potash to 
ftcrtitate the eUnUnation of the sulphur. The mixture heated to 275° furnished 
pttre hydrogen. 

Copper and water do not act sensibly on sulphide of carbon at 250**. Copper, 
mtter, and io^de of potassium, heated to 275^ with sulphide of carbon for five hours 
completely destroyed it, with fbrmation of carbonic acid an/i hydrogen, a little 
Sflilphttrette^ hydrogen, and a trace of a combustible gas, wldch appeared to be 
marsh gas. loMe of petaasium, water, and sulphide of carbon at 275°, only 
yielded svdiplraretted hydrogen and carbonic acid. 

TVans/brmatUm of Marth G99 into Ftoptfkne.—yixnh gas is the simplest and 
least condensed of the carbides of hydrogen *; one litre ot the gas containing only half 
a gramme of carbon, while all the other known hydrocarbons contain at the least 
one gramme of carbon to the litre. The synthesis of marsh gas also is the first 

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step in the STiithfitia of hydrocarbons; we can then go further and lubmU the marsh 
gas itf elf to aeyeral reactions : one depending on the intermediate formation of new 
liquid compoandsysnd especial! j on the synthesis of wood spirit, as already described, 
and others lesulUng &om the direct action of seyeral gaseous bo£es upon the marsh 
gas itself. This gas is noi only the poorest in carbon of all the gaseous hydrocarbons, 
bat its hydrogen is in a greater proportion to the carbon than occurs in other gas; 
Uis this which indicates its name, protocarbiile o£ hydrogen, and its formula Ct H4,. 
aooordixig to which hydrogen constitutes one-fourth of the weight of the gasL If then 
we remoTe from marsh gas a portion of this hydrogen, by means of moderate actions 
ve may hope to obtain one of the other kaewn carbides richer in carbon and moze 
condefied. To effect the removal of this portion of hydrogen, several methods were 
devised, ench as orfgen or dilorine, employed in small quantities with the aid of 
U» eleotric spark or the sun's light ; or again by the action of bromine, iodine, 
carbonic acid, &c^ at a red heat; but the process which was most lucceasful consisted 
m reacting on the marsh gas witli oodde of carbon at a red heat. The two gases 
were made to pass together through a green glass tube, heated to dull redness, and 
inied with pieces of pumice-stene. In this way a small quantity of propylene (C« H«) 
was obtained. This formatioa appears to be due to the seaction of two volumes of 
TTSFf** gas upoB one volume of oKide of carbon. 

2 C, H. + C, Ofc = U H» + 2 HO. 
The oxide of carbon was disengaged from its solution in chloride of copper, washed 
Ify passing first throng^ water, Uien through two eprouvettes, each oontaining bro- 
■une, and then mixed in a tri tubulated flask with the marsh gas. 

The marsh gas was produosd by the distillation of a mixture of fhsed acetate of 
soda and soda lime. It was washed, first with water, then in two vessels, each con- 
takiing bromine under a layer uf water, and lastly, mixed vrith the oxide of carbon. 
The two gases w^e then passed together through bromine, a concentrated solution of 
ioda, and then mto the green glass tube containing pumice-stone. This tube was 
lieated to doE rednessL At the end of the tube was placed a cooled flask, a vessel con- 
taining water; an eprouvette with bromine, and lastly a bottle hoUCng solution of soda. 
The experiment was continued for several hours. At the end, the bromine was dis* 
solved in an alkali, and a small quantity of a lieavy neutral bromide separated. This 
was decomposed, iod the gas obtained from it analyzed. It gave— 

Fropyfene 72 

Bydride of propyle 16 

Carbooie aekl ..... 4 

Ifitrogen 8 


The formation of propy!eiie under the preceding conditions is then as experimental 
fact, but a question may be raised as to the real origin of this gas, which it is 
important not to overlook. The marsh gas used in its production was not obtained 
firom mineral substances, but by the distillation of acetate of soda in presence of an 
alkali. It is true the acetic acid may be prepared fh>m mineral elements, for example, 
from alcohol derived from the olefiant gas, as before described; but marsh gas is not 
the only body which is fbrmed in the distillation of acetates. There are formed, at 
the same time, gaseous carbides of hydrogen absorbable by bromine, acetone, and 
several empyreumatic liquids. Can these several produets contribute to the formation 
of 'propylene, or may not this gas pre-exist mixed with the marsh gas ? Without 
entirely refuting this objection, it may be said that the experiment was made under 
conditioBs best suited to the eliminatioa of all products foreign to the marsh gas, 
far tbe gas w«» washed three suceessive times in bromine, and the last washhigs did 
not contain a trace of liquid bromie insoluble in aUcalL The bromine also arrests 
and destroys, not only the foreign gases, but also the empyreumatic vapour. The 
experiment, moreover, was repeated with the same apparatus, but without disengag- 
ing the oxide of carbon, and no trace of bromide of propylene or analogous bromide 
was obtained. We may admit, therefore, if noi with certainty, at least with great 
probability, that propylene is formed in the reaetioB of marsh gas on oxide of carbon* 

Thud Part.— TVaiM/ormatiba of Chlorides of CarUn into Carbides of Hydrogen. 

The compounds whidi carbon forms with the simple bodies present peculiar 
characters and propertieB which distinguish them lor the most part from other 


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compounds. These diilbrenoes are alreadj perceptible in the oxides of carbon, which 
may, howeTer, be justly compared with the oxides formed bv the other metalloids. 
They become more obyious in the sulphide of carbon, which, if analogous to the 
ethereal compounds in its physical properties, can be still assimilated to the other 
sulph-acids. But these peculiarities are yery strikinff when we study the chlorides 
of carbon. In fact, the chlorides formed bjr the other metalloids are almost br 
nature acid, or capable of giving rise to aoids by decomposition in contact with 
water. The liquids dissolre or destroy with great energy. On the contrary, the 
dilorides of canxm are bodies insoluble in water, and perfectly neutral to either adds 
or alkaline reagents. In a word, these chlorides possess in a high degree the properties 
of ethers, that is to say, of the most characteristic compounds of organic diemlstry^ 
and the least analogous to compounds formed by the reciprocal union of simple bodies, 
with the exception of carbon. These special properties of the chlorides of carbon, 
which already resemble those of the carbides of hydrogen, coincide therefore with a 
marked difficulty in the union of chlorine with carbon, with a weak stability, and 
witii great Yariety in the products of this combination. While carbon unites directly 
with sulphur and oxygen, and the compounds formed withstand extremely derated 
temperatures, carbon and chlorine do not combine directly, and a red heat suffices 
to destroy all their combinations. The chlorides of carbon, at first formed by means 
of the carbides of hydrogen, haye only within the last few years been produced by 
mineral processes. M. Kolbe first produced them in this way by making chlorine to 
act on sulphide of carbon. In this way four distinct chlorides are obtained : the per- 
chloride, Cs CI4; the sesquichloride, C4 Clei the protocbloride, C* CU; and the chloride 
of Julin, generally represented as C4 Clt, but to which experiments appear to assign 
the formula Caa Qio. 

The powerM affinities of chlorine render the conyersion of these chlorides into 
carbides of hydrogen, thus establishing their synthesis by a third dass of reactions, 
comparatiydy easy. In &ct, it is only necessary to act upon these chlorides of 
carbon with ttee hydrogen at a dull red heat, to separate the dblorine as hydrochloric 
add, a portion of the carbon being set free, and another portion uniting with the 
hydrogen to form carbides of hydrogen, corresponding to the chlorides decomposed. 
Qlie experiment was performed by yaporizing the chloride in a current of hjitogen 
properly regulated, and passing the mixture through a green glass tube filled with 
pumice-stone, and heated to a point between dull and bright redness, according to 
circumstances. After trayersing the tube the gas passed through a cold flask, a 
bottle with water, an eprouvette containing bromine, a washing bottle with solution 
of soda, and was then odlected oyer water. Under these conditions the perdiloride 
of carbon, C3 CI4, and the sesquichloride, Ci Cle, ftimished a considerable proportion 
of defiant gas, Ci H4, and a certain quantity of marsh gas, C9 H4. 

The gas obtained from the perchloride of carbon gaye-- 

Marsh gas 2 

Hydrogen 98 

From the sesquichloride^ 

Marsh gas 5 

Hydrogen 95 

The gases absorbed by the bromine were regenerated as in the other cases. 
The gas, absorbable by bromine, produced from the perchloride of carbon, gaye— 

defiant gas 80 

Hydride of ethyle 15 

l^itrogen 5 

From the sesquichloride — 

Olefiantgas 24.0 

Hydride of ethyle 2.3 

Hydrogen 2.3 

Oxide of carbon 1.3 

Nitrogen 10.0 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


From tbe protochloride — 

Oleflantgas 77.0 

Hydride of ethyle 3.5 

Hydrogen 3.5 

Oxide of carbon 14.0 

Nitrogen 2.0 

Tbe chloride of Julin, heated to bright redness in a current of hydrogen, produced 
a large quantity of a crystalline body presenting the properties of naphthaline, Cjo H,. 
The chlorides of carbon employed in the experiments were all prepared by means 
of chlorine and sulphide of carbon. These results furnish then a new means of 
obtiuning defiant gas/marsh gas, and naphthaline, by means of the simple bodies of 
which they are constituted. 



I PXBL for many reasons induced to publish the following case of poisoning with 
hachisch. Some consider Cannabis Indica, and all its preparations, to be but Utile 
dangerous; and many are inclined to award them a place rather among luxuries 
than among poisons. But indeed the idea of what entitles a substance to be referred 
to either the former or the latter category is so uncommonly elastic, that we do not 
hesitate to class at will a great number of things at one time among luxuries, at 
another^ among poisons. Thus Yon Bibra, in his excellent work on the Narcotic 
Aliments, has not scrupled to adopt arsenic among the number; and, according to 
the interesting researches of Falk on Caffein, no toxicologist can henceforth be found 
&ult with if he transfers coffee and tea, and in short, all parts of yegetables con- 
taining caffdn, to toxicology, inasmuch as this alkaloid evidently possesses poisonous 
properties, for it has long been known that very concentrated inlUsions of tea and 
coffee are capable of producing phenomena of poisoning. Numerous as are the com- 
Qmoicatioiis on record in reference to psychical alienations produced by the pre- 
parations of haohisch, accurately described cases of intoxication by this drug, to the 
aegree of endangering life, are still to be supplied. I should wish, by the recital of 
the following case, to spare any who, in the belief that hachisch is scarcely to be 
looked on as a dangerous remedy, might thoughtlessly giye it in large doses, in 
whatever form it may be imported from tbe East, the terror and anxiety its employ- 
ment caused me. 

I had already, many years before, in consequence of several experiments made 
both with the inmsion of the herb Cannabis Indioa^ brought from the East, and with 
its different preparations, especially with various kinds of hachisch, and with the 
alcoholic extract of the plant, as also with both the Cannabis Indiea and Cannabis 
waHva cultivated in this country, been convinced from most of the trials of this 
remedj that^ on the one hand, not only the different preparations and the difference 
of locally where the plant had been cultivated, but also the mode of preservation, 
and espeoally the difference in age of one and the same part of the plant, and the 
time of preservation of one and the same preparation, essentially influenced its 
activity; and that, on the other hand, the individuality of the person experimented 
ou played a very important part in determining the effects of the rem^y. If the 
latter proposition be more or less true of all substances acting on the nervous 
system, bat especially on the brain, and is, therefore, particularly to be observed of 
narootics; there is among the last-named substances, according to my experiments 
with them— most of which were tried on the same individuals— no other substance 
of which it is so true as of Cannabis Indiea^ and all its derivatives; a fact I have 
already pointed out in my Lehrbuch der Pharmahdhgie^ pp. 491—95. 

In the autumn of 1856 a consignment of various kinds of hachisch, addressed fVom 
Bucharest by the apothecary there, Dr. Steege, to Dr. G. Martins, reached Vienna; 
and from the latter gentleman I obtained permission to take as much of each variety 
as I should find necessary for my objects, of which permission I moderately availed 
myself. I determined to subject the specimens to physiological experiment, inas- 
much as they differed in their external appearance from the sorts of hachisch I 
already possessed, and which I had previously tried. Among them was a prepara- 
tion beanng the name of <*Birmingi,'* while on the label of the glass containing it 
was marked " macht Keif (that is, produces laughter), ten gran.*' From this super- 

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Bcription I could infer nothing else than that, in the East, they were accustomed to 
take the preparation in ten.grain doses, and that this quantity threw those who took 
it into an agreeable frame of mind, and produced laugliter. 

The preparation belongs to the solid varieties of hachi»di; is in the form of tablets, 
which are very hard and difficult to break; externally it is coloured almost black, 
and is smooth ; on section, or on the under surface, it presents in the centre a dirty 
greenish-grey colour; it has an uneven fracture; its smell is very slight, it is only 
finom the fresh surface of fracture that an odour calling to mind that of the herb of 
the Cannabis Indiea is obtained; the taste is neither bitter nor aromatic, but rather 
ixuipid; on prolonged mastication the very tough mass becomes gradually pappy, 
and eventually dissolves in the saliva, leaving a crumbling solid substance; irritation 
of the throat also ensues when the drug is chewed for a long time. This species is, 
therefore, essentially different from that imported from Egypt, with which I had 
instituted several ezperiraents, and which I have more accurately described in my 
Phcurmakognosie, page 130; but it differs still more from the soft varieties of the 

Of this "Binning!,'' Dr. Heinrich — who had ftilly tried most narcotics, and in my 
former experiments on Cannabis Indiea had taken several preparations of titts drug 
wi^out manifesting any particular susceptibility of them, but rather always served 
as a check if more violent effects had occurred from narcotics in other individuals, 
when a steady excitability constantly manifested itself in him — took ten gruns at 
half-past five in the afternoon of the 6th of May, in the present year. He chewed 
this quantity for about an hour, during which it gradually dissolved and was 
swallowed; only the insoluble solid residuum, amounting to about two grains, wtm 
8pt out. Irritation of the throat, eructation, and slight nausea ensued. The 
attempt to smoke a cigar in the open air had to be given up, on account of dryness 
and roughness in the throat Dr. Heinrich took a walk in the town, and inspected 
the print-shops and play-bills without perceiving any chmge in himself. At the 
end of an hour and a half, that is, about seven o'clock, he met an acquaintance, to 
whom he talked all kind^ of nonsensical trash, and made the most foolish compari- 
BOOS ; from this, everything he looked at seemed to him ridiculous. This condition 
of excitement — ^in which his face and eyes got redder and redder, the subjective h^ 
of the body considerably increased, and the feeling of facility of motion became con- 
stantly more distinct — ^lasted about twenty minutes. Suddenly a great degree of 
sadness came over him ; everything was too narrow for him; he acquired a disturbed 
appearance, became pale; his sadness increased to a feeling of anxiety, accompanied 
by the sensation as If his blood was flowing in a boiling state to his head ; the 
feeling as if his body was raised aloft, and as if he was about to fly up, was particn* 
larly characteristic. With the oppression of the chest was combined a sensation of 
compression and tightness in the prtecordial region. His anxiety and weakness 
overcame him to such a degree that he was obliged to collect all the power of his 
will, and his companion had to seize him firmly under the arm, in order to bring 
him on, which was done in all haste, as he feared a new attack, and wished, if pos- 
sible, first to reach a place where he could be taken care of; but in the course of 
three minutes, while he was still walking, the attack set in with increased violence. 
It was only with great difficulty he reached the FharnMicological Institute; here he 
immediately drank two pints of cold water, and washed his head, neck, and arms 
with fresh water, on which he became somewhat better. The improvement, however, 
lasted only about five minutes. He sat down on a chair, and unfbrtunately (as he 
observes in his Report^ felt his pulse, which he found to be very small and slow, 
with very long intervals. He was no longer in a state to take out his watch to 
ascertain more exactly the frequency of his pulse, for the feeling of anxiety came 
oyer him again, and with it he traced the premonitory symptoms of a new and 
violent attack. He was brought into the adjoining chamber, stripped himself partly 
of his clothes, and gave over his things, directing what was to be done with them 
after his death, for he was firmly convinced that his last hour had struck, and con- 
tmually cried out, **I am dying; I shall soon be undergoing dissection in the dead- 
room." The new attack was more violent than the former were, so that the patient 
retained only an imperfect degree of consciousness, and at the height of the paroxysm 
even this disappeared. After the fit, too, consciousness returned but imperfectly j 
only so much remained in his recollection that tlie images which rose within him 
constantly increased hi ghastliness until they gave way to tho unconscious state, toA 

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CASE or poisoNina with haohiscr. 127 

that gnuliullj, with retnrning ooiMciomneat, less fbrmidable flgu^ Appearad in 
their stead. Subsequeotly he stated that it appeared to him as if he vere transported 
from the level surface to a hill, thence to a steep precipice, thence to a bare rock, and 
lastl/ to the ridge of a hill, with an immense abyss before him. From this time ha 
oooid no longer oontrol the current of ideas following one another with impetuous 
haste, and he could not avoid speaking uninteiruptedljr until a fresh attack came oii» 
which quite deprired him of consciousness for some minutes. 

At this time (a quarter past eight) I was called to Dr. Uetnricliy and did not leave 
huB until all danger was over. Bef<«e I report my observations, I shall let him 
describe his own case: — 

"The flow of my ideas had now free course, and Botwithatanding my gnat 
loquaci^, I could utter only a few words of what I imagined. All my thoughts and 
deeds from my childhood came into my mind. I believed that I had^ although im- 
perfectly, spi^en out my whole character. The fear of dying no longer indeed laid 
bald on me to the same degree as before, yet I remember to have said that thccr 
should leave me, for what and as I then was, I should be always. The senses of 
light and hearing were unimpaired, for when I opened my eyes I knew all those who 
were standing about me, and equally recogiiized them by their voices when my eyes 
were closed; and I answered what they said in some suitable words, without con- 
necting the latter, as my speech was soon subordinated to my fertile imagination. I 
cannot reooUect the moment when Professors Briicke and Schroff came to me^ 
neither did I know that sinapisms were applied to me, and that my feet were rubbed 
with brashes. It was not until the second day that I perceived this from the son 
apots on the hack of my left foot: the sensibility of my skin was much blunted. Nor 
can I recollect when the severe rigour occurred which was observed in me after the 
last most violent attack. The urine I could not retain; it passed involuntarily from 
me. Towards ten o'clock — that is four and a half hours after the seizure— the storm 
was somewhat allayed; I obtained the control over my imSgination, ceased to speak 
incessantly, and traced some pain in the prtscordial region, in the place where 
irritants had been applied. At this time cafi noitf with lemonade^ was brought^ 
which I remember, though I cannot state the time when it took place. The flow 
of my ideas was too rapid, and I therefore .thought that it was already very lata 
The time given above I state only according to what I was afterwards told, for I am 
not in a position to form an opinion as to the time and duration of the paro3[ysme. 
Daring the night I drank a great deal of lemonade, and another cup of ca/e noir^ 
nevertheless, sleep fled from nie, for my imagination was constantly at work. I wag 
obliged te pass water several times, which at first took place not without difficult>y* 
Next morning I dressed, and had myself brought home, but could not set to my 
nsual daily work, because, notwithstanding the greatest effort, I could not collect 
my scattered thoughts, and I also felt corporeally too weak. I was, therefore^ 
obliged to take to bed, where I remained until the morning of the third day« 
During this time 1 drank four pints of lemonade, and took soup only twice, as I had 
ne appetitSL On the third day X had myself led about, supported by a second person, 
bat was stitt rather confused and gid4y« This day also, for want of appetite, I ate 
bat litlJe^ bat still drank lemonade. I passed urine without difficulty; perspiratioa 
did not take place; the bowels had not acted for three days. During the second 
and third nights my sleep was tranquil. On the fourth day I felt will again; re- 
gsued appetite; my strength increased; my appearance became less unsettled. 
Severthelese, walking about for half an hour tired me very much. The depression 
which came on after the excitement gave way only gradually. On account of con* 
stipatioa I had, on the third day, taken a Seidlits powder, but except the discharge 
of flatOB this produced, it had no effect; it was not until I had, on the fourth day, 
flwallowed two Seidlitz powders^ that several motions took place." 

As has been stated above, I saw the patient at a quarter-past eight. He receg* 
niaed me immediately, as well as all those about him whom he saw and heard. I 
feond him Jiyiag in bed; his face red, as in health; the cheeks rather hollow; the 
pi^s nioderat^y dilated, but the iris sensitive to the stimulus of light; the eyeball 
OMnred freely; the lustre of tlie eyes was unchanged; the conjunctiva of the globe 
was somewhat congested; the forehead was cool; even after the removal of the cold 
applicatioas which liad been used, the forehead and head were only moderately warm, 
never hot. The carotid and temporal arteries pulsated feebly and more slowly than 
kk the nennal state; the pulsation of the heart was very weak, and sometinwe 

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ficaroelf pereeptlbles the pulBe at the wrist often stopped for a minute and mote, and 
when it returned it was unconunonly weak, and onlj- perceptible when carefully 
sought for} subsequentiy it became more distinct (at intervals of from ten to fifteen 
minutes) and more frequent, and rose to seyenty-eight, which, for the patient, whose 
pulse in its normal condition was from fifty-eight to sixty, was tolerably quick. 
These rariations in the pulse, with which the action of the heart and of the carotid 
and temporal arteries corresponded, were repeated frequently within an hour; the 
respiration was low ; in other respects it was regular. The abdomen was somewhat 
tympanitic, otherwise it, as well as all other parts of the body, was free from pain; 
the eztrexnities, both upper and lower, were cold, sometimes tremulous; they were 
movable in every direction, and were obedient to the influence of the will; the skin 
was insenslUe to stimulants, as sinapisms and brushes. The patient could sit up, 
and drank without dificulty what was offered to him. On my asking him if he did 
not wish to pass water, he said to me softly, *'The urine passes in the bed." All the 
organs of sense discharged their functions normally, except that the sMisitive power 
of the skin was blunted. 

When the patient perceired and recognized me, he manifested joy, it is true; but 
the idea that be must die, and soon be dissected, predominated long, and he spoke 
only of it and took toare of those present. By continued conrersation, and the 
introdaotion of harmless jokes, we succeeded, howeyer, in drawing him from this 
idea, and leading him into conyersation, when he yery soon became cheerful, even 
joked about himself and others, talked incessantly, communicating the most secret 
thoughts of his heart, and could not refrain from expressing what he thought of 
others. Only oocasionally did the current of ideas which he could not control over- 
come him to such an extent that he lost consciousness, so far as not to mind 
anytibing about him, not to answer questions or remarks addressed to him, losing^ 
himself In a disordered train of thought. However, this state lasted only some 
minutes, and the power of observing and rightly estimatmg external impressions 
again retfomed. The notion that he must die came back, however, sometimes, and 
always bore such an intimate relation to the shaking and disappearance of the pulse;, 
that from the commencement of the latter phenomenon, I could with certunty 
reckon on the invasion of the thoughts of deatn, and, vice vertdt from the manifesta- 
tion of the latter idea, I could anticipate the fall of the pulse. It seemed in the 
current of uninterrupted speaking, that the mass of ideas and images pressing on 
one another in the most rapid succession was much too great to admit of the possi- 
bility of thdr being clothed in words. Out of the chaos of ideas the notion often 
rose that our condition shall be eternal. He was also much occupied with the 
thought that he knew not whether he existed, or whether man in general existed, or 
for what tmrpose he existed. He acknowledged that it was impossible for him to 
keep auTtning secret, and stated that be could, therefore, not avoid exhibiting hia 
oharaoter as it really was. 

When the servant rushed breathless Into my room, and summoned me to Dr. 
Hdnrloh, who, he said, was dying, my first idea was that other narcotics or acrid 
poisons besides Cannabia India must be contained in the Birmingi to have produced 
sttoh violent indications of poisoning, for it did not appear to me to be probable that 
Indian hemp should, in the dose the patient had got, give rise to such severe symp- 
toms. My mind waik therefore, very much eased to find, as I at once inferred on 
inrestigating the patient's state, that neither any other narcotic nor acrid poison was 
in operation; for neither o^um nor any of its active constituents could be contained 
in tiie preparation, as the symptoms of opium-poisoning, such as they must have 
manifested themselveft with this enormous depression of the action of the heart and 
vascular system, in deep coma, with stertorous and slow respiration, were absent. 
Nor could belladonna, stramonium, or hyoscyamus have been mixed with the Bir- 
mins^, as the essential phenomena belonging to these three narcotics— enormous 
dictation of the pupil, even on exposure to a very dazzling light, unusual dryness of 
the organs of deglutition, hoarseness, raging delirium, or coma, the peculiar character 
of the pulse indicative of the ingestion of those narcotics— were wanting. Still lesa 
was there reason to suspect that tobacco, hemlock, dUgitaUs, aconite, or cantharidee 
—which, it is said, are sometimes added to haclusch to excite the sexual organs — 
had been taken, as the symptoms characteristic of these drugs were absent. For 
though individual phenomena, as the extremely depressed action of the heart and 
vessels, which are>mong the effects of the last-named narcotics, existed, yet the other 

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lymptoiiu were not obsenred; and the symptom which is common to both was so far 
^tingnished, as digitalis and aconite produce a constant retardation of the pulse, 
which lasts sereral hours, with occasional intermission of the beat, while here this 
condition alternated with increased firequency; not to mention the so characteristic 
exaltation of the oerebral functions, which latter, in cases of poisoning with digitalis 
and aconite, either remain quite unaltered, or manifest only extremely inconsiderable 
alienations. The absence of all phenomena appertaining to inflammation of the 
urhiary organs was condusiye against the idea of poisoning with cantharides. 
Nothing, therefore, remained but to attribute the entire group of symptoms to the 
administration of hachisch, consisting exdusirely of Indian hemp. 

The characteristic feature of the above case of poisoning with hachisch consists in 
the extreme and persistent depression of the action of the heart and entire yascular 
system; and in the simultaneoua lowering of the feeling of life, and the consequent 
fear of death, alter the previous stage of excitement had lasted but a ^ort time. 
The stage of depression alluded to is also characterized, howerer, by the absence of 
tendency to sleep, and by its long duration, in which this case di£&rs firom all the 
experiments I had made with Indian hemp and its preparations. In this respect 
tfaU case contrasts directly with that I have communicated in my Lehrhuch det 
Pharmakoioaie, where a concentrated infusion Of Cannabii Indica had given rise to 
an extremely acute and uncommonly intense attack of insanity, with destruotiveness ; 
which, however, quickly passed oflT, without leaving behind it any great depression; 
for even on the next day, the person experimented on having had a good night's 
•leep, felt perfectly well, while in Dr. Heinrlch's case, the first night was wholly 
sleepless, and very considerable muscular debility. With determinatioa to the head, 
continued until the third day. But it agrees with all our experiments and observa- 
tions in this, that no trace of convulsion was manifested, for the slight degree of 
tremor which was present cannot be regarded as convulsion, inasmuch as tibe free 
influence of the will continued undisturbed, even in the limbs aflTected with tremor. 
However, convulsions occur very rarely, though there is no lack of observers who 
make mention of such, and even of cataleptic fits, after the use of hachisch. The 
above two cases, therefore, illustrate, in a remarkable degree, these two stages of 
intoxication— the stage of exaltation predominating in the one, and that of depression 
in the other. 

Further, the case above communicated affords a fresh support to the view that 
Indian hemp, and the preparations derived from it, in general far exceed every other 
of the agents hitherto known which are more nearly connected with the oerebral 
functions in their inunediate action on the imagination. With no other phrenic 
agent does the mental self-consciousness, the psychical coennsthesia, the spiritual 
•df-oontemplation, come forward so freely as with this; with none does the current 
of the inner ideal world break forth so powerftilly and impetuously as here, without 
the possibility of attendUig to external excitement and the corresponding reaction 
being removed. In a person intoxicated with alcohol, opium, &c., there is in the 
stage of exaltation an increase of the bodily coenesthesia, but only exceptionally, 
«Dd for a very short time, does this amount to internal contemplation, and it 
Tery soon passes completely into the stage of depression. With Indian hemp, 
the dear, reflective insight, uie self-contemplation occurs as a persistent, essential 
effect, which is even still maintained when, with respect to the body, activity in all 
irritable forms it mudi diminished. And thus is explained the very great variety 
which exists in the psychical phenomena, according to the difi*erenoe tn the peculi- 
arity, in the special psychical character, in the degree of spiritual development, and 
the occasional disposition of the mind and humour of the individual, as well as, on 
the other hand, according to the degree of material diango produced by the poison. 
Hence the eastern Mahometan, who yidds himself wholly to the sensual enjoyment 
of love, passes into the most voluptuous fancies; while the physidan and j>sycholo- 
gist, inclined to reflection on his bodily and mental existence and action, more 
dosdy exammes and dissects his corpor^ and mental organism. 

The same variety of action, thus manifested in the physiological, is also specially 
exhibited in the pathological condition. Thus, I have seen patients take from one to 
ten, or, in one case, even so much as thhrty grains of the alcoholic extract of CmmabU 
hniica in the course of an evening and night, sometimes within a few hours, without 
producing any particular symptoms, except some determination to the head; even 
the 10 much wished-for sleep, on account of which the remedy was taken, was not 

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obtained; while, in olher cases, one grain of the same preparation, from the aarae 
source, produoed yiolent symptoms bordering on polsoning'-deLirium, Terf npid 
pulse, extreme restlessness, and, subsequently, considerable depresskm. I must, 
therefore, in oondasion, repeat the opinion I expressed at the commencement of this 
paper— in support of which the memben of the Society present, to whom I oraUjr 
related the aboTO described case, quoted numeroos proofc from their practiee— that 
IiKtian hemp, and all its preparations, exhibit the greatest variety in ttie degree and 
mode of action, according to the diflerenoe of indiriduality, both ia the healthy and 
diseased ooodition ; that they are, therefore, to be classed among uncertain remediesi 
and that the physician must, in every instance^ use them with great caution. «» 
DubUn Quarkrtjf Jcmmal of Medieai Scienee, 


BT J, w. DAWSoir, i:».i..D., v.a.t., 
FHDcipal of M'Qttl OoU<««, Montreal. 

Attrr referring to the labours of others in the elucidation of the history of coal, 
the author remarks that in ordinary bituminous coal we reo(^nize by the unaided 
eye lamime of a compact and more or less lustrous appearance, separated by uneven 
films and layers of fibrous anthracite or mineral charcoal. As these two kinds of 
material differ to tome extent in origin and state of preservation, and in the methods 
of study applicable to them, he proceeds to treat of his subject under two heads :-^ 
1st. The structures preserved in the state of mineral charcoal. This substance 
consists of fragments of prosenchymatous and vaslform tissues in a carbonized state, 
somewhat flattened by pressure, and more or less impregnated with bituminous and 
mineral matters derived firom the surrounding mass. It has resulted from the 
nAaeriai decay of vegetable matter ; whilst the compact coal is the product of 
subaqueous putrefaction, modified by heat and exposure to air. The author proceeded 
(after describing the methods used by him in examining mineral charcoal and coal) 
to^ describe the tissues of Cryptogamous plants in the state of mineral charcoal. 
Among these he mentions Lepidodendnm and Utodendron^ also disintegrated vascular 
bundles from the petioles of Ferns, the veins of Stigmarian leaves, and from soom 
roots or stipes, Ue then describes tissues of Gymnospermous plants in the state of 
mineral charcoal ; especially wood with dlscigerous fibres and also with scalariform 
tissue, such as that of Stigmaria and Calamodetubrm ; and the author remarks that 
probablv the so-called cycadeous tissue hitherto met with in the coal has belonged 
to Sigilmrue, 

Tlie next chief heading of the paper has relerence to structures preserred in ttis 
layers of compact coal, which constitutes a far larger proportion of the mass than 
the mineral charcoal does. Tlie lamine of pitdi or cherry>coal, says Dr. Dawson, 
when carefully traced over the surfuxs of accumulation, are found to present the 
outline of flattened trunks. This is also true to a certain extent of the finer varietiea 
of slate-coal ; but the coarse coal appears to consist of extensive lamins of disinte- 
grated vegetable matter mixed with mud. When the coal (especially the more shaly 
varieties) is held obliquely under a strong light, in the manner recommended by 
Chieppert, the surfaces of the laminse of ooal present the forms of many weU-knowB 
coal'plants, as SigiSanti, Stigmaria, Pbac^{OT NigggeraAiaX Lepkhdendrom, iJlodem* 
dnm, and rough bark, perhaps of Conifers. When the coal is traced upwards into 
the roof-shales, we often find the lamine of compact coal represented by flattened 
coaly trunks and leaves, now rendered distinct by being separated by day. 

The relation of erect trees to the mass of the coal, and tire state of preserratkm is 
which the wood and bark of these trees occur, — the raicrosoopio appearanoes ef 
coal, — the abundance of cortical tissue in the coal, associated with remains «f 
herbaceous plants, leaves, &c, are next treated of. 

The author offers the following general condusions:^ 

(1.) With respect to the plants which have contributed the vegetiAle matttr of 
the coal, these are principally the StgUlaries and CeiamitetSf but especisdly the fbrmer. 

(2.) The woody matter of the axes of SigiUariet and Ca&tmifrcr and of conH^root 
trunks, as well as the scalariform tisvues of the axes of the Lejndodtndreet and 
Dlodendrea^ and the woody and vascular bundles of Ferns, apt^ear prindpally in the 
state of mineral charcoal. The outer cortical envelope of these plants, together 
with such portions of their wood and of herbaceous plants and foliage ae were sub* 

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meifed vithont mlnerial decay, occvr as cooofact 0(m1 of Tarioot degrees of purity, 
tbe cortical matter, oiring to its greater resit tance to «4iaeott8 infiltration, affording 
the purest coaL The rehuire amoants of all these substances found in the states of 
mineral charcoal and compact coal depend principally upon the greater or lest 
prevalenee of sabaerial decay occasioned by greater or less dryness of the swampy 
flats on which the coal aoennralates. 

(3.) The stracture of the coal acoords with the Tiew that its materiab were aoca* 
nnilated by growth withovt any driftage of materials. The SigiMarim and CcUamUtm^ 
tall and braachlese, and clothed only with rigid linear leaves, formed dense grovet 
and jungles, in which the stumps and fallen trunks of dead trees became resolved by 
decay into sheUs of bark and loose fragments of rotten wood, which currents must 
hare swept away, but which the moet gentle inundations, or even heavy rains, eould 
scatter in layers over the surface, where they generally biecame imbedded in a man 
of roots, fallen leaves, and herbaoeous plants. 

(4.) The rate of accumulation of coal was very slow. The climate of the period, 
in the northern temperate zone, was of such a character that the true conifers show 
rings of growth not larger, or much less distinct, than those of many of their northern 
congeners.* The SigiUaria and Calamitett were not, as often supposed, succulent 
plants. The former had, it is true, a very thick cellular inner bark; but their dense 
woody axes, their thick and nearly imperishable outer bark, their scanty and rigid 
foKage, woold indicate no very rapid growth. In the ease of SigiUarvgy the variations 
in tiie leaf-scars in diflbrent parts of tbe trunk, the intercalation of new ridges at 
tbe soiiaoe representing that of new woody wedges in the axis, the transverse narks 
left by thesoecessiye stages of upward growth, all indicate that at least several yeati 
most have been required for the growth of snens of moderate siae. The enormous 
roots of these trees, and the conditionaof the coal-swamps, must have exempted them 
fiiom the danger of being overthrown by Tioience. Tiiey probably fell, in soeoessive 
gen erat ions, from natnral decay ; and, making every allowance for other materials, 
we may safely assert that every foot of thickness of pore bituminous coal implies the 
quiet growth and fall of at least fifty generations of Si^Oarut, tad therefore an 
undisturbed condition of forest-growth enduring through many centuries. Further, 
there is evidence that an immense amount of loose parenchymatous tissue, and even 
of wood, perished by decay ; and we do not know to what extent even the most duiabte 
tiasues may have disappeared in this way ; so that in many coal-seams we may have 
only a very sniaU part of the vegetable matter produced* 

Iiastly. The results stated in this paper refer to coal-beds of the middle coal- 
iDMsaiesL A few fects which I have observed lead me to believe that in the thin 
seams of the lower ooal-measures remains of Nceggeraikia and Lepidodtminm are 
more abondant than in those of the middle ooal-measures.t In the upper ooal- 
measures siffiihv modifications may be expected. These differences have been to a 
certain extent asoertauied by Goeppert for some of the coal-beds of Silesia, and by 
Iiesqnereux fer those of Ohio ; but the subject is deserving of ftirtfaer investigation, 
mote especially by the means proposed in this paper, and whkh I hope, should time 
and 49portunity permit, to apply to the seventy-six successive coal-beds of the 
South Joggins.— Oeofa^icoi Socieiy.—AnnaU o/NcUitral Hiatary, 

M. Ds Cabital, one of the greatest owners of coal mines in Prussia, in a statistical 
work on coal digging, states that the qaantity of coal dug in 1857 amounted to 
125,000,000 of tons, a mass which, piled up 6 feet high, would cover a geographical 
sqaare mile. The lands from which the coal is procured may be estimated at 8000 
square miles, and the mean depth of the beds of coid at about 31 feet. The mass of 
coal then known to exist would form a cube of 10 miles. If we compare this enor- 
mous bulk of coal with the quantity annually consumed, we may confidently afflrm 
that there is enough to last for 36,000 years. The calculation of 31 feet for the 
mean depth of the beds is perhaps too low, for the coal fields of Li^ge extend 55 feet^ 
those of Staffordshire to 151 feet, and those of Ruhr to 134 feet. The coal dug in 
1857 amounted in value to £37,500,000 sterling, a sum far beyond that realized by 

• Paper <m FosmIs from Nora Scotia, Ptw. Geol. Soc. 1847. 

t I mmy refer to ray late paper on Devonian PUnt« from Ganada for an example of a still 
oldsr OQia, made ap priacipally of remains of Ljoopodlaceoos plants tf the geaus Pmiopkifton. 

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the digging of the precious metaU. In England some calculations have been made 
with regard to the yield of coal in our own country, according to which the coal 
fields of Great Britain yield 63,000 1000 tons of coal per year. A better idea of the 
immense commerce of England could not be formed than by stating the &ct, that at 
Manchester and its enyirons, a motive steam power equal to 1,200,000 horses is 
constantly maintained, to support which there are consumed 30,000 tons of coal per 
day, or 9,500,000 a year. In the manufacture of salt alone about 3000 tons are 
consumed per day, or 950,000 a year. The Transatlantic steamers from Liyerpool 
and other ports consume 70,000 tons per year, and the manufacture of gas absorbs 
10,000,000 tons per year. The export of coal from England reached, in 1858, 
6,078,000 tons. It is estimated that England alone could furnish enough coal for 
the consumption of the whole of Europe for 4000 je&VB.-^ Journal of the Society of 





PuBiKo a late residence in the Bahama Islands, the attention of our indefiatigable 
member, Dr. W. F. Daniell, was especially directed to the species of Croton growing 
in those islands ; and I am enabled, by ms kind communication of the specimens 
collected by him, to dear up much of the obscurity in which the species furnishing 
the Cascarilla-barks of commerce have been inrolTed. I willingly leaye in his own 
able hands that portion of the subject which relates to the Materia Medica and the 
commercial history of the Barks in question, and shall limit myself; in the present 
brief notice, to the botanical history and discrimination of the species whidi hare 
been confounded together under the specific names of Eluteria and Casearilia. 

The first account given by Linnaeus of C. Eluteria occurs in * Hortus Cliffortianus ' 
(1787), pp. 486-7. Of the plant there carefully described, an authentic specimen 
exists in Cliffbrt's herbarium in the British Museum, with a portion of the description 
attached in Linn»us's own hand, and marked with the only synonym quoted : — 
'* Cortex Ilatheria, Elutheria Provid. folio cordate subtus argenteo. Sweet bark, s. 
cortex bene olens. Fetiy. Collect, p. 4, n. 276." The synonym ; the habitat, " cresdt 
in Insula Frovidentia ;" and the name Eluthariay derived from the adjacent island of 
Muthera, all bespeak its Bahamian origin. Of this very distinct species, a specimen 
borought from the Bahamas forms part of Catesby's collections in the British Museum ; 
and there also exists, in the Banksian herbarium, a similar specimen of Catesby's 
firom Gronoyius, together with specimens from the herbarium of Fhillip Miller, from 
the "Bahama Islands, Long Island," collected by Feter Dean, Esq., in 1788 ; and 
from the " southern parts of North America," collected by Andr^ Michaux, the latter 
sent under the erroneous name of Croton CascariHa. Linnseus himself never possessed 
a specimen; and having, apparently, entirely forgotten its characters, he referred to 
it m his * Flora Zeylaoica'Tl 748), No. 366 (with several other equally erroneous 
synonyms), the Mahapatigalui of Hermann's < Museum Zeylanicum/ of which no 
specimen existed in Hermann's collections, and added the officinal synonym of Cas^ 
cariUa. Of the additional synonyms, that quoted from Breynius, Flukenet, and Seba, 
unquestionably belongs to the plant subsequently named by Jaquin Croton niveum, 
and that of Flumier and Catesby, as we shall hereafter see, is the foundation of 
Idimeus's own CluHa Caacarilla. In his * Materia Medica,' published in the folbwing 
year, he ascribes the Cascarilla bark to the EluUria of his ' Flora Zeylanlca,' with the 
single synonym of Catesby ; while in the first edition of * Species Flantarum,' 
published in 1753, he quotes, under Clutia Eluteria^ his < Flora Zeylanica' and 
' Materia Medica,' Eluteria of * Hortus Cliffortianus,' and the mistaken synonym of 
Flukenet and Seba. Of all these, it is evident that the only true synonym is that of 
'Hortus Cliffortianus,' from which the name of the species was derived. 

Up to this time Linnaeus had in his own herbarium no specimen referred to 
Gutia EluteriOf and there is no indication bpr which it can be positively determined . 
whence and at what period the specimen which he subsequently designated by that 
name was obtained. It appears probable, however, that it was one of the Jaouiica 
specimens reoeived by him from Fatrick Browne, and described in his * Fugillus 

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FlaDtarnm Jamaioensiom ' (1759), inserted in the fifth Toltune of his * Amoanitateff 
Academica*' The description* which he there gires (p. 411) of CluUa Eluteria is 
^nite inapplicable to the original plant, and exactly agrees with this specimen. In 
the second edition of ' Species Flantamm/ he refers to this description, adds Patrick 
Browne's synonjm, and retains that of 'Hortos CUffortianns,' as well as the erroneous 
zeferenoe to Flukenet and Seba. It is only necessary to add that in Swartz's * Flora 
Indiie Occidentals * (p. 118d)» Patrick Browne's plant is properly referred to the 
genus Croion, and is carefhlly described, under tiie name of Croton EluUriOf as 
synonymous with CluHa ElvUna^ L., and that a figure of the true or Bahamian 
species, taken from one of Mr. Dean's specimens in the Banksian herbarium, is given 
in Woodyille's ' Medical Botany/ 1. 223, together with a sketch of a miserable scrap 
of the Jamaica plant firom a specimen communicated to the same herbarium by Dr. 
Wright, who, in the eighth yolume of the * Medical Journal/ describes it as producing 
^ the Cascarilla or Elutheria of the shops." 

I now turn to the second species, CUtitia CascartUa, L. Linnaeus had originally no 
knowledge of this species, except that which he derived from the figure of Catesby 
and the synonym of ^ Bicmoidea ^ssagni fblio," quoted by Catesby from Plumier ; 
and both of these he referred, in his * Flora Zeylanica,' to the connued heap there 
collected under the head of Eluteria foliia cardato-lanceolatit. The same confusion 
between the Bahamian and the Ceylonese species was continued in his ' Materia 
Medlca/ but in the first edition of ' Species Plantarum' he distinguished the plant 
figured by Catesby under the name of CluHa Cucart^-^mistaking, however, the 
habitat, which Catesby indicates as the Bahamas, and substituting Carolina in its 
stead. Am he denotes by his usual symbol (f) that he had never seen this species, 
and quotes no other synonym than that of Catesby, there can be no question that 
the species is wholly founded on the figure and description of that author, both of 
irluai are remarkably good representations of a plant of which Dx, Daniell has 
brought home excellent spedmens, and which (as far as I am aware) has never before 
been forwarded to European herbaria. Catesby's description is as follows :— ** The 
Hathera bark ; La Chachrilk* These shrubs grow plentifmly on most of the Bahama 
islands, seldom above ten feet high, and rarely so big as a man's leg, though it is 
probable that, before these islands were exhausted of so much of it, that it grew to a 
higet size; the leaves are long, narrow, and sharp-pointed, and of a very pale light- 
green colour ; at the ends of the smaller branches grow spikes of small hexapetalous 
white flowers, with yellow apices, which are succeeded by tricapsular pale-green 
berries, of the size of peas, etuSk berry containing three small black seeds, one in every 
capsule. The bark of this tree, being burnt, yields a fine perfume ; and, infused in 
either wine or water, gives a fine aromatic bitter." 

As in the former case, it was not until after the publication of the species in the 
first edition of his * Species Plantarum,' that lamueus became possessed of a specunen 
totally different from the original plant, but which he nevertheless referred to it. 
The same concurrence of drcumstanoes as in the former case leads me to believe that 
this also was received from Dr. Patrick Browne. It perfectly agrees with the descrip- 
tion of CUHa CaacarWa given in the same Dissertation in the * Amoenitates Aca- 
demicsB,' vol. v. p. 411, with the synonym of Browne, and with the figure of Sloane's 
* History of Jamaica,' there quoted, and is the " Wild Rosemary " of most of the West 
Indian Islands, subsequently described by Jacqum under the name of CroUm Uneare^ 
a name, which has since been generally, but erroneously, considered as synonymous 
with the CbiHa CagcariUa of Linneeus. 

It only remains to formularize these details, with the addition of discriminative 
characters, premising that both the original species and those which have been 
substituted for them are true Crotons, in the comprehensive sense in which that 
genus is still maintained. 

I. CjEtOTOX XLUTBBiA, follis potiolatis subcordato-lanceolatis obtuse acurainatis 
supra viridibus squamulis peltatis raris punctatis subtus dense argenteo-lepidotis 
luddis, Bpicis simpUcibus axillaribus terminalibusque monoids. 

Elutheria Providentie, folio cordato subtus argenteo. Sweet Bark, s. cortex bene 
olens. Petw.coB, 4, n. 276. 

Eluteria, L, Hort Cliff, p. 486! 

Clutia Eluteria, L, Sp. P/onf, ed. 1. p. 1042 (excl tynon. omn, prater BorL Cliff,)* 

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Clutia Bkterk a. CascarillA, Woodv^ Med. BaL pL6aa» t. fl23. £ %\ 
Hah. Iq InaoUs BatAmeiudbttt^ CkleUi^I Deaml Jhr. W. F. DttrndU 

2. Crotok 0A8CARILLA, fi^ofl petMalit angwte laneeoUtn ntrinqtie attemmfa 
aoQtb nuiTjf ine planw t. rabmidiilatit supra ▼irklibtti glabris flabtas pidlidn 
pi1i9 »tellttti9 intricatis dense Teetitis, spiels sim|4wtbiis teminslfbas raonoicis. 

BiciDoides elttsgni fofio^ P/iisi. Spet. 20 ; Mecn. p. 236, t. MO. f. 1 ; Gnesa^ CaroL 

Tol u. t. 46. 
datw CaseanUa, L. Sp, PI ed. 1. pw 1042. 
/r«& In Insnys BshMiieiisibis, CateMiy; <* FiwiAeBee^'' l>r. IT. F. PmnieXf 

3. Crotom UNSABKy folus subsessiUbus linearibus oUnsis margioe pltts miniu 
reflexis supra viridibas glabris subtua patlidis pilis stellatis intricatU denaissime 
Testitis, spicia aimpUeibtta axillaribiia terminalibiisque dioicia. 

Btcino affinia odorifera fruticosa major, rosmarini &Iio, fimctn tacicocco albido^ 

Sloane, Hi^ Jam. L p. 183, t. 86. til 
Crotom fniticulosum ; foUia longis, angiiaftiis aubtaa incanis mai^e xeflezii, 

JBrowne^ Jam. p^ 347. 
dutia Cascarilla^ £. Aman. Acad. t. p. 411 ; X. fferh. I 
Croton lineare, Jucq, Amer. p. 256, t. 162. t A ; Pitt. p. 124» t. 263. £ 30. 
Croton CaacariHa, Wtndv. Med. BoL p. 629, t. 222. 
Hob. In Ina Jamaica, SloatuI SouMdowtl Wrigktli in Xnanlia BabameDflibiii, 

Cates&yf Dr. W. F. Daniell! 

4. CftOTOH Sloansi, foUis petiolaiis ovaftia obtaaia t. obtuse aosminatiB pevlbniti^ 
squamnlja peHalia svpta laria infra mmevoaia adaperaiiy apida eompoaiti^ 
axUlaribua terminalibaaqiM ■Mwoicis. 

Mali fo&io arbor artemiabft odor» at flore^ Shame, Jam. iL p. 3fl^ 1 174. f. fi I 

Clatia Elutcria, L. Amma. Atad, ▼. p. 411 ; JL Aar&. 1 

Croton Ekiteria, Swartiy FL lad. OteddL p. 118S ; Wright, in Med. Jemm, TJiL p. 

3! Weedv. Med. Boi, p^ 634, t. 233« 1 1 (pem}l Mayme, Awme^fem. air. t. 
JETiift. InInB.JaBMiica,5AHiis.' IKrv^/ 

These four species are so totally distinct, that, when onoe discriminated, thej can 
nerer again tie eonfoanded. In addition to the three former, Dr. DanleH'a collection 
from the Bahamas contains specimens of Cretan hteidamflu, and Oroion babamiferumf 
IwDq.—'Jtmmeiofihe Lhmean Society. 



Aarfiitant Phaalaian to the Hotpital tor CoBamnptian, 

Tmm HTDBoraovB. — ^Ifwe desire to employ water aa an agent in snscnitatlon and 
li aid of hearing^tnbca, drflSCnltiea at once present themaelTcs. Tb applj water to 
the chest is easy enough ; bat it is not so easy to retain it therein a snitaMe manner. 
The appltcatioa of water maj be nnpleaaant to the patient, and by wetting his 
dothes may gtre rise to nuxch annoyance and inconyenience. ^e idea occnrred to me 
ttati fl eoold confine water in some material that would not iaterfbre with its sound- 
hatens^ying power, a material adrantage would be gained, and we should haye 
a conyenient mode of reinforcing hearing-tubes. In a former paper it was 
stated that a thin membrane offers so sensible Impediment in the way of water 
intensifying sound, although thick and non-eUstic or non-Yibrating bodies did, 
and taking advantage of this fact, I made a waterproof bag of india-rubber to contain 
water. The india-rubber membrane is so thin as to offer little or no resistance to 
the undnlationa of watts. ThebagUahoutthenieof akr0awatehtaBdieaaflcient 
to leceiTe the eztcemi^ of an er^neiy fledble alethoscopc^ or toiMmanedium of 
connexion between the eztsfnal tar and a aolid naniMJii^ bedj yi^fc m tihe Inimaa 
chest. The thKkneia of the bag ia not abovt the third of an Indi. Nothing is 
gamed by greater thickness, and the advantages of aoend halving to travel only a 
short way, and alao of only a very little weight preewng mpoo the sountfog bedy. 
ue secured. The aonoroua polsta^ ao to apeak, are readily taken «p fron the aolid 
body or the cheat, and are conveyed throui^ the water, and membrane on eitlier side. 

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sod rcMh the edge of the aperture of Ike bMurii^- 

tube and tlie oontaioed aic; whether the instrti- 

■lent be the flexible ttelhoecope» the hnman ear, 

or aaj ether heariiBg-tiibe. This iastrumeBt 

posseesee TalaaUe advantaget^ and I have there- 

iere ventored to give it a Mune, that ef the 

^3rdropfaQne. It fits adisirably and ezaetlj* itpon 

the part of the chett to vhidi it is applied, hoir- 

mex aneveA and irregnhtfv whether this he a 

prcjeet fa ig rib or a deeply sank intercostal qsaee, 

a broad level raifiice or a narrow depressioB, the 

daride or spine of the napola. By its other 

side the hydrophone fits as exactly to the aperture 

of the !iearin|*-tnbe or t» the exterior of the honum 

ear. £vcry part of the solid body covered by the 

hydrophone eoatributea its fvota of seisod. The 

fliting of the instramaxt to the hearing^tabe 

I prevents the escape of sound frooa the contained 

air to the external atmosphere^ and by this BMaas 

' resonance of the cootauied air, and ef tlie con- 

taining tube, is greatly promoted, with the reedt 

I of a greatly augmented sound. The edge of the 

r hearing-tube alts so easily, and with so little 

rFsmstaaoe from the water-bag, or l^drof>hone, 

r that the vibrations which sre ooanMinicated to 

it are readily redproeated, and find none or little 

of that resKlance so futal to its vibrations whea 

■^ pressed upon a solid body.* 

Thehydrephene nay be employed either iA aid of the stethoseopc^ or as a Satinet 
acoustic iBstrvment by itsrif. In the ease of wooden stethosei^iea which are solid, 
a^Bed to the distal apertaare, it is njuriotts by damping somid ; in the case of the 
hettow wooden stethoscope it is of no material vaiae, for water is an indiflerent 
eondoetor ef eoond from a solid body to another solid body, and it waaj be stated 
that the ha l lo w wooden stethoscope is more a soHd than an air instnusent. What 
It gaina aa an air instmroent firom tiie water, is lost as a seitd inttnuBent. In tut, 
moreasay bekat in the one way than is gained in the other. 

It is in the case of tlie flexible stethosoope that the hydrophone foresa a material 
idd in anscahation by hearing-tubes. The flexible stethoscope is here meant to 
signify all stethoscopes into whose constniction flexible tubes enter, either fonnii^ 
the whole tube part ef the instroasont, aa in the ordinary flexible stethoscope^ or 
part only, ss in Cammaa^ donble stethoscope, or my own diflbrential siethos^pe. 
Tbeee instmmenta are essentially air instruments, and I am glad to say that Camman 
deeignated his iastruraent sueh wiien he first made it known ; lor this corresponds 
irrth my own investigations. In the ease of all these instntmcnts the inteaaifiQatiea 
ef soand by the hydrophone is so material, ^at I have no hesHatkm in saymg that 
irithont itaemploymeat thdr resourees are by no aseana IbUy made available. To 
have the full beneflt of any one of these instmmenta the hydrophoae is eawntaL 
3flee pg ate ry sounds, healthy and merhid, which are andible wift the simple fleziUe 
ftethoeeope, are made more andifble when the hydvophraie is plaoed under it. Khonchi 
and moist ercpitatiea are strikingly augmented. Yooal resoaanee, adiid and 
eavemons, dry and moist, are in a marked manner ampUfled. Peetoriloquy, aeeooapa- 
nied with aroeh vibration of the ehest, ia increased in a very striking manner. Mnr- 
Binrsof tlie heart, usualiy heard in a mitigated form only Inflexible stetheocopc*— at 
least In myfeaiperienoe— are conveyed to the ear so as t<> produce a very distinct and 
defined sensation. To sum up^ it appears to me that flexible stethoscopes, hearcver 

* A tut which I haiamy lately ucertainsd appears to mt well worthy of^eingbere recorded. 
Itbsaza dissetly open the itaperteQce of perfect freedooi of thu cap of flexibla stetboscopee. A 
can hdd eathh: finUy opoa a pieee of wood npoa which a ttuung-fork is placed gives a faiDter 
aaditory seasatkm than when held loose, but the anditorj sensadon is fitrtber and Tery materially 
reduced, i( faistead of Veibg held flnot, the enp be ^acd to the pieee of wood. Here we hare 
?erfwt eeotinuity but reduced sonad. The exi^iMiftioa ie fMud in the redaeed vibvatiea. 

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ingenioiuly oonatrocted with tvristect wire and other contriTances, are. compared 
with the Bimple wooden stethoeoope, eflsentially deflcieat as sound'ConTeying 
instmmenta, flome few soonds excepted ; but that the hydrophone greatl/ counteracts 
this deficiency and brhigs them upmnch more to the rank of Lasnnec's stethoscope. 
But the inqtiury may be made,— What good purpose can the hydrophone subsenre 
under such drcumstanoeS) if it can only bring a second-rate instrument nearly up to 
the position of another ? The answer is this, — There are situations and occasions 
which require the flexible instruments, as is well known, and it is certainly important 
to render them, defectiye though they are^ as useful acoustic instruments as is 
pOBSibla It may be possible to place the cup of a flexible tube with a hydrophone 
under it, where it would be difficult or impossible to employ a wooden stethoscope. 
In auscultating the sounds of the grayid uterus, or of the foetus in process of birth, 
a flexible stethoscope with a hydrophone might possibly afford eTidence that would 
under certahi circumstances be Tory important. 

Pulsating tumours of the chest too tender to admit of the pressure of the wooden 
stethoscope^ or eyen of the naked cup of the flexible stethoscope, or upon which it 
might be dangerous or hazardous to exercise pressure, are well auscultated by means 
of the flexible stethoscope, proyided either with a flat ear-piece or a tubular 
ear-piece to enter the meatus, haying the hydrophone placed under it and upon 
the morbid part. The hydrophone takes up sound from eyery part, howeyer 
uneyen it may be^ it forms a soft water cushion, and it seryes, at the same time, 
greatly to reinforoe sound procured without it. In practice I haye on many occasions, 
with Uie aid of Uie hydrophone, distinctly heard murmurs of the heart, of the existence 
of which I had been in doubt when simply employing the flexible stethoscope. 

I haye obseryed that when the flexible stethoscope is employed with the clothes 
of the patient interyening, as is unayoidable under some circumstances, as, for 
instance, when time does not admit of undressing, or when the patient would sufi*er 
by exposure to cold, the impression made upon the ear by lung and heart sounds is 
greatly enfeebled and Is yery unsatis&ctory. This ey il attendant upon the employment 
of the flexible stethoscope, indudmg Camman's double stethoscope, and my own 
differential stethoscope, is obyiated, I may say altogether, by placing the hydrophone 
under the stethoscope. The reinforcement of the sounds is so great as to be quite 
surprising, as well as yery useful. An examination that would be worthless is by 
the use of the hydrophone rendered satisfactory. This result is obtained partly by 
a gentle yet efficient pressure exerted upon the clothes, compresnng them into less 
density by excluding layers of aur. But a great portion of the result is due to a 
more complete closure of the aperture of the instrument, attained by a surface of 
water coyen^ by thin membrane, than can be secured by one of porous and oom- 
paratiyely uneyen cloth, &c. 

In the examination of children, the employment of the hydrophone, together with 
the double or the differential stethoscope, is most satisfactory, and is well desenring 
of notice here. I belieye it to be a yeij great im^royement upon the use of the 
wooden stethoscope, and well worthy of &e adoption of the profession in dealing 
with children. The intensity of sound procured is nearly the same as in the case of 
wooden instruments. The cup of the stethoscope fits perfectly upon the water, 
which it can seldom do upon the sharply-curyed chest of infants, and thus mudi 
economizing of sound is secured. For the same reasons no irregular pressure is 
endured. The child suffers no pain, and is spared one great source of restlessness 
and yodferation. Lastly, the employment of the hydrophone and a flexible ste- 
thoscope causes no alarm, as in the case of the wooden instrument, and is yery 
generally the source of much interest and eyen amusement to the child, who conse- 
quently remains in a state of quietude yery fayourable for the examination of the 
auscultator. I constantly examine children with the utmost ease and deliberation 
in this way, whom I should otherwise haye to send away after fruitless efforts at 

The same method of examinatioQ, yiz. by the hydrophone and the flexible stetho- 
scope, including Camman's double stethoscope and my differential stethoscope, is 
yery yaluable hi the case of wasted patients. The employment of the wooden 
stethoscope with such persons is frequently yery painftil, and is positiyely crueL 
Moreover, as the aperture fits yery badly, it is highly unfayourable for the propa- 
gation of sound to the ear. Now, the water-pad, or hydrophone, sinks into the 
hollowed intercostal spaces, and comes into complete contact with the entire circum- 

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ferencc of the mouth of the stethoscope, at once collecting more sound, preventiog 
its escape, and obTiating the occurrence of painful pressure. 

Upon blistered surfaces and parts tender either from internal disease or from ex- 
ternal applications* this mode of auscultation is much superior to that by the wooden 
stethoscope. When an examination by the latter instrument is positively refused, 
one by the method under consideration is at onee permitted as being altogether 
painless. Many patients, particularly females with tender and wasted chests, hare 
expressed to me their satisfaction with, and surprise at, this painless mode of exami- 

A very slight augmentation of sound, in the case of some sounds, is procured by 
pladng the hydrophone on the proximal or aural extremity of the ordinary wooden 
stethoscope, but it is scarcely available in practice. 

Tlie bag of water, or hydrophone as I have ventured to call it, is of service, not 
only in the case of artificial hearing-tubes, but in that of the natural hearing-tube, 
viz. the ear. Applied to the naked chest it forms a stethoscope not materiidly 
Inferior to the best wooden stethoscope, length excepted. When the part auscultatea 
is rery uneven or much curved, by fitting well, it excels the wooden instrument in 
an acoustic point of view. By fitting weU, also, upon the external ear of the auscul- 
tatory and by closing thoroughly the meatus externus, great acoustic advantages are 
obtained. The sonorous undulations are freely conveyed to every part of the 
external ear, the air in the meatus comes in immediate contact with the instrument 
without the possibility of any sonorous undulations escaping. The sonorous undu. 
latlons of the walls of the tube and those of the enclosed air re-act upon each other. 
The water again reciprocates as a sounding-board, and the general resonance is 
greatly promoted by the thorough closure of the tube. The closure of the meatus is 
greatly more complete in the case of the water-bag than can be procured by any 
ordinary wooden disc. The complete closing of the ear, it may be remarked, is 
useful chiefly by promoting resonance, and not, as has been erroneously taught by 
some eminent stethoscopists, by excluding other sounds. 

The hydrophone forms a great aid to the external ear when the patient is to be- 
examined with his clothes still upon him. As a general rule, good stethoscopists 
strip their patients for examination, but it may be sometimes desirable to examine 
through their clothes, as in probably trivial cases, when there is little time, when the 
patient suffers from cold, or when the examination is only a supplementary one, or a 
rough observation will suffice. In such an examination the hydrophone proves of 
great value: a sound which is very indistinct to the ear placed upon the clothes, 
becomes full and distinct when the hydrophone is employed. Voice sounds, heart 
sounds, and rhonchi, are greatly improyed. Employed in this manner, I am inclined 
to think the hydrophone is equal, if not superior, to the wooden stethoscope. 

The water instrument has this material adrantage, that it is very readily mored 
from one place to another — 1.«. from one part of the chest to another. For example, 
in examining the back, the whole of the surface may be, as it were, run over without 
once lifting the hea^ the hydrophone being shifted with the ear upon it from place 
to place. 

In respect of delicacy, the hydrophone is not without some yalue, for, in the case 
of females, the interposition of this instrument meets the objection to the immediate 
contact of the ear of the auscultator with the chest of the patient. When the appli- 
cation of the hydrophone gives annoyance from its coldness, this evil may be readily 
obviated by placing the instrument in warm water, or by otherwise warming it. 
Minor advantages of this instrument are its portability and cleanliness. 

Other liquids, besides water, tend to mtensify sound proceeding fh)m solid bodies, 
and conveyed «to the ear by means of hearing tabes, but none experimented upon 
have given practically better results. Mercury gives an increase, and the character 
of the sound is heavy and forcible. Thick glutinous fluids, such as treacle and 
marmalade, and thick oils, give less increase than water ; and much of the fine liquid, 
vibrating character of the sound, when passed through water, is lost. 

Some solid bodies serve likewise to give a stronger auditory impression when 
placed upon other solid bodies, when hearing tubes are employed. Layers of paper, 
such as a pamphlet, layers of gutta percha membrane, and thin slices of India- 
rubber, lard, and butter, giye an increase ; but it is much less than is obtained from 
water. In the case of these solid bodies the augmentation is due to two circum- 
stances: 1st, the exact fitting of the instrument upon them ; 2nd, the greater amount 

TGI.. I. Z. 

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of it9 Tiliratioii in their case than in that of more solid and resisting bodies. Dr. 
Sibson has long employed a stethoscope closed with a thin plate of wood, with the 
eifect of rendenng raivular sounds more distinct 

That I may not appear inte&tionaUy to ignore anything that has been done by a 
professional brother, I deem it right to say, that a water stethoscope was invented 
some years ago; the name of the inyentor I hare been unable to dSsoover. I hxwt 
cndeaTOOKd to find some printed deUuls of this instrammt, bnt have failed. Dr. 
ffn n^ i f^ Boe and Dr. MarUuon hare infbrmed me that they haye seen an instm* 
ment so called. It is said to be a solid tube filled with water, but I cannot cooceiTO 
it could aUbrd any adTantage. If water be made to fill the oxdmary wooden stetho- 
•oopic tube, I am convinced the addition can only serve to spoil the instrument, for 
this reason — ^that water in the interior will interfere with the full vibrations of the 

wood. It is as an aid|junet to hearing-4;ubes, or esnployed as the hvdrophone, as 
nviously described, that water can prove of service in ordinary anseoltation. 
Before oondnding tills communication, I may be permitted to refer to a point 

whkdi, tiiougfa not bearing immediately upon the employment of water in auacolta- 
iion, yet has suggerted itself to several professional friends— viz. the apparent con- 
tradtetion oifiered to the sound-propagating properties of water, by the absence or 
deficiency of respiration and voice sounds in some examples of liquid in tiie diest> 
and of heart sounds in ezamplea of effyuien in the pericardium. 

I would briefly remark, that thoogh water is a good ooac&iclor of sound, second 
«n]y to wood and other solid bodies, and better in the case of air-tubes as above 
described, it is yet in many cases opposed to the prodmetkm of soond, and efiectually 
prevents those movements upon whidi sound depends. A lung pressed upon by 
water till it becomes impervious to air is not likely to be the seat of respiratioa 
eounds, and if they are not produced inside, they cannot be heard -oiitside. Ex nikih 

Besides tiiis, the ck cu a wi anoes under which the liquid is situated in respect of the 
stethoscope or hearing-tube are difiSerent. The liquid in the chest is separated firom 
the hearing-tube by the whole thickness of the walls of the cavity; while in the case 
of the hydrophone and of water employed in ny ezperimentt, the liquid is brought 
&a immediate, or almost immediate, contact with the aperture of the stethoeoops^ 
a condition which, as was stated in a fanner communication, is essential to 
the procuring an augmentation of sound firom solid bodies by the ittten«Btion cf 

Park Street, Qnmoemr Square, 



I WISH to call the attention of the profession to the great value of white paint as 
a remedial agent. The preparation itself is nothing more than a mixture of linseed 
oil and carbonate of lead, nibbed up into a semi-liquid substance. I first became 
aoquunted with its great efficacy In the treatment of eirsipelas by my late father 
and my brother. It is in this disease that the most strikhig benefit results fVt)m its 
application. I have never yet met with a case of this nature where it has not done 
immense aood. I find it far superior to lead lotions, mu<^age, hot fomentations, 
nitrate of silver, or collodion. After erysipdas, the paint proves of the greatest 
service perhaps In eczema in its several forms. In chronic eczematous eruptions of 
the aged it affbrds much comfort, and often speedily effects a cure. Of late years I 
liave extended its employment to other complidnts of the skin, indndlng herpes in 
its several forms. I have tried it in some cases of small-pox, with the view of 
diminishing the number of vesicles on the face, and of controllhig their sire; tiie 
latter indication it seems likely to Ailfil, but I cannot speak with confidence about 
the former, the papules being already numerous at the time of my visit I have 
also used it in several cases of carbuncle and furuncle. The first was in an instance 
of a huge caxtrande situated on the loin of a man, and rapidly extending, notwith- 
•tanding fkee indsions, linseed poultices, and ^ptopriate oonstitutiaDal treatment. 

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applied a thiek^ wide cirde of paint round the swelling, and dressed with vesin 
(HBtaent and oolton wool. There was no adranoe of the disease from that time, the 
oeotres rapidly broke np, and recovery took place. It is, however, probable that 
the omission (n the warm ponltioe ma^ have contribated to the improvement for I 
have often observed that warm poultices, however well made^ seem to filter and 
spread carboncnlar inflammations. 

Ihe paint aeems to act in two ways: first and chiefly, as an efficient exclader of 
the aii^— that great irritant to the cutaneous surface when disordered; and secondly, 
as a duect sedative to the sentient nerve filaments, rendering them less prone to 
become involved in inflammatory actum. In boils it relieves the painful tension, 
and fiivoars resolutioa In some forms of painful ulcers of the leg, of a small size^ 
it gives great relief. In galling of the skin, where anasarca is present, it is also of 
use; and is the best application that we have in bnms of the first and second degree. 
But it is in erysipelas that its triumph is most manifest; the patient soon finds the 
comfort of it The tight shining skin soon becomes wrinkled and shrunken, indeed, 
the inflammation very rardy extends after the second or third painting. 

AH my friends to whom I have recommended the pigmentnm album speak highly 
of it, and oo^ who is a Surgeon in the Peninsular and Oriental Company's service^ 
has used it for the last two ^ears with great success. The manner of applyiDg it is 
by means of a feather, paintmg the aflSected parts and a UiiU beyond^ and laying on a 
fresh coat every two lumrs or so, nntil a thick Isyer is obtained, and then sufficiently 
often to BUiintatn a covering. In erysipelas it peels off in a week or so with the 
shed cutid% leaving beneath a smooth, clean, healthy surface. Patients are stnudc 
with the benefit they derive fitom its employment — Dybiin Hospital Gax9tU» 



It has leng been ooaeeded that the process of displacement or percolation, as de- 
veloped \rf the Bonlh^s of Paris m 183S, is calculated, in proper hands, to work a 
complete revolntion hi the manipnlattons of extraction, as applied to pharmacy. 
Those who hare understood it have not fiuled to get results, which, if not entir^y 
satisfactory, have so far exceeded the ancient methods of maceration and digestion, 
that th^ have won for it the preference. Why then, it has been asked, has not this 
process been univefsaily employed? Why, in two successive revisions of the Phar- 
maoopcsia, has it been but partially adopted, giving the preference to the old methods? 
I belim^ the veason will be Sound in the fact that the practice of this process in- 
volves more pfeparatory labour and stricter attention to certain conditions, without 
whidi it is a ftunre; and that it was the want of confidence by the Pharmaco^ial 
mathorities in the abili^ and willingness of those who have in charge the business 
#f phanBS<7, faithfully to carry out these o<mditioofl^ that caused percolation to be 
olferad aM an tiUemoiwe, instead of bemg made the normal prpoess of extraction. 
The very simplicity of maceration renders it easily understood by the novice, and 
any irreguUrity in the preparation of the materials is overcome, in a great degree, 
by the kmger time devcied to the process. 

Unfortnnatelyi many persons who emplov percolation haUtnslly, do not under- 
stand its piincipies and details sufficiently clesr to gain all the advantages it aflbrds^ 
«r even to get products, in many cases, equal to those by the old methods. My 
attention has been reattracted to this sulject^ partly by the near approach of a new 
edition of our PharmaoopoBia, and partly hj the exodlent paper A Prof. Grahame, 
read at the last meeting of the Association, at Washington, which has been re- 
printed on page 354 of the present number fttxm the published Proceedings; and I 
propose first to consider what the displaoement process was intended to accomplish, 
and the oonditions to be attended to^ and afterwards remark on the results of Profl 

The object to be obtained in praetioe by BooUays' theory is this: a solvent, poured 
on the top of a powder eonsisting partially of soluble matter, contained in a cylin- 
drical vessel and supported on a porous diaphragm, descends from layer to layer by 
capillary attnctioii, and its own gravity, exertipg iU solvent power on esdi sue- 


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ceBsiye layer until its power of solation is exhausted, after which it continues to 
descend by the pressure of the superincumbent fluid, until forced out through tW 
diaphragm into the vessel below, a saturated solution ; this process continuing until 
the powder is exhausted of the soluble matter, and the liquid passes through 
holdmg less and less matter in solution. But to gain this result it is absolutely 
necessary that the substance treated shall be in a uniform powder, and that 
the capUlarity or porotuness of the mass of powder be not destroyed by any cause 
whatever, for, on the fact of the slow, regular, and even descent of the -solvent 
from one horitontal layer to the next, without side channels or circuits caused by ir- 
regular powdering or imperfect packing, depends the success of the process. Now 
what are the causes which interfere with this important condition? They are 
several :—]. The imperfect preparation of the powder, owing to the difference of 
opinion as to the degree of fineness it should be made to assume, and to the careless 
dislike of the trouble it causes. To say that all substances should be equally fine 
would be incorrect, as in substances containing a large proportion of xpatter very 
soluble in the liquid used, the powder should not be quite so fine as in exampleg 
where the proportion is less, for the reason that the proper capillary action is inter- 
fered with. To give an extreme example in illustration, it would not be proper or 
possible to displii^ finely powdered gum or sugar with water, or guaiac or mastic 
with alcohol; but by associating with these powders a sufficient quantity of in- 
soluble matter in powder, the condition of porosity being established, the process 
would go on. But the range of fineness should not be very great in small regular 
operations ; and where the state of division is properly attended to, there need be 
no difficulty in regulating the porosity of the mass and consequent passage of the 

It is an excellent custom to keep a set of sieves for the preparation of powders for 
this purpose, so that the d^^^ee of fineness of powders for percolation can be easily 
regiuat^; and it will be a point worthy of consideration by the revising committee 
of the Fharmacopcdia, whether some more definite directions as regards the state of 
division of drugs for displacement cannot be given than at present: Dr. Squibb 
suggests that a sieve of 24 meshes to the linear indi produces a powder of the right 
fineness — JE^f. Grahame considers the range should be from 40 to 60 meshes to the 
inch. I believe the range should be greater, to include large and small operations, 20 
to 60 meshes to the inch. Where the menstruum is ethereal or alcoholic (50 to 95 
per cent, in strength), the finer powder will be found very suitable, even in a 
cvlindrical percolator, unless the powder is highly resinous; in which case, either 
the powder must be coarse, or, if fine, must be admixed with an inert powder like 
sand to give the requisite porosity. When, however, very dilute alcohol or water is 
used, a powder 40 to the inch will be found fine enough; and if the substance is 
mucilaginous, 25 to 30 meshes will be found sufficient. But whatever degree of 
division is adopted, let it be as uniform as possible, and not consist of fijie cellular 
tissue mixed with long coarse fibres, the result of simple contusion, as is often the 
case. Until apothecaries will conscientiously assume this trouble and care, they 
will not be able to derive the beautiftil and satisfactory results from this process 
which it so abundantly affords. 

This brings us to the second stage of the process— viz. the manner of packing the 
material in the apparatus, as regards its condition of dryness or moisture at the 
time it is packed, and the form oif the apparatus used. BouUay almost invariably 
recommended the powders to be packed dry— others dampen the powder, or even 
saturate it, by previous maceration. Our Pharmacopoeia, based on the experience 
of many operators, almost invariably directs the powders to be previoosly macerated 
in a portion of the solvent. My own practice has been in favour of macerating the 
powders in all cases where the menstruum is water or very weak alcohol, where the 
powders swell by absorption ; whilst with alcohol or ether, to proceed at once with 
the percolation, with or without previously moistening the powders at the time of 
paclung, according to circumstances. Prof. Grahame invariably uses fine powders, 
and previously dampens them with menstruum, just sufficiently to facilitate (or 
invite, so to speak) the entrance and descent of the fluid through the powders, 
without destroying their pulverulent condition and interfering with their regular 

The degree of pressure to be exerted in compacting the powders must vary with 

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(heir mttiire ; hard ligneotu subdtanoes will require more compaction than such ai 
tend to expand hy contact with fluid. There is a class of drugs, of which rhuharh 
and calnmha are a type, which heeome adhesive hy contact with water or weak 
alcohol, and constanuy sire trouhle to the operator in the ordina^ cylinder, owing 
to their tendency to swell up and form an imperrious mass. It will he seen by the 
sequel Uiat the employment of a conical percolator in great measure remedies this 
difficulty. There is another class that contain insoluble gum or mucus analogous 
to bassorin, like senna and althea root, which swells up and forms a gelatinous mass 
with water, wholly unfit for percolation in an ordinary percolator. With the conical 
displacer, eren these may be treated with an aqueous menstruum ; but unless the 
mucilage is desirable in the preparation, as in syrup of althaea, it is better to use a 
partially alcoholic menstruum. In those cases where the swelling is due more to 
the expansion of the cellular tissue of the particles by contact with water than to 
mucilage, even though a large amount of soluble extract! yc matter be present, as in 
the case of gentian, it will be found advantageous to use a fine powder, fiftv or sixty 
to the inch, moistened with half its weight of water, which does not destroy its 
pulTerulent condition, and treat it in a conical percolator. Prof. Grahame, having 
met with no difficulty on the score of compaction by swelling, overlooks this fhiitM 
aonrce of trouble in direct dbplacement with the ordinary cvlinder, owing to his 
having aoddentaUy employed the Amnel as a convenient percolator, and his success 
with those substances that ordinarily require previous maceration to swell them 
is largely attributable to this cause. When a damp vegetable powder is packed in 
the conical cavity of a funnel and covered with paper to avoid the derangement of its 
strata, and water is poured carefully on, the liquid is absorbed, the insoluble cellular 
atructure of the particles becomes swollen, and the whole mass, stratum after 
atratum, expanding laterally and vertically, finds no difficulty in relieying itself, 
owing to the inclination of its sides; but in a cylinder, the Uteral expansion gaining 
no r^ef except vertically, the particles are compacted together, often to such a 
<degree as to prevent the percolation altogether. I believe that, philosophically 
apeaking, the cylinder is the proper shape of a percolator in cases where expansion 
presents no difficulty, but where this occurs, the use of a cone, as employed by Prof. 
Grahame, has very important advantages. 

Whatever form of apparatus is used, or however the packing may be affected, the 
operator should either by a disc of paper, muslin, or lint, or a layer of sand, cover 
the surface of the ingredients so that the addition of fluid shall not disturb the 
stratification of the powders. Boullay employed an upper metallic diaphragm. If 
paper or muslin, &c., is used, it should be soaked in the liquid, and carefully pressed 
into its position, so as to remove the air beneath before adding the menstruum, else 
it will be displaced by its buoyancy. 

But the peculiar merit of Pro! Grahame*s paper is, that it insists on the inra- 
riable production of a highly concentrated solution at first (a result always attained 
most effectually by direct displacement,) which enables the operator to fraction his 
product, to make less menstruum suffice for exhaustion, and in cases requiring 
evaporation, shielding the principles from the injury of prolonged heating. He also 
can avail himself of it in making fluid extracts, by reserving the densest first liquid, 
evaporating only the weaker. This brings us to consider the subject of saturation 
in regard to pharmaceutical menstrua, and to explain how it is that a solution by 
direct displacement is necessarily more concentrated than one by displacement pre- 
ceded by maceration, or by simple maceration. By way of illustration, let us take 
krameria: 1. The strongest aqueous solution attainable by maceration is that ob- 
tained by saturating rhatany powder urith water, letting it stand in a cool place for 
twenty-four or forty-eight hours, and then expressing it. The largest proportion 
of material is thus brought in contact with the smaUest proportion of solyent 
possible in this method, which we will assume to be a pound (7000 grs.) in a pint. 

2. If now, instead of pressing this rhatany, it be placed in a percolator properly 
packed, and treated with water, so as to displace the infusion rery slowly, the first 
fluid ounce that passes will nearly represent the liquid by maceration. The aecomd 
fluid ounce will he stronger by the amount of matter dissolved in its passage through 
the powder occupied by the first fiuid ounce. The third fluid ounce will be yet 
denser, owing to its gathering up from the leaving of the first and second fluid 
ounces. And this goes on until the added menstruum begins to mix with the last 

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portions, when the specific grayity of the mixture will be less than that of the in* 
ftision originally absorbed. 

3. But when you operate by direct displacement (or m the way proposed by 
Prof. Grrahame, which amounts to nearly the same thing, and is more certain}, the 
first fluid ounce of liquid that enters the powder exerts its solrent power on eoery 
iuccessive layer of the powder^ until it ceases to dissolve any more^ after which it u 
simply pushed downward hj the gravity of the liquid above, minus the capillary 
attraction exerted (sponge-uke) bv the powder to retain it. The second fluid ounce 
proceeds in lilce manner to exert its solvent power till saturated and passed j and 
this process proceeds so long as the amount of soluble matter is sufBcient to wholly 
satis^ the solvent action of the water during its contact, after which point the 
HquidiB wUl be found less and less dense. Now, on comparing the flrst portion of the 
liquid by direct displacement with the others, it will be found to be much stronger 
and more syrupy; and though the last portion of the pint will be weaker than anv 
of the others, yet when all the proceeds of the immediate displacement are mixed, 
the average wUl be stronger than either of the others. 

In condusion, I will offer the following experiments : — 

1. An ounce of gentian root was powdered and passed through a sieve sixty 
meshes to the inch» moistened with two fluid drachms of water, so as to be yet 
pulverulent. It was put in a fhnnel, the neck of which was previously stopped with 
mifUtened cotton, slightly pressed and covered with Altering paper, and the height in 
the fimnel marked. Water was now poured on: the powder gradually absorbed its 
bulk, and a dark brown liquid collected in the vessel below. Hie densest liquid 
amounted to 3j fluid ounces, but more than eight fluid ounces were required to 
exhaust it. The first liquid, by standing a few hours, gelatinized, firom the large 
amount of pectin it contained. The surface of the powder, when exhausted had 
risen half an inch in the funnel. 

2. Two ounces of Alexandria senna, of similar fineness to the gentian, were 
moistened with half a fluid ounce of water, and arranged in a funnel as above. 
Water was poured on and was slowly absorbed, having required eight hours to become 
iaturated; a dark, nearly black, syrupy liquid gradually collected below, requiring^ 
fourteen hours to four fluid ounces. This liquid was very highly charged with the 
properties of the senna and very odorous. The powder occupid twice its original 
Dulk, and was gelatinous. 

3. Two ounces of senna, moistened and put in a lamp-glass cylinder, reftised the 
passage of the liquid after twenty-four hours, owing to its consistence. 

4. Two ouncef of rhubarb, of similar fineness, were moistened with half an ounce of 
water (a difficult operation, owing to the tendency of the powder to form a paste by 
contact with water, and thus oppose its general distribution among the particles), 
and treated precisely as the senna. The absorption took place with great slowness* 
about fourteen hours elapsing before the liquid commenced to pass, and twenty hours 
longer were required to All an eight-ounce phial. Of the inftision, about one>half 
was saturated, and above this the liquid was less dense, but quite strongly Impreg* 
iiated with, the colour and taste of the root. When we consider the comparative 
insolubility of the isolated resinous and colouring principles of rhubarb, it is sur- 
prising how large a quantity may be extracted by the slow action of cold water in 
this way. I believe that for treatment with cold water, rhubarb should be in 
powder of at least forty meshes, if not thirty, so that it will be more porous. 

5. Two ounces of powdered calumba were treated in the same manner; the 
absorption was nearly as slow as in the rhubarb, about ten hours elapsing before it 
commenced to pass out below, and fourteen hours longer were required to flll an 
eight-ounce phial. On examining the product it was found that the flrst three ounces 
were dense and dark coloured, the liquid above being gradually less coloured, but 
quite bitter. The mass did not swell as much as the gentian. The result would 
indicate the impropriety of so flue a powder for calumba, because of the slow passage 
of the menstruum, and its tendency to decompose in warm weather before the root 
ia exhausted, even with the use of the funneL 

All of these substances, with diluted alcohol, would have behaved much better, and 
the results have been obtained more quickly; yet the experiments serve to illus- 
trate the influence of a conical percolator. 

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FrofeMor of Ohemistry in the University of Louisville. 

SxKiKQ an article in the May number of the Joumai of Pharmacy on the Otto of 
Boae, bronght to my recdlecdon qpme neglected notes made daring my rendoioe 
in Turkey,* on the colture of the rose and the extraction of its oil at Kisanlik, hi 
the Balkan Monntains. i 

Haying siKoeeded in finding those notes, and as they contain matter which may 
interest some of yoor readers, I fonrard them for pnblication. 

The reg[ion where the rose is cultivated 'a a yalley in the Balkan Mountains, in 
which is situated the city of Kisanlik, about sixty miles north west of Adrianople^ 
m latitude 42** 40'. It is only within fourteen or fifteen years that the cultivatioa 
of the rose has taken its present development in that region, although for a number 
of years the otto has been made there in limited qnantitjr, espedally for royal 
presents. The surface of the country is that of an extensire plain, shut in by 
elevated ridges, and here the rose is cultiyated by the fkrmers, who sell the roses to 
the distillers residing in Kisanlik, seldom or never distilling them on their &rms. 

The rose cultivated is of one kind, a full red rose, that was doubtless introduced 
into this region many years ago, and selected for its great fragrance and peculiar 
adaptation to the distillation of the oil. Its cultivation is attended with but little 
trouUe. The bushes are allowed to grow firom four to six feet high, although 
sometimes much higher. 

The roses are gathered during the months of May and June, six weeks being the 
term usually occupied in getting in the crops. 

The yield is on an average about If lbs. of rose leaves to a bush, the roses being 
collected with the calyx. 

niey are gathered half expanded, and at the dawn of day, and not unfrequently 
before daylight, ri^ey cannot be kept advantageously more than a day before being 
put into the still; if obliged to do so, they must be turned over frequently, as 
otherwise they will ferment, heat, and the otto be lost. 

The roses are placed in copper stills of about thirty gallons' capadtj^, in propor- 
tion of 60 lbs. of rose leaves to fifteen gallons of water, toid the still immediately 
heated. The oil is in the first portion of the water which comes over; however, 
one half the water is distilled-^this is collected in several Urge bottles. The water 
is now placed in a second still, and about one-fifth of it distilled, on which all the 
oil will fioat. Ihe oil is taken off the surface with a little spoon and placed in an 
appropriate yessel. Alt the water distilled in both first and second operations is sent 
into market as rose water. 

The water remaining in the still with the rose leaves is strained off and added to 
a fresh porUon of leaves, in the proportion already mentioned. 

The quantity of rose leaves required to produce one metical (14 draehms^ of the 
oil, vanes from ao to 60 lbs., according to the nature of the weather. If the rosea 
open during wet weather, and fiower dowly, the yield is at its maximum ; if, how- 
ever, the weather is hot, and the bush fiowers vigorously, the yield diminishes, the 
rose itself is paler, and if not picked at an early stage yields almost nothing. 

There is a green wax that comes off the calyx, attacliing itself to the nngen of 
those collecting, that also yields an oil by distiUatiou. 

The annual paK>duct of otto of rose in this region is firom 28,000 to 33,000 ounces 
althoqgh so largely is it adulterated that the amount of oil exported as rose oil Is 
upwards of 70,000 ounces. 

The material employed for adulteration is the oU of a species of geranium, very 
probably the Pelargonitm nweum, grown in Arabia, in the neighbourhood of Mbcca,f 

• [KoTX.— Prof. Smith was engaged dnriiig two years in the geological survey of Torkear 
under the patronage of t)w Saltan.— BDnoB.j , . _x -*i *«^ i.- 

t nf<yraf--l!hereUer,by leferaneetoiM^ And this point ntiatectorily settled by 

ICr. JUnbuiy, who ahowi that the ao-called oil of geranium, though it does oome to Torkey 
from Heeea. is really produced in Northern India, and carried to Meeca via Bed Sea oom- 
nerceu— Bpixob.*! 

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and taken to Eisanltk, for the purpose of adulterating the otto of rose. This gera- 
nium oil has the odour of the rose mixed with that of the lemon. 

In fact, it is a common thing, hoth in Europe and this country, to find this 
geranium oil in market, called otto of rose, sometimes mixed with a little spermaceti 
and benzoic acid. 

On one occasion, a merchant at Constantinople told me that he sent large quan- 
tities of oil of geranium to parties in New York, who informed him through his 
agents in Smyrna, that it sold yeiy readily in this country as otto of rose, and that 
the difference was not appreciated. 

It is almost impossible to obtain the oil of rose pure ; the distiller hardly gets his 
oil together in the evening, before he commences to elongate it by a little geranium 
oil ; if it be only five per cent, he must put that in. Such small addition as that 
would be made only by very conscientious traders. Fifty to two hundred per cent. 
are far more commonly added. And should the otto happen to sojourn a little while 
at Constantinople, it would increase still farther in weight and bulk. In the bazaars 
of that city, three or four grades of the otto can be bought; of course, they are 
simply different degrees of adulteration. 

The exact cost of manufacturing the pure otto of rose, at Eisanlik, may be esti- 
mated by referring to Uie following figures of an actual experiment made under my 
direction: — 

10,000 lbs. fresh rose leares $140.00 

Paid for use of still 6.25 

Paid for labour and fuel 16.50 


Yield was thirty-six ounces, thus costing $4.52 per ounce to the producer. 

This fragrant oil is made in other parts of the world by processes differing doubt- 
lessly from the one described, also from a diflferent rose; the one used in Ti-ipoli is 
white, having but few petals. The rose grown in the southern portion of France 
bordering on Italy yields hardly a trace of oil by distillation, although only \ degree 
further north than Kisanlik, the rose leaves there being used directly to impart their 
odour to perfuming soaps or distilled water. 

As regards the manner of testing the purity of the oil, I agree with Mr. Mackay, 
that the sulphuric acid and other tests are of no value. The odour is the best teat^ 
and that can only be applied by experts where the otto la made. — American Journal 
of Pharmacy y p. 324. 


Setxbal correspondents having applied for information respecting the purple dye 
which is now so extensively used for giving to silks, &c., the different shades of 
purple or navoe, we give the following extract from the Specification of Mr. 
Perkin's patent, which describes the process for producing and applying the dye: — 

^1 take a cold solution of sulphate of aniline, or a cold solution of sulphate of 
tolnidine^ or a cold solution of sulphate xylidine, or a cold solution of sulphate of 
cumidine, or a mixture of any one of such solutions with any others or other of 
them, and as much of a cold solution of a soluble bichromate as contains base 
enough to convert the sulphuric acid in any of the above-mentioned solutions into a 
neutnd sulphate. I then mix the solutions, and allow them to stand for ten or 
twelve hours, when the mixture will consist of a black powder and a solution of a 
neutral sulphate. I then throw this mixture upon a fine filter, and wash it with 
water till free from the neutral sulphate. I then dry the substance thus obtained 
at a temperature of 100° centigrade, or 212° Fahrenheit, and digest it repeatedly 
with coal-tar naphtha, until it is free from a brown substance which is extracted by 
the naphtha. Any other substance than coal-tar naphtha may be used in which the 
brown substance is soluble and the colouring matter is not soluble. I then free the 
residue from the naphtha by evaporation, and digest it with methylated spirit, or 
any other liquid in which the colouring matter is soluble, which dissolves out the 

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new coioiiring malter. I then separate the methylated spirit from the oolonrmg 
matter by distillation, at a temperature of lOO** oentifirrade, or 212° Fahrenheit. 

^ To produce the lilac or purple colour in the material to be dyed, I add a strong 
solution of the odouring matter (prefeiring an alcoholic solution) to a dilute boiling 
solution of tartaric acid or oxalic acid, and work the silk, cotton, or other material 
through it when cold. 

**Far dyeing wool it is found advantageous to boil the wool with the aboye 
solution and sulphate of iron, to rinse it in water, and afterwards wash it in soap 
and water." 

The colours produced by the use of this new dyeing material are not only rery 
delicate and beautiful, but they are permanent when exposed to lighL The same 
odours when produced, as heretofore, from regetable dyes, were extremely fUgitiye; 
so much so, indeed, that linendrapers rarely exposed fabrics of such colours in their 


M. Roux, Professor of Botany at the Naval School of Bochefort, has just sent in 
an interesting paper to the Academy of Sciences on the cultiyation of the poppy in 
France for the purpose of extracting opium. His first researches on this subject 
date from 1851, but were more espedally continued by him during 1856, 1857, and 
1858, on eight different kinds of poppy. His results are stated as follows:— 1. The 
Indian poppy furnishes a considerable quantity both of opium and seed ; the culti- 
yation of this vigorous species might be tried in those departments of France where 
the oil of the black garden poppy is a staple produce. The Indian poppy may be 
easily accHmatixed in France. A quantity sown in October, 1857, has succeeded 
perfectly, and the young plants resisted a cold of 10 degrees centigrade (18 degrees 
below Fahrenheit's freezing point) in the following winter. This cold proved equally 
harmless to the white, black, and red species, which were sown about the same time. 
S. The two latter produce the best opium, and their juice is much richer in morphine 
than is the case with the opiums of commerce. 3. A man can collect 100 grammes 
of opium in fifteen hours ; and if women and children, who are so often in want of 
emfdoyment in the country districts, were employed on this task, the opium 
necessary for medical purposes might be entirely grown in France. 4. The growing 
of opium might become very profitable in France, where poppy-oil is manufactured 
to the amount of fh>m 25,000,000f. to 30,000,000f., and where it would, consequently, 
be easy to add a new branch to that trade by the extraction of opium; and it might 
even, in course of time, become an article of exportation. Home-grown opium has 
been tried, at M. Roux's request, by M. Duval, first chief Navy Surgeon at Brest, 
and found to answer very well, owing to the quantity of morphine it contains. 



Dk. a. M. Adam, in some interesting Medkal Notes from the ConOnent, re* 
fers to some experiments by Prof. Booker upon sarsapariUa, as yet unpublished. 
Dr. Booker tdd Dr. Adam, "that after careftilly performing ninety-eight experi- 
ments with this drug on healthy people, he found that, contrary to all our usually 
received opinions on the subject, it possesses neither diuretic nor diaphoretic 
properties. Another series of twenty-six experiments, on the persons of uncured 
mhilitic patients, gave exactly the same results. Booker also satisfied himself 
Uiat sarza does not increase the eflScacy of the agents, such as iod. potass., ftc, 
which are usually given along with it ; and that the good results obtahied by the 
administration of this salt, dissolved in decoction of sarxa, are in no degree attri- 
butable to any vfrtue in the solvent fiuid. I told Dr. Booker that I remembered 
hearing Pressor Syme, many years ago, express his opinion on the utter useless- 

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146 OB nn mxdkui* AzmzMisrsATiov ov ozomziD ous. 

new of 90 espntiTe « drag at itna, nmarkiag; In his own ^oaiafe, teciU» t^ W» 
that he bettered an * iofbaioii oC huf wooid be jiirt m good» and a Taai deal cheaper. 
He leeined annued, and eaid tin* he eaAhvlr i«ned with 8 jne ; thai infoMon of 
earaahadno g r oat ereflbct on the eyetem than eo mndi can—on tea ; i ' '* ' 
most regaid it merelj as a ^eaeant, bat Twy €xpumkw% tvhide for the i 
tion of other medicines.'*— JE'dui^nr^A Medkal JtmnaL 



iM a paper read before the Royal Medical and Chimrgical Sodetj, on Twtriaj 
the 28th of June, the author, after some general remarks on the properties of osonev 
describes the results obtained firom its administration in association with oils ; the 
oUs being ozonised by exposure for a considerable time to the direct rays of the sun, 
after prerious saturation with oxygen gas, aoeoffding to the process adopted by Mr. 
Dugald Campbell. The cases of fourteen consumptire patients to whom the ozonized 
cils were giren are detailed ; and the prineipal focts noted are also appoided ia a 
tabular form. The condnsioa to whidi these experimeats point is^ that the adminis- 
tration of ozonized oUs has a remarkahie tenden^ to leduca the frequency of the 
pulse. Of the fourteen patients wfaese cases are detailed in this cenRnnnication^ 
there are only two in whom no snch effect was obserred ; and althoo^ in a few 
instances the elfect may hare seesMd inngniilcaBter tEansient,ina UrgcrpiopoitSoo 
it was Tsry oonsidevaUe, and must be aMrlbQled t» the oaone rather than to the oU, 
since it was repeatedly manifested in patients who had taken eod^ivcf and other 
oils without any reduction, or even wiu an aeeeletationy of the pube ; and further, 
the effect on the poise was nearly as distinct when the oaone was associated with the 
oil of the cocoa-nut, or of the svnfloweiv as with that of tlie cod-liver. This circnm* 
stance is the more signiilcaBt^aBioe the administratienof sunflower oil without oaone 
has not appeared to the author to manifest any important remedial power. The 
reduction qH pulse was usually obserred in two or three days^ and often oontiaiMd 
p r ogr ess ive. A redaction of tvrealy beats was observed in certain cases to occur 
lespeetiveiy in two, threes four, and six days \ in other instances a reduotaon was 
noted of twenty-four polsat&ODS in feortcen dayv, thirty-four in thhrteen, thkty-siz 
in twenty-two, fortyin deven. In one patient the pulse firil as low as 60 psobaMy 
considerably below the natnral standasd ; but in most of the feronrable instanres 
the reduction stoi^ed when that standard was obtained. The apparent effisct of the 
remedy is one which, prior to experiaient» the author wonkl not have anticipated* 
No other obrious result was noticed, esoepting a general improvement in the 
patient's condition. In some of the patients the use of simple and of ozonised oils 
was alternated. In one case the alternation was made three times, and the result 
was, in each interchange of treatmenti so direct and remarkable as to make that 
particular example equivalent in force to three experiments. In addition to tho 
patients under his own observation, the author refers to four jnfftft*^^*?^ noted by Dr. 
Scott AUson, who obligingly pursued the inrestigation during Dr. Thompson's 
absence from the Hospital In these four cases the disease was in the thhrd stage. 
In two^ a remarkable reduction in the rapidity of the pulse, amounting to about 
twenty beat% occurred under the use of the oconized oil, while the impiOTement 
induced could not be referred to any other cause; Dr. Alison remarks^ *<Iattaeli 
some Talne to this observation; for I prescribed the od totally divested of all prqndicn 
in its feyour, and I have always been leluetant on imperfect grounds to refer results 
to the operation of medkdnes^ If onootzed oil can reduce the rapidity of the circn* 
hition— a feature of great proodnenoe hk phthisis^— this remedy possess^ a most 
Tsluable property, rendered still more raluable by iu contributing at the same tima 
to improve tiie general health." The anther mentions baring used osoniaed oil off 
turpentine with marked and prompt advantage In some cases of hemoptysis, but has 
not suflldently repeated the experiment to feel entitled to express an opinion as to 
its remedial superiority over ordinary turpentine. He adds that, should more 
extended obsenrmtioa establish for onmiaed oil the property indicated by these 

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experimenti^ ft wffl pttrre a Talnable addxtion to <mr lift of lemediet, especially In 
ooosomption (yrhkh is a disease pecaliarir characterized by hurried aetion); but 
not, peniapa, exdnsivdj in this disorder, dnce there are other morbid conditions in 
the treatment of which it is very important to lower the pulse without reducing 
comtitational strength. 



A SBJsfatntrPhyicign to the Hospital for Consamption at Brompton. 

1m this paper the autikor describes the quantity of carbonic acid expired, and of 
air ins^ed, with the rate of respiration and pulsation in teibrenoe to the whole 
diqr and night* the Tariations of the day with and without food, and the variationa 
from day to day, and from season to season. The total quantity of carbonic acid 
expired in the twenty-four hours was determined in four gentlemen in eight 
eKperimenta, some of which were oontinned tar eighteen hours, with short interrala 
te meals oaij ; and others were made at the b^fmning of each hour and half-hour 
during that period. The quantity of carbonic acid exhaled in the six hours of the 
night ia 1960 grains* and the total amount of carbon exhaled in the twenty-four 
hours at rest vsried from 5.16 to 7.144 ounces in the different persons. The effect 
of walking at two and three miles per hour is found to be equal to If and Sf tiinea 
tlmt during rest ; and by making a computation of the amount of exertion made by 
diil bten t dssscs of the eommunity, the author finds that in the non-laborious clasa 
the carbon was inereased from 7.144 ounces when at rest* to 8.6S onnees, and in the 
laborious dasa to IS. 19 onneea daily. During profound sleep the amount of car- 
bonie add is lessened to the extent of half of that of the arerage of (he day. The 
▼axiations of the day with food are so great that the maximum is one-half more 
than the minimum, and in one gentleman it was nearly double the minimum, the 
neatest ooeiirxing alter each meal, but partkolariy after fareakfost and tea, and the 
JiasC immediately before the umaIs. During a last of twenty-soYeo hours the 
minimum quantity was m ai n tained almost witiiout change during the whole period 
of wakefolness, but there was a rise at the jperiods when the quantity usually rose 
with food. The quantity of earbon erdved in twenty-four houra without food ia 
5.923 ounces instead of 7.144 ounces with food— a quantity equal to that contained 
in SO euneea of bread. The blood and the secretions beoome unusually alkaline. 
The Tariations from day to day were due to temperature and the state of the 
system. Sudden increase of temperature caused a sudden decrease in the resiwri^ 
tory changes, which continued until the temperature rose. This was an oYer-acting 
oense of Taristion, but was the greatest alter the cold of the winter. The sUte of 
the system caused by changes m the proportion of waste and supply, varies the 
ouantity of carbonic add erdTOd on the following morning. A good night's rest, a 
feeling oi health, good supi^y of food, and not too mndi exertion, give an increase 
on the following morning (hence there was usually a high state of system tm the 
HondayX and the BBTorse under the oontnury conditions. As these conditi(ma rary 
from day to day, the amount of carbonic scid erolred ▼aries erery day. The 
Tariations which are due to season are Tory remarkable and important, since it was 
shown that the respiratory changea Tary from season to season in a definite and 
periodic manner,and so that the ipeaiest changes occurred in the odd season, and 
the least in the hot season, and with defo^te periods at which this Tariation begins. 

Dr. Smith also shows the amount of carbonic acid cTdTCd with the exertion of 
the treadwheeL— iVocMciiii^ of ike Boyal Soekiy, 



Tbm method adopted by the author in these researches Is— Ist. To take the food 
under examination apart from the influence of other food, and, therefore, before any 
meal had been taken. 2nd. To take about the quantity usually taken by mankind. 

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3rd. To ascertain the amount of carbonic acid ezi^ied and of air inspired, with the 
rate of respiration and pulsation in a state of perfect rest, and in the sitting posture 
immediately before the food for examination was taken, and to compare all results 
obtained during the action of the food with this basis quantity. 4Ui. To make an 
inquiry in from three to ten minutes after taking the food, and to repeat it eveiy 
twelve or fifteen minutes, until the maximum influence was obtained ; the con- 
ditions as to posture and quietude remaining unbroken. It is found, from the 
hourly rariations of these phenomena of respiration, that such an inquiry could not 
be made correctly between the meals, on account of the incessant variations then 
occurring from the meals (a source of error in the results obtained by Boker and 
other observers) ; nor in the evening, since at that period all the phenomena 
declined ; and that only in the morning before breakfast, and before the usual 
bret^fast hour, could trustworthy results be obtained. It is found, also, that the 
influence of food is evident soon after its introduction into the system, and attains 
its maximum within about two hours. The persons experimented upon were 
chiefly the author himself and Mr. Monl ; but Dr. Frankland, Mr. Hoffman of 
Margate, and Mr. Reid of Canterbury, had also submitted themselves to the 
inquiry. The substances investigated were very numerous, and the experiments 
exceeded two thousand. The foUowing is a list of the foods describcKl in this 
communication : 1, Starch series — arrowroot, arrowroot and butter, arrowroot and 
sugar, commercial starch, wheat starch, gluten, bread, oatmeal, rice, rice and 
butter, potatoes and gum. 2. Fats— butter, olive oil, cod-liver oil. 3. Sugars— 
cane sugar, grape and milk sugars, cane sugar with adds and alkalies. 4. The 
milk series (cow's) — new milk, skimmed milk, casein, casein and lactic acid, lactic 
acid, creani, sugar of milk and lactic acid. 5. Alcohols — spirits of wine, brandy, 
whiskv, gin, rum, sherry and port wine, stout, ale. 6. The tea series— tea, green 
and black ; hot and cold, in different quantities, and with acids and alkalies; coffee; 
coffee leaves; chicory and cocoa. 7. Other nitrogenous substances — gelatin, 
albumen, fibrin, almond emulsion. It is impossible to give an abstract of all the 
results obtained, although the author in this communication, limits himself entirely 
to a statement of (acts, leaving all theories and practical application of the facts for 
another occasion ; but the fdlowing are a few of the principal results : 1. Pure 
starch and fats do not increase the quantity of carbonic acid evolved ; but, on the 
contrary, the latter somewhat lessen it. 2. These substances are either not found 
alone in nature, or they are not used alone as food, but are associated with other 
substances, which tend to call them into action, and which constitute a dass which 
the author has termed " respiratory excitants." 3. The cereals— viz. wheat-flour, 
oatmeal, and rice, containing besides starch, albuminous products, gluten and 
sugar, have a great and enduring power in increasing the production of carbonic 
add— an increase equal to» or exceeding, two grains per minute, and continuing 
upwards of two hours. 4. Milk, in its natural combination and in each of its 
elements, excites the respiration to an extent, from new milk, of nearly two grains 
of carbonic add per minute. Lactic acid had the least influence, and then cream ; 
but cream had more influence than butter. No artificial combination of the 
elements of milk produced the effect of the natural milk. Milk produces its effects 
in different degrees in those who like and who do not like it. 5. Sugars are 
most rapid and powerful respiratory exdtants, so that 1^ oz. of cane sugar gave an 
increase of about two grains of carbonic add per minute, in less than half an hour. 
The addition of add usually increased the maximum, while that of alkalies increased 
the duration of its influence. Milk sugar had less influence than cane sugar, and 
grape sugar less than either ; but the latter still produced an increase of more than 
one grain of carbonic add per minute. Thus, of the hydrocarbons, sugar must be 
dassed apart from starch wad fat 6. Tea and coffee are powerful respiratory 
exdtants, producing an increase of from 1 ^ to 3 grains of carbonic add per minute, 
and an effect which endured upwards of one hour. Acid, added to tea, made it 
more stimulating ; and alkalies rendered it more soothing ; but a fixed alkali 
destroyed its influence. Chicory and cocoa have a similar but less powerM 
action ; while coffee-leaves caused a diminution in the exhalation of carbonic acid of 
one grain per mhiute. 7. Alcohols differ in effect both in the different members of 
the class, and in different spedmens of the same kind. Alcohol always increased 
the evolution of carbonic add to the extent of less than one grain per minute. Rum, 

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also, commonly had the same resolt, and good malt liquors produced an increase 
sometimes exceeding one grain per minute, and enduring more than two hours. 
Sherry wine commonly gare a small and sustained increase. Brandy and gin, and 
particularly the latter, lessened the quantity of carhonic acid evolved, while wliisky 
yaried with the different specimens. The inhalation of the volatile elements of 
alcohol, and spirits and wine, caused a diminution in the quantity of carhonic acid, 
and an increase in the vapour exhaled hy the lungs. These various members of 
this heterogeneous class differ greatly in the amount of alcohol which they contain, 
as well as in their other elements, as sugar, gluten, acids, salts, and volatile oils, and 
ethers, and, in the author's opinion, shoula not be classed together. 8. Gelatin, 
albumen, and fibrin also increase the production of carbonic acid to a maximum 
quantity less than one grain per minute. 9. Thus nearly all nitrogenous foods are 
"respiratory excitants." 10. Foods may be thus classed in reference to this latter 
quality: Non excitants — starch, fat, some alcohols, ' coffee-leayes. Excitants^ 
sugar, milk, cereals, potato, gluten, casein, gelatin, fibrin, albumen, tea, coffee, 
cocoa, chicoiy, alcohol, rum, ales, and some wines. As above stated, the author 
does not discuss the mode in which they produce these effects, but he adduces 
several facts which may aid in forming an opinion upon the subject. The author also 
states that wherever there was an increase in the quantity of carbonic add evolved, 
there was also an increase in the quantity of air inspired ; but that these were not 
due to increased rate, but to Increased depth of respiration. He also finds that the 
same food produced effects differing in degree in different persons, and in the same 
person at different periods, and that such was also the case with the action of acids 
and alkalies upon the human system. — Procndrngs of the Boyal Society, 


Two ''sun-lights," each containing 75 burners, have been placed immediately 
under the ceiling in the centre of the music hall in the Edinburgh Uniyersity, the 
ceiling being 40 feet in width and 50 feet from the floor. These burners have been 
succettftilly lit by an application of the electric current. The mode of operation may 
be thus explained: — ^The galvanic battery is placed in the cellar, and from it positiye 
and negative wires are carried up the side of the hall and along the ceiling to imme- 
diately over the burners. Then it is coiled round the poles of an electro-magnet, to 
the keeper of which are attached a couple of wires bearing a platina wire. On the 
current cf electricity being established at the battery, the platina wire, placed within 
an inch of the burner, becomes red-hot, and the gas being simultaneously turned on, 
the whole 75 lights, which are closely contiguous, immediately flash into flame. The 
dectric current having thus answered its purpose, is at once intercepted at the battery 
below, and the electro-magnet, ceasing to be a magnet, its keeper, with the wires 
attached, &Us three inches below the flame, so drawing down the platina wire, which, 
were it to renuun in position, would be destroyed by constant exposure to the 
powerAil flame of the gw^-^Manchester Guardian, 



Sir, — In your number for this month I observe Mr. Williams of Neath claims 
originality for hia piooess of making ammonia from the waste gases of the vitriol 
diamber. In May, 1856, 1 took out letters patent* in which I claim "The passing 
the waste gases from the sulphuric acid chamber, mixed with steam, over heated 
spongy p Kt yn*?m, or other substances, to form ammonia, as described.** Mr. 
Williamrs pxooeia if a direct infringement of this patent. Your publication of this 
will oUige, Tour obedient Servant, 

G«o. F. Tanmbb. 

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On Monday, Jane 28ih, Mr. John Hamphreys, the ooroner for Eut Middlesex, 
held an inqoeet, which had heen a^ionmed for the thhrd time, at the Waterloo Hero 
Tarem, Poplar, respectmg the death of Ziporah Boyal^ aged 21 years, who died 
from the effiB^ of some irritant poison supposed to be cantharides. It was stated 
in eyidence that the deceased and ha husband had been lodging Cor about eight 
months in the house of a Mrs. Allen, 44, Gough Street, F<^Uir New Town. On the 
31st of May, the deceased (who had onlv been confined five weeks) was seised with 
Tu^ent pains. The landlady was called, when brandy was administered, but the 
symptoms incfeased, and Mr. Webb, Snrgeon, was sent for, who found deceased 
suffering fkom intense thirst, and a burning sensation in the throat ; she continued 
to get worse, and died on Saturday, June 4th. In reply to a question from the 
landlady, deceased said she had only taken some coffee which her hnsband had made 
her drink, although it was very bitter. 

Sarah Ann Eagle stated, that she knew the deceased, who was not married to 
Boyal, her correct name was Ziporah Wri^^t, and she had formerly lired with 
witness as senrant. The man Boyal was brother to witness ; lie had left the house 
the day preTious to the death, and had not returned. 

The po$t morkm examination was made \sy lAi. Webb, and the analysis by Dr. 
Lethel^, who said that he had used yarious tests, but could not find any solid poisons. 
There were no traces of arsenic or other mineral poison, but on further examination of 
the parts, he detected a powerful acrid irritant in the intestinal canal, of an organio 
nature, which would account fox the symptoms described. Be iXHild not predselj 
identify it, but it was more like cantharides than anything else, and was most 
probably administered in a soluble form. He had tried a portion of the liquid 
found m the stomach upon his lip, and it raised a blister immediately. The 
coroner haying read oyer the whole of the eyidence, the jury unanimously agreed to 
a yerdict of ^ WilAil murder against George Frederick Boyal," and a warrant fox 
his apprdieoflion was issued. 


Ov Friday, July 15, an adjourned inquest was held by Mr. C. J. Carttar, oofoner 
for West Kent, at Cliarlton, on the body of William Enoch Durand Cumming^ who 
^ed firom taking a large dose of laudanum. It appeared ftom the endence, that 
deceased had fonnerly been an underwriter at Uoyds, and carried on business as a 
l)roker. A &w yean since he retired with a considerable fortune^ but had recently 
been connected with the Derrick Company for raising sunken yessels, and other 
specnlationa, and it was proyed that these losses had preyed upon his mind. The 
bottle which had contained the laudanum was found with a glass in a field where 
the deceased was walking a few hours before his death. After some remarks firom 
the coroner, the jury returned a yerdict that the deceased committed suicide by 
taking laudanum whilst labouring under temporary insanity. 


In a letter by an Indian gentleman, Uying near Jubbu^ote^ it is stated that two 
European gentlemen belonghig to the Indian Railway Company— yiz., Messrs. 
Amstrong and Boddington— were sorreying a plaee called Bunder Coode^ lor the 
purpose of throwing a bridge across the Kerbndda, the channrt of whk^ being in 
this place from 10 to 50 yards wide, is fathomless, haying white maible roeka rinag 
perpendiculariy on either side from 100 to 150 feet high, and beetling feazftilly in 
some parts, fluspended in the recesses of these marble rocks are numerous large 
liometiT nesta, the inmates of which are ready to descend upon any who may 
Tenture to disturb tb^ repose. As the boats of these European suryeynrs woe 
passing up llie xirer, a cloud of these insects oyerwhelmed them ; the boatmen as 

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wd u fhe two gattemeii jumped orerboud, but Mr. Boddingloii, who vwtan, and 
had nieoeeded la elingiag to a maxble Uodc, was again attacked, and b^ nnable 
anjloBger to reaitt the aatanlts of «he ooootleaB boidea of hie hiftiriated winged foes, 
thnw hknaelf hito the depths of the water never to rise agahi. On the fourth day 
his ooipse was disooTered floating on the water, and was i^erved with erery mark 
cf nspeot. The ottier gentleman, Mr. Armstrong, and his boatmen, althongh rery 
BCTerely stung, are ovt of danger. 



B^ore ike Lord Chitf Barm. 

On Tfavndsy, July 7, Dr. Thomas Smetirarst was plaoed «t the bar, diarged in 
the indictment with the wilful murder of Miss Isabella Bankes, by slowly poisoning 
her with arsenic. Mr. Seijeant Ballantyne appeared for the prosecution, and Mr. 
S^rieant Bany for the defence. 

The particulars of the case, as giren before the magistrates, hare already appeared 
in our number for June. The trial was resumed on Friday, when, in consequence 
of the illness of one of the Jurors, it was postponed till the next session of the 
Central Criminal Court. 



TscmoAI. TxBMS ; wkka D^fmUUm^ikB Mmeyt, WagkU, tmd Mt^sweiof all 
OmxtneM reduced to the British Standard. By P. L. Smxoims, FJLG.S., 
JJSjaLyAc London: BoutledgOi 1«5& fimall 870^ pp. 422. 

This little work is, as its title-page states, a DicHoHary, and, as such, it is ar- 
nmged in alphabetical order, tiie popular names standing fist. The TVade Products, 
comddering the diflSculties arising from their number and Tariety, are mostly defined 
with toleraUe breTity and correctness. Still there ace manr eases in wliidi one 
could suggest an improred definition, and tome few in which it is absolutely 
erroneous. As an ezempliflcation of our remark, let us obserre that the definitioa 
of Wlute Pepper as ** made by blanching the bla^ pepper," would liaye had inore 
meaning and greater accuracy had it stated that the ** bbmdung^ was occasioned ^ 
the remwal of the outer coat or periean. Again, Kim, as occurring in commerce, is 
essentially &e produce of the Indian Pterocofjnu Marst^^han, and there is no need to 
describe it so raguely as *' obtained from Tarious Australian and Indian trees." 
^^ Pillococtd" Bhoaid not be defined as a ** drug for pms;" it would be more correct to 
say, a corruptiim cf Pihyss cooeisi, ih§ mmeieiU nmw of 4t certain ourgatitfe pilL As 
erroneous definitiona, we may iwtaoe Sumbol BMt, niSBRed to Valeriana Jatamansi^ 
Lycopodnm oonfounded with Fnff-ball, and St. Ignatius heans with Nuz Vomica. 

Nor is our antfaor bf way means strong hi the Aemieal department. Blue-stone 
is defined to be *' a common name for aolphale of copper and TitrioL" Hydrocyanic 
add is declared to be a name for Pmssic add, and I^ussic add we find described as 
a name for Hydrocyanic add. Bath-stone is a '* yoiatile limestone." Nothing, 
howerer, is more stsriling than the definition of Oxygen, which is simply stated to 
be ^ a manufacturing name for Ueaohing powder." j£it this extreme brevity is not, 
we must say, a preyailing fault, — ^witness, 

" Jack, a name for a male ass ; a sailor ; an histrument fbr ptdHng off boots ; 
a powerftd machine for raising great weights, its ordinary power being about five 
tons: a kitchen machine for turning a spit, the moving power beiiig either a 
weight, or the smoke and nuified air of a cfafann^ ; a wooden frame for sawing 
ihnheron; awedge ; aflag carried on the bowsprit of a Teasel ; in the Orkneys, 
a term for taking off the skin of a seal." 

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152 TO COaR£8POiVD£NT8. 

la many cases the author has introdaced a great numher of compound words which, 
to our thmking, haye no claim to a place in such a work. The word Oyster maj be 
admitted, as giving the opportunity for stating that London consumes of this moUusc 
to the extent of 300,000 bushels annually. Perhaps Oyster-bed and Oyeter-^dredge 
have some pretensions to the rank of technical terms) but «rhat is the use of deflning 
separately compound words so famiUar and intelligible as OyaUr'hufe^ Oyster* 
opener^ Oyster-patfy, Oyster-room, Oysier^auce, and Oysters scalloped f 

Bice rudding, Road and Dust Contractor, Road Surreyqr, Ruling Machine, 
Shop-counter, Shop-fittinga, Shop-front, Soup-kitchen, Soup-ladle, Soup-plate, 
Soup-pot, Soup-ticket, Soup-tureen and a host of familiar words of the same 
character, hare, we think, no proper place in a Dietionarv oj Trade Products, 

We hope the author will receive our criticisms in good part, and that the demand 
for a second edition may enable him to act upon some of the suggestions we have 
thought right to make. 


B* B. f West Bromwich). — (1.) Iodide of Quinine is very sparingly soluble in water, 
but is soluble in glycerine and syrup in the proportion of about one grain to the 
drachm. (2.) It would be impossible to account for the variation in colour of 
different specimens of ammonio-citrate of iron without an examination. 

Cr. H. (Islington).— (1.) Granular Citrau of Mdgnesiti. The article sold under 
this name is not strictly a citrate of magnesia, but a sodio-citrate. The manner of 
preparing it is at present kept secret. (2.) Tincture (if Myrrh and Borax. VoL 8, 
p. 96. 

P. S. M, (Berwick^ — Liquor Soda Chlorinates, The formula will be found in the 
London Fharmacopoua. 

An Oriainal Member (Glo'ster). — It would be necessary to know all the circum- 
stances of the case before answering the question, and even then it would be more 
suited for a solicitor than for us. 

S. E.^Ye»', a penalty has recently been awarded under the Medical Registration 

M, P. S. (Southampton).->On the addition of nitric acid to sulpho-cyanide of 
potassium, the change aUuded to does take place. 

A London Member, — The information required will be found in the last Census. 
It would, however, be liable to mislead, as many, not strictly belonging to the class, 
are included in theretum. ... 

An Old Member.-^The medicines would be liable to stamp duty, whether the labels 
were attached to the bottles or not. 


Page 58. Greenwell, Baker, prefix No. of Certificate, 65. 

<* 61. Bowman; William— pr^j; No. of Certificate, 29. 

*< 82. Scholefleld, Qeorge, read Liverpool /or Birkenhead. 

'* 85. Teasdale, Thomas, Darlington, prefix No. of Certificate» 7. 

** 93. For Briggs, John Aston, read Briggs, James Aston. 

*' 94. For Steward, James, read Stewart^ James. 


1859 325 ......... Kendall, Charles Fisher ' ClaphamRoad. 

. Inatractians from. Members, i^nd. As^opiate^t.reap^cting.the transmission 
of: the- Journal, l>ef6re the 2^th' of the month, to the Se<nretary, Eliab 
BsEMBiDOBy 17, Bloomsbury Squfire, W.C. 

AdTertisements (not later than the 2drd) to Mr. CnaRCRiLLy New 
Burlington St. Other communications to the Editors, l?^ Bloomsboiy Sq. 

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VOL. I.— No. IIL— SEPTEMBER Ist^ 1859. 



In the history of Pharmacy in Great Britain the name of Jacob Bell will 
always occupy a conspicuous and honourable position. With the earliest efforts 
to found a Pharmaceutical Society in this country, and their ultimate success, 
with the difficulties that the new Society encountered by the defection of many 
of its early supporters, with the dangers that arose from internal dissensions and 
from legislative interference, his name will always be intimately associated. 

The removal by death of one to whom more than to any other the Pharma- 
ceutists of this country stand indebted, and by whom in a pre-eminent degree 
the progress of Pharmacy in Great Britain has been advanced, is an epoch in 
the history of the Pharmaceutical Society; and the desire will naturally arise in 
the minds of its Members to become acquunted with some of the incidents in 
the life of one who has been so closely connected with it from its formation to 
the present time. 

Jacob Bell was the eldest surviving son of John Bell, and was born in Oxford 
Street, in the parish of St James, Westminster, on the 5th March, 1810. 

The elder Mr. Bell,' who was a, man of the utmost integrity and benevolence, 
was a Member of the Society of Friends, and most conscientiously desirous of 
brining up his children in conformity with the views held by that section of 
the Christian Church. In the year 1798 he commenced business in Oxford 
Street, and by his^ diligent application and unswerving uprightness, laid the 
foundation of the important phattnaceutical establiehment with which his name 
is still associated. After his death, which took place in the year 1849, a short 
but most instructive sketch of his early career, from the pen of his son, appeared 
in the pages of this Journal.* 

When between twelve and thirteen years of age, Jacob Bell was sent to the 
school of his uncle, Mr. Frederick Smith, at Darhngton, where he remained for 
about four years. The establnhn^ent of this gentleman had deservedly a high 
reputation in the Society of B^iends, and under the tuition which he there 
rec^ved, aided by his own diligent applicationi he soon made rapid progress. 

Most boys have a horror of themes, but this was not his case, — in fact, com- 
position, whether in prose or verse, was his forty even in school-days. Among 
several early literary productions still preserved, is an Essay on War, which was 
written for and gained a prize. This jEssay, which was composed at the a^e of 
sixteen, and extends over 140 pages, is far beyond the average of schoolboy 
productions, and it is remarkable that the views which the young author upholds 
m it condemnatory of war, were strongly retained by him through life. An 
Essay on Slavery, of above 100 pages, written about the same time, is of con- 
siderable merit, and further attests his diligence and his aptness at writing. 
Another piece of authorship, undertaken in conjunction with his schoolfellow, 
Lawson Ford, was a MS. periodical, under the whimsical but characteristic title 
of Bell/ord [Bell-Ford] Gazette. It was devoted to school news and chit-chat, 
and was canned on with much humour for some months. 

Upon lefiving school, Jacob Bell was apprenticed to his father^s firm, and 
came to reside at the house of business in Oxford Street. Here his position 
was like ihat of the other apprentices and assistants, and he had to take duty 

• Vol. viii., p. 689. 
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with them, eyen to the Sunday Berving and attendance in the ahop after the 
usual hours of business. 

But although the pursuit of business was thus insisted upon, he was not idle 
in the matter of self-improvement. At the Lectures on Chemistry at the Royal 
Institution, and on the Ftacttce of Phjsic at Eine's College, he proved 
himself a diligent student. At a later penod he worked at practical chemistry 
in the house of business in Oxford Street, converting his bedroom into a 
laboratory, and fitting it with a ftimace and other apparatus. 

About this time he also amused himself in leisure hours by the study of 
companrtive anatomv, and especially by the preparation of skeletons of animals^ 
in wnich, being a nice manipulator, he was v^ suoeeasftil. These specimens 
were moirtly prepared* on hia /ather's premises at Wandsworth, wh^ bitter 
denundatioBS sometimes arose when the odious effluvium of some dead monkey, 
rat, or porcupine, undergoing its term of maceration, penetrated unbidden the 
quarters of the family. 

But his predileetKNl for uimals extended to the living also, and the 
Zoological Society was therefore an object of much interest with lum. It was, 
however, in ^ses and dogs that he specially delighted. He was himself an 
admirable hc^semaa, and aa^ his father's country house was some few miles out 
of town, he could indulge in the pleasures of riding without int^ering with 
business. At one time hunting was a favourite pursuit, but the urgent 
entreaties of his father, who highly disapproved of sucn an amusement, induced 
him to relinquish it. The gaieties of liondon life had, however, strong at- 
tractions, and, as with everjthiiig else that be undertook, he entered into them 
with great spirit. 

At school, drawing had been a favourite pursuit, and in order to continue it 
when settled in London, Mt. Bell used to attend the morning class at Sass's 
Drawing School, and he iJso received lessons in oil painting from his friend, 
Mr. H.r. Briggs, R.A. Hia taste in tliis direction was natural ; and had he been 
able to. pursue paitttinff as a profession, success would in all probability have 
attended his efforts. As it was, he saw he could attain only mediocrity. The 
progress of his fellow-students, who could count their days of study while he 
could reckon only upon hours, discouraged him, and ultimately caused him to 
abandon the practice of art. In humorous sketching, however, he was very 
clever, and many^ a page cf a ioumal kept in his early days at Oxford Street, 
contains illustrations that would do credit to Punch, In fact, his keen sense of 
the ridiculous was innate, and, coupled with an originality of expreasionf it 
characterized what he wrote from childhood upwards. 

But although drawing was no longer pursued by Mr. Bell as a study, his - 
associations with art were not discard^. Though he could not aspire to he an 
artist, he looked with admiradon upon those whom he felt were more favoured 
than himself. With such tastes he naturally soon formed the nucleus of a 
collection, whiclwin after years, when in the possession of more ample means, he 
enriched bv the acquintion of some of the finest productions of the modem 
school. Of the celebrated works in his collection we may enumerate the 
Sleeping Bloodhound, the Shoeing, Alexander and Diogenes, Digpitj and 
Impudence, the Defeat of Comus, the Maid and the Magpie, by Sir Edwin 
Landseer; the Horse Fair, by Rosa Bonheur; the Derby Day, by Frith; 
James II. receiving the News fif the Landing of the Prince <n Orange, by 
Ward ; and some delightful cattle pieces, by Lee and Cooper. These, together 
with some other paintings, in all about twenty, were found, aft«r Mr. Bell's 
death, to have been bequeathed by him to the national cdlection. The value 
of the legacy has been stated, we believe with coirectness, at frt>m £18,000 to 

But it would be wrong to suppose that it was only as a liberal porchaaer tiiat 
Mr. Bell showed his sympathy for art. His service was perhaps equally im- 
portant in another way, and that was in placing artists in their proper position 
with regard to copyright. Begardlng the subject from a business point of view. 

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iMpcroMTcd the full Taloe of the priTilege; and, hy the adTioe and asBislanoe 
ivhidk he gave, he enabled artistfl to daim adrantages ivhich thejrhad preyioiisly 
but vary partiallj appreciated. 

In die year 1840, Mr. Bell aooompanied Us friend Mr. (now Sir) Edwin 
Lendaeer, then in poor health, npon a joumej on the Continent. Belgiam, the 
Slune^ and Switaerland, were ▼iaitea; Imt anrived at Genera, Mr.Bdl waa 
tdxn 31, and the travelien had to change their respectiTe positions of patient 
and nurse. The maladj was a serere attack of qninsj, producing symptoms Teiy 
afaiMlar to those fipom which he soffered many years afterwards, when laboaring 
imd«r an afiecdon of the larynx,* and it prored so serions that he and Mr. 
Landseer were detained in €reneTa six weeks. Under the eare of Dr. Coindet, 
M^. BeltVi health was so far restored, that he was able with hn eompanioii to 
cross the Jura in the snows of December, and, reaching Paris, to witness the 
solemnities that celebrated the antral in that city of the remains of the fest 
Hapoleon. IVom Paris they retomed to London, arriring there on the 31st 
December, after an absence of about lour months. 

On the t5th February, 1841, a public meeting was held in London in order 
to orgauxe an opposition to a bill introduced in^ Parliament by Mr. Hawes, 
for the purpose of Amendm^ CA« Laws relaUng to (he Medical Profession in 
Great Briiam and Irdand, masmuch as the bill in question contained clauses 
vitatljr aflecttng the interests of Chemists and Druggists. At this meetinff a 
committee was appointed, of which Mr. Bell was a member, and the opposition 
was carried on so rigorously that the proposed measure was abandoned. It 
beoone erident, however, to many of those who took part in these proceedings, 
ihsX the ei|prf^ de corps which had been raised in the nour of danser might be 
taken adranta^ of for the formation of a permanent society, and that such a 
society mi^t interpose a most effectual saf^ard for the protection of the 
interests of the trade, as well as for gradually raising it to tne stains which it 
occupied in other countries. 

The result was that at another publio meeting held on the 15th April, the 
formation of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain was decided upon. 

Although this step may be said to hare laid the foundation of the Society, yet, 
as is well known to all those who have had experience in sudi matters, a vast 
amount of hard work had to be accomplished b^ore the Society could be reduced 
to anything like working order. Bnles had to be framed, officers appointed, 
and even the members, most of them but slightly known to each other, <Mr perhaps 
almost antagonistic, had to be coaxed into cordial co-operation. 

Here the tact and energy of Jacob Bell, who had throughout been warmly 

* In s most amnsing account which Mr. Bell has left of this jonrney, he has described in his 
own pecoHar fitcetkms way the snflMngs he experienced during this attack ; and they accord 
BO precisely with those which oocnrred in his last illness, that we have obtaiiMd permission to 
qnote the passafe. •• 

(Enter the ServaU to loathe Cloth for (ttwMP. ) 
B, ** What an unfortunate rictim I am I I am doomed to endure Benjamin's appetite and 
Sonebo Pansa's nuntificatioD P 
U- " What do you mean by Benjamhi's appelate ?** 

B. <* We an told that when Joseph in £gypt fed his eleven brethren with bread and milk, 
Beojamin's mess was five times as Ime as any of the others, and as we are not informed that he 
left any of it, we may eooclnde that nis appetite was in the same ratio. Those who have seen 
Leslie's little picture of Sandw Panza at the oonehisioaof his untasted repast, can imagine what 
he felt by the ezpmsion of his countenance. / can imagine it hj feeling the same torture 
mjMU^ and a few inflammatory twitches into the bargain.' " 
X. '* Here oomes the soup t Try and swallow a little bread sopped in It** 
B. " I'H make the attempt— —Every mouthful of soup is like a dagigar : a little runs 
hMEfily dofwn, and the rest becomes i^utinons, and stops the passage until 1 spit it out. I oan 
tahe no SMre; though I would g^dly devour those euUets, tne fowL and erustj bread in pro- 
portioB. In fiiet, I am inclined to be angiy with the gargon when he takes away the bread 
whieh I have not dared to attack ; as an old sportsman would fain keep his gnn& whips, and 
dop in his right, althoD|^ his sinews have become stiff and powerless, and lus activity has fled 
tot ever. 


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interested in the prooeedinss, became of signal service* In order to keep iiliye and 
extend the interest which liad been excited, and to promote friendly intercourse 
among the members of the trade, and those who were disposed to favour the 
formation of a Pharmaceutical Society, several evening meetings of a social^ 
rather than formal character, were held by invitation at his house iii Oxford 
Street. On these occasions the constitution of the ne^ Society was discussed, 
explanations were given, objections replied to, and a general opportunity was 
afforded for the interchange of sentiments on various snojects of mterest to the 
Pharmaceutical body. To convey to those, who from distance or other causes 
were unable to attend these meetings, some information of what was taking place, 
and also to kSord a general answer to the numerous inquiries daily receiveu, Mr. 
Bell published a pamphlet entitled Observations addressed to the Chemists and Drug- 
gists of Great Britain on the FharmacetUical Society ^ which was largely circulated. 

These zealous efforts were attended with success, and the new Society increased 
rapidly both in numbers and importance. It is, however, unnecessary to trace 
the whole history of the Pharmaceutical Society in order to show how large an 
amount of its prosperity is due to the labours of Mr. Bell. Let us recollect that 
he was a MemOer of the Council from the commencement of the Society to the 
day of his death, and that hardly any engagement was ever allowed to interfere 
with his attendance of its meetings. As a Member of Committees, and of the 
Board of Examiners, and as an attender of the evening Meetings, his diligence 
was equally unfailinff. 

The formation and healthy active existence of Provincial Branches of the 
Pharmaceutical Society was also an object of much solicitude with Mr. Bell ; 
and many a rapid journey did he take when he thought that his presence and 
advocacy might assist in promoting the objects in view. The kindly and 
disinterested feeling, and conciliatory spirit he displayed on these occasions, will 
long be remembered. 

Many little examples of his disinterestedness, which was oflen exhibited in an 
eccentric way, might be mentioned. One, venr characteristic of himself, oc- 
curred in reference to the copy of Nees von Esenbeck^s Planter Medicinales^ 
which is in the library of the Pharmaceutical Society. The fly-leaf of this 
valuable work has in it the following memorandum, in Mr. BelPs hand : — 

«< A member of the Council having an offer of this book at about half price, pro- 
posed it to the Council, and it was resolved unanimously that it was desirable to 
secure it for the Pharmaceutical Society. It was, therefore, referred to the Library 
Committee ; but in the mean time it was necessary to give an answer, which the 
member above mentioned did, taking the book and waiting the final decision of the 

** When the Committee met, the book was r^ected; consequently the member of 
Council who was saddled with it, now has the pleasure of presenting it to the Phar- 
maceutical Society. 

"April, 1850.*'- 

Anotfaer instance in point was the case of his subscription to the Pharmaceu- 
tical Society, which he was in the habit of givins annually, having objected to 
compound for it. A few weeks before his death, however, he sent and paid his 
Idfe subseriptum. 

One of the most useful agents in promoting the advancement of Pharmacy in 
this country, has been the Pharmaceutical Journal The first number appeared 
in July, 1841, and, with the five succeeding numbers, was intended by Mr. Bell 
as an experiment, to test the necessity for such a journal. At the termination 
of this period " the influx of scientific papers," to. quote his own words, "and 
various communications from correspondents on subjects relating to the Society, 
had increased to such an extent, that it was found difficult . to restrict the 
dimensions of each number within the prescribed limits. The advantage 
resulting firom a periodical interchange ot ideas among the Members of the 
Society, became so obvious, that all doubt as to the practicability of maintaining 
a journal of Pharmacy was at an end. The Pharmaceutical Journal and Trans- 

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actions was, therefore, continued with re^laritj^ remaining nnder the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Bell until the completion of the eighteenth and last volume. 
The disinterestedness with which he pursued this labour for eighteen years is 
Tery remarkable. From the low price at which the Journal was supplied to 
the Society it was never, notwithstanding its large circulation, a source of 
income ; on the contrary, until the last three years, when through advertise- 
ments and increased sale it about paid its expenses, the deficit which he had to 
make up varied from £30 to £60 per annum. 

For tne office of editor his literary tastes, general acouaintance with science, 
and ever-ready pen, proved important qualifications. Nor should we omit to 
add the happv wit and conciliatory tone that pervaded his editorial articles. As 
editor, Mr. Sell constantly contributed the leading articles, which appeared, as 
is customary, without their author's name. Many papers, however, upon purely 
practical subjects, were furnished by his pen, and bore his name ; and his last 
communication, which was not published until after his death, was a paper on 
Concentrated Infusions and Decoctions. 

Previous to the existence of the Pharmaceutical Journal we find him an 
occasional contributor to the Lancet, A letter, signed Pertinax^ published in 
that journal llth Feb., 1837, containing some capital practical criticisms on the 
capricious changes of nomenclature introduced into the Pharmacopoeia of 1836, 
was firom the pen of Jacob Bell. A second letter, on " The New London Phar- 
macopceia tmsuUable for Ut proper purposes,''^ appeared in the same journal 
Atug. 17, 1839. 

TtxesQ professional labours were not unappreciated by the Pharmaceutists of 
other countries, and Mr. Bell was an honorary member of various foreign 
scientific societies, of which we may enumerate the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, the Soci^^ de Pharmacie de Bruxelles, the Soci^t^ de Pharmacie 
d'Anvers, the Soci^t^ d'Emulation et de Pr^voyauce des Pharmaciens de I'Est, 
le Cercle Medico-Chimique et Pharmaceutique de Li^ge, the Medico- Physical 
Society of Erlangen, and the Sociedade Pharmacentica of Lisbon ; he was also 
a Fellow of the Chemical, Linnean, and Zoological Societies of London, and of 
the Society of Arts. 

The incorporation of the Pharmaceutical Society by Royal Charter, which 
took place in the year 1843, though an acknowledgment of the importance of 
the interests of Pharmacy, did not convey those powers and privileges which 
might enable the Society to exercise its proper influence in restricting the 
practice of pharmacy to persons duly qualified. Nothing short of an Act of 
Parliament could do this; and to obtain such an Act, the strenuous exertions of 
the Society were directed. 

In December, 1845, we find Mr. Bell thus defining the leading objects of 
such a measure: — 

*^ 1. The registration of all persons carrying on business as Chemists and 

*' 2. The introduction of a regular and uniform education^for our body 
throughout the country. 
" 3. The examination of all persons who may hereafter enter the business. 
**4. The protection of the public against the proceedings^ of ignorant 
persons assuming the title and office of Pharmaceutical Chemists. 

" 5. The separation of the trade in Medicines from the practice of Physic 
and Surgery, as far as this is practicable. 

"6. ^6 recognition of the Pharmaceutical Society as the governing 
body in our department, represented by a Council annually elected from 
among the Members at lar^ ; having power to superintend the education, 
exammation, and registration, and to make such regulations as may be 
reqjttisite firom time to time respecting other matters relating to Pharmacy, in 
which the interests of our body and the welfare of the public are concerned."* 

* Pharmaceutical JoumaJ, vol. ▼., p. 246* 

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Barine Uie year 1846, the subject of PharoiAceiiticAl legbLitiofi was macli 
^^cossed, and numerous petitions to Parliament in faTour ^ some measure td 
promote education among the dispensers of medicipe, were presented. In July^ 
of the following year, it became evident that» owing to the pressure of other 
bunness and the position of the Gvvemment in reference to a dissolutioa of 
Parliament, the hopes that were entertained of a^ Phannaoeatical Bill being 
passed during the current session, would not be realised. 

A dei>utation of the Society to the Secretary of State in the fdlowing NoTem- 
ber, again urged the subject upon the Government, which, although admitting 
its importance as a branch of Medical Reform, declined to take it up as • 
separate question. 

Obstacles continued to impede the progress of Pharmaceutical legislation. 
Mr. WarburtoUf who had undertaken to bring forward the subject in tM House 
of Commons, lefl Parliament^ and no Memoer having similar experience in 
medical affairs appeared to succeed him. The difficulty was to get the suliject 
brought before Parliament by some one perfectly fiuouliar with all ita detaila, 
and at the same time possessing zeal, industry, and determination sufficient to 
neutralize the apathy and distaste with whi^ it was regarded by many Memr 
bers of the Legislature* 

The accomj^hment of this object had long occupied the attention of Mr. 
Bell, and as a solution of the difficulty, he at length resolved to offer himself as 
a candidate for a seat in Parliament, and so acquire as a right the opportunity 
of advocating in the House of Commons the subject he had so nmeb at heart. 
But he had as yet never been much interested in politics, and, strange as it 
may appear, he was so little versed in political affairs, that he actually did not 
know with which party his principles would lead him to associate. However^ 
upon the death of Mr. Raphael in November, 1850, and the consequent vacancy 
in the repre^ntation of St. Albans, Mr. Bell decided upon offering hima^ ^0 a 
Liberal candidate for that borough. 

But the '^ free and independent electors'^ of St. Albans were by no means 
disposed to acc^ the first candidate that offered, and thus forego so interesting 
an occasion as a contested election. A rival candidate in the Conservative 
interest was, therefore, brought forward ; and although upon the election that took 
place on the 24th Peoember, 1850, Mr. Bell was returned by a oonaiderable ma- 
jority, the unscrupulousness of the means employed by his agents upon that 
occasion was sudi that a petition was presented which led to die ultimate dis- 
franchisement of the borough. These proceedings were ever after a source of 
Xt to Mr. Bell, and were the occasion at ^e time of many unpleasant 
;tion3 being cast upon him. Bat in the opinion of those meat Sully ac- 
quainted with the circumstance he was more sinned against than sinning. 
That he showed a laxity in placing himself so fully as he did in the hands of 
his parliamentary agent, we cannot deny. But we are convinced that hb doinff 
so was a consequence of his ignorance of electioneering practices, and that had 
he been any other than a novice at political life he would have exercised to a 
much greater extent that prudence which he was wont to display under other 

The ffreat object with which Mr. Bell had entered Parliament, was to secure 
an Act for the regulation of Pharmacy ; and in June, 1851, we find him movins 
for leave to bring in a ^^ Bill to Begulaie the QnalifieaUoM of PhamniceuUcal 
ChemUtSt and for other purpotes m connexion toiik the Practice of Fhnrfmacy.^ 
This was granted; the Pharmacy Bill was introduced and read afint time. 
But the aUe and zealous advocacy of Mr. Bell was not suffident to eonvinoe 
the House of Commons of the necessity of the measure, and although the Bill 
was read a second tioie, this was done only upon condition that it should not be 
pressed forward during the then present session. 

Nothing daunted with hu want of success, Mr. Bell, early in the session of 
1852, agam moved for permission to bring in a Bill to Regulate the Qualifications 

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of Fhannaceotiotl Ghemiite. Although apoated bj the Iftte Mr. Hume, per- 
Buarion wae obtained, aod the Fhanuaef Bm at' the fonner msroii, in a some* 
what ahered fan, was read for a lint time. Upon tiie occasion of the seooad 
reading, whidk took pUce 17th March, Mr. Bell, in presenting a number of 
petitioM in fannir of the Bill, explained in a speech of some le^h the objects' 
and proTinons with which it had oeen framed, and at the same time reftited the 
erroneons impression that the measure in view wms desi^rned to create a trade- 
HioBopoly. Li condnsion, he moved for a Select Committee to which the Bin 
sight be lefinred. To ths proposition the House acceded not unwillingly. It 
was a lavoiiraUe opportunity for delaying a measure that was regarded with- 
some suspicion ; it aflbrded the means of acquiring additional information ; and 
last, but not least, it gave opportunity for the introduction of innumerable 
aberalioiis, technically, though often inoorrectl^r, called ^* amea^/meiils." The 
Sdeel Committee hekl seTenl sittings, and receired endeoce from PhvRcians» 
Burgeons, General Practitioners, and Pharmaceutists, the result of yrhkth 
ihowed that Pharmacy in Great Britain was in a state contrasting rery 
BBlavonn^y with that in which it was existing in other European countries. 
Bat though all seemed to point to the nooeeoity of some legislatiTe inter« 
farenoe, tM contrary yiew was taken, and the Bill, instead of being rendered 
acre efiective, was deprtTed, to a great extent, of those proTisions which were 
calculated to render it a junedcal and important measure. 

Mr. Bell was deeply disappointed. The Bill was no longer that which he 
had introduced, but it was dl that the GoTemment would assent to ; and the 
cniestioii was between it as ''amended" by the Committee, aad--»Bone. The 
temer ahematiTe was preferable. The Kll fell &r short of what it was 
iMMd might be obtained, but it was a legislatiTe measure in the right direction, 
aod peiAaps a prelude to one that promSed greater efficiency. 

Such were the arguments that Mr. B^ used at the Eleventh Annuid 
Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society. The Members present concurred with 
thens, and it was the unanimous opinion that erery exertion should be used to 
IMss the BflK The result is well known : the Act for reguUting the Qualifica- 
tions of Phannaoeutical Chemists passed both Houses of Parliament, and finally 
receiTcd the royal assent, 80th June, 1853. 

Upon the dissorution of Parliament, and the General Election in the summer 
of 185^ Mr. Bell offered hnnself for the representation of Gh^t Bilarlow, but 
WW not SQOoessfhl. In 1854, upon the death of Lord Dudley Stuart, he eon* 
tested the borough of Marylebone with Viscount Ebrington, but also without 
fuoeeis; althon^ upon this occaswn he polled more TOtes than the successfid 
candidate had polled at the previous election. When in the present year he 
was solicited to offer himself for the same borough, and with e?ery prospect of 
being returoed without opposition, his health was such that he was compelled 
rductantiy to decline the nonoar. 

But though a Parliamentary career did not open to Mr. Bdl, his interest in 
puUio mattera allowed him to lead no useless or idle life. With the exception 
of « short visit to Paris in the year 1855, and a tour of a few weeks on the Con- 
tinent in 1858, he scarcely ever left London fer more than two or three days at 
once. 1^0 this unceasing occupation, and utter forgetfulness of his own IxKKly 
powera, must be attributed the low and gradual dedine in his health, which was 
unlumpily teroaksted by death in June last. The oomaencemeot of themalady 
whui proved so serious, mny be traced bade as fer as the year 1854, when having 
to addreai several public taieetingB on the occasion of the Marylebone election^ 
he contracted an uloeration of the laorynx, firom which he never thoroughly 

The ktter part of last year found Mr. Bell in an exceedingly precarious state 
ofheahh; and although he always steadily refused to try the effect of wintering 
abroad, he acceded to the wishes of his physioian so far as to spend several weeks 
at Hastings. His complaint, however, had too stnMig a hold ; not only were 

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the old symptoms unimproved, but debility and emaciation were added to them. 
He continued, howerer, to be actively occupied ; the prooeedingB in Parliament 
vrith reference to the Sale of Poisons Bill he watched with the utmost vigilance; 
the Meetings of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society he still attended with 
regularity, though imable to spei^ louder tiian in a whisper; an exhibition of 
his pictures for the benefit of the Marylebone Literary and Scientific Institution, 
of which he was President, was on^anized during his sojourn at Hastings. In 
May he removed to Tunbridge Wells, where he had the pleasure of unex- 
pectedly renewinf^ a friendship of childhood, in frequently meeting the estimable 
4ncumbent of Trinity Church, the Rev. Edward Uoare. On the 18th May he 
presided at the Anniversary Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society, for which 
occasion, beins unable to speak, he had prepared an admirable written address. At 
the meeting of the Council held on the 1st June, he again presided, but it was for 
the last time. Harassed with cough and debilitated by want of nourishment, 
which the diseased state of his throat prevented him from taking, his feebleness 
increased day by day. His mental activity, however, remjuned unimpaired, and 
so little did he r^urd his weakness, that up to the last he did not keep his bed 
or desist from writing and conversation. But the vital powers were fast ebbing, 
and upon the evening of Sunday, the 12th June, he expired. His remains were 
interred in the cemetery of Tunbridge Wells, in a spot which he had himself 
selected, adjoining the grave of the late Dr. Goldine Bird. 

On reviewing the life of Jacob Bell, cut short, alas ! at the early age of 49 
years, there are many points of interest <hat present themselves to our considera- 
tion. Blessed with more than average natural abilities, these innate advantages 
were developed by a good education. His natural taste for the fine arts was 
carefully cultivated, and when he had the means of gratifying it, he did so with 
intelligence and judgment. An early training in business ^ave him practical 
experience in the affairs of life, and also strengthened his habits of industry and 
perseverance. Energy was natural to him, and whatever he undertook, even 
from childhood, he pursued with spirit. Another feature of his character, 
though but little known, was exhibited in his numerous acts of private benevo* 
lence, and few who have experienced his benefactions will forget the sympathy 
and delicacy with which they were administered. But in these, as in other 
eases, he would take no credit to himself, or care to place himself to the best 
advantage; hence his motives sometimes failed to be fully appreciated. Those 
who knew him best, however, can testify to the uncommon disinterestedness 
that marked his conduct upon all occasions, and which was remarkably exhibited 
in the happy tact and conciliatorjr manner with which he treated those questions 
that occasioned a difference of opinion. 

Mr. Bell's genial good-nature, ready wit, and happy conversational powers, 
his taste for literature and science, and extensive patronage of art, haa gained 
for him friends from all circles of society. But though all deplore his loss, it is 
by his Pharmaceutical brethren that it will be most deeply and pmctically felt. 
For them he laboured assiduously and disinterestedly, and that for a period of 
eighteen years ; and it is to his energy, wisdom, and perseverance Uiat the 
advance which Pharmacy in this country has happily undergone, is largely 

But little as we are dispcwed to underestimate the loss which the Pharmaceu* 
tical Society has sustained in the death of one who has devoted the best enei^ies 
of a life to its service, we yet reflect that at no other period of its existence 
oould such an event have occurred when iu effects would have been less serious. 
Thanks to the unremitting labours of its late President, the necessity for 
Pharmaceutical education, and the true position of those engaged in thepractioe 
of Pharmacy, are now recognixed by all, and whatever changes the Society may 
have to undergo, the utility and importance of its objects are such as ensure for 
it the position of a necessary institution of the country. 

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Present— Messrs. Bird, Bottle, Brew, BucUee, Caplss, Davenport, Deane, Han- 
bory, Haselden, Lesoher, Meggeson, • Morson, Sandford, Squire, Standring, and 
Waugh, the fpUowing were elected 


' Perrot, Pierre B^noni .....Mauritius 

RlchardsoD, John G. F Leicester 


£ 9. d. 

Acton, W., 46, Queen Anne Street 2 2 

A friend, Manchester 110 

Amos, D., Canterbury 10 

Andrews, John Beits, Clare 110 

Anthony, John Lilley, 338, Oxford Street 1 i 

Appdebory, — , Stockport 110 

Atkinson, Matthew, Manchester 10 

Attwood, G., Brompton ....^ 110 

Aubin, James, Jersey 110 

Bailey, J. P., 30, Conduit Street ...^ 5 5 

Baldock, J. H., London ^ I 1 

Balkwill, F. P., and Son, Plymouth 10 

Ball, G. v., Banbury 1 1 

Ballard, Edwin, Farringdon 110 

Bancroft, —, Halifax 5 

Barber, G., Liyerpooi ^..^ 110 

Barlow,- — , Manchester 10 6 

Barnard, John, 1, Oxford Terrace, Claphani Road 5 5 

Barnes, J. B.. 1, Trevor Terrace,. Enightsbridge 110 

Barnes, Edwin, Durham 10 6 

Barilctt, W., 1, Brettin Terrace, Chelsea 1 1 

Bateman, J. B., Manchester 110 

Battley and Watts, 32, Whitecross Street 10 10 

Beard and Holt, Manchester 1 1 

Beanmont, W. H., Gravesend 1 1 

Bell, J., Manchester 5 

BeU, W., Carlisle 1 1 

Bennett, G., 338, Oxford Street 110 

Bentley, Robert, 2, Clarendon Villas, Hampstcad 5 5 

Berry, H. J., Worthing 10 6 

Binge, Thomas, 23, Stockbridge Terrace, Pimlico 110 

Binns, S., Sheffield 1 I 

Bird, Augustus, 22, High Street, Kensington 5 5 

Bird, William L., 42, Castle Street East 5 5 

Bishop, Thomas, Woolwich 1 1 

Bishop, A., Speck's Fields, Mile End 1 1 

Blaekmore, M., Bonohurch , 2 2 

Blacklock, H., Bournemouth ^ 110 

Bkcklock, J. D., Brighton 1 1 

Blake, W. P., Stroud 1 1 

Bond, C, Leamington ,..,, .,«.«% 10 6 

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£ s. d, 

Botham, W., Manchester 5 

Bottle, Alexander, Dover 5 5 

Bowerbank, J., Cockermouth 110 

Bowerbank, F., Coekermoutli 110 

Bowker, J.Y Manchester 10 6 

Brace, G., 25, Cavendish Square 21 

Bradley and Boqrdas, 10, Font Street, Belgravia 10 10 

Bradv, HenrvB., Newcastle-on-Tyne 110 

Braithwaite, J. C, 17, BloomsborySqiiare 110 

Bransby, W,, Thirsk 1 6 

Brenmer, W., Thurso ■„ 10 

Bremridge, Elias, 17, Bloomaboiy Square 5 5 

Brereton, J., Manchester 110 

* Brew, Thomas A., Brighton :. 5 5 

Bremr, John, 6, Liverpool Street 110 

Britten, T., Liverpool 1 1 

Brown, W. S., Manchester 3 8 

Bucklee, Wm. H., 86, New Bond Street 5 5 

BuUodc, W., Manchester .*..•, 10 6 

Buss, T., Market Uarbocough 2 3 

Caley, A. J., Norwich 2 2 

Carter, W., Manchester 1 1 

Chaplm, L., Colchester .^ 110 

Chater, B. M., Watford O 10 6 

Chater, J., Watford 110 

Cheese, —, Jersey ^ 10 6 

Cheny, £., Monmouth 10 

Chrispin, W., Ripon 10 

Churchill, John, 11, New Burlington Street 10 10 

Clark, W., Clifton 1 1 

Clarke, W. R., Leighton 1 1 

Clarke, W., Longsight 10 

Clarke, T. M,, K[chmond 110 

Clay and Abraham, Liverpool 10 10 

Cockeram, W., 277, Oxford Shreet 1 1 

Cooksedge, H. B., 20, Bucklersbury 110 

Cockton, John, Maryport 110 

Cofiey, John A., Providence Bow, Finsbury 110 

Colbedc, G. B., Leamington 110 

Coleman, J., Cardiff 110 

Collier, W., Sheffield 1 1 

Cortis, C, Worthing 2 2 

Cottee, W., Salford 5 

Coupland, H., Liverpool 1 1 

Cowell, S., Canterbury ..•„ 10 

Cracknell, C, 107, Edrware Boad 5 5 

Cranford, H. L., Thirsk 2 6 

Cropper, J., Lonff Sutton 10 

Cross, W., Cardiff ^ 110 

C)N>we, T. L., 174, Begent Street 10 6 

Crowther, T., lickhill 110 

Cuttings J. B., Leamington 110 

Daines, Thomas, 338, Oxford Street 1 1 

Dakin, J., Liverpool 2 2 

Darby, Stephen, 140, Leadenhall Street 5 6 

Davenport, John T., 33, Great Russell Street 5 5 

Davenport, £., St. Albans 110 

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£ t. d. 

Davis, D. F., Leominster 110 

Daiis, John Oliver, Folkestone , 110 

Davy, Macmurdo, and Co., 100, Upper TbanMa Street 10 10 

Deane, Henry, Glapham •..- 6 5 

Densham, J. B., Plymouth AO 

Dimsdale and Co., Messrs., ComhiU «••.. 10 10 

Dobion, J., Kesrnck 10 6 

Down, John, 1, Queen^s Road, Bayswater 2 2 

Drew, Barron, and Co., 2, Bush Lane 10 10 

Dnprey, J. A. B., Jersey ^ 10 6 

Dutton, J., Birkenhead .« 2 2 

Edwards, Dr., Liverpool »• 6 5 

Sllis, Bichard, Thombmry 5 

Ereant, John, Jersey 110 

Ereaut, John, Jan., Jersey 10 6 

Ereaut^ G., Jersey 110 

Evans and Lescher, 00, Bartholomefw Cloae 10 10 

Evans, W. D., Newport^ Momoatk - 10 6 

Evans, H. 8., Liverpool 6 5 

Faahxnier and Steedman, Keen's Bow, Wahrorl^ 10 10 

Faulkner, H., Monmouth 10 6 

Fletcher and Palmer, Cheltenham 10 10 

Foggitt, W., Thirsk 10 

Fottitt, T. J., Thirsk 10 

Fortes, W., Rdgate 110 

Forrest, R., 9, Celbridge Place, Westboume Park 1 1 

Francis, £[., Melbourne 2 2 

Gale, Samuel, 338, Oxford Street 2 2 

Garle, John, 12, Kensington Terrace 5 6 

Gay, G., Stroud 110 

Geldard, R. K, Plymouth 10 

Gibbons, W., Plymouth ^..^ 10 

Gibbons, J. G., Manchester 6 6 

Gill, S., Pendleton 10 6 

Glaiser, Taylor, & Co., Manchester 2 2 

Glover, S., Liverpool - 110 

Goldfinch, G., 15, Goswell Road 5 

Goode, T., 47, Minories 5 5 

Ctoodwm, J., Lower Clapton 2 2 

Gordelier, P. W. G., Sitti^boume 110 

Graham, Thomas, F.R.S., Royal Mint 5 5 

Granger, —, Jersey 2 

Greaves, R., Ripon 1 

Green, C. S,, Stratford-on-Avon 10 6 

Greenough, G., Manchester • 110 

Griffiths, J,, Manchester 10 6 

Groves, H., 388, Oxford Street 110 

Grovee, T. B., Weymouth 2 2 

Gwatkm, J. T., Bnghton 110 

Gwillim, J. C, Newport, Monmouth 110 

Hall, J. R., Canterbury 1 

Hallaway, J., Carlisle 1 1 ^ 

Hallidi^, W. J., 177, Regent Street ^ i 5 

HaHsworth, T., Manchester ^ . i 

Hambrook, O., Dover 1 ^ " 

Hammon, Richard, Folkestone J \ ^ 

Hanbwy, Daniel Bell, Plough Court ^1 

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£ 9, d, 

Hanburj, D., Floagh Court, Lombard Street 10 10 

Harding, T. H., 19, Park Square, Regent's Park 1 I 

Hargreaves, H. L., Oldham 110 

Harrison, J. P., Carlisle 110 

Harvey and Reynolds, Leeds 5 5 

Haselden, Adolphus F., 18, Conduit Street 5 5 

Ha}'ward, C, Manchester 3 3 

Heath, E., Cromer 1 1 

Herring and Co., 40, Aldersgate Street 10 10 

Hick, A., Wath upon Deame 110 

Higgins and Cattle, Liverpool 5 5 

HiB, J., Sheffield 1 1 

Hills, Thomas Hyde, 338, Oxford Street 105 

Hinton, H. A., London 110 

Hitchcock, C, Colchester 1 1 

Hockin and Co., 38, Duke Street, Manchester Square 5 5 

Hodgkinsons, Tonge, and Co., 213, Upper Thames Street .. 10 10 

Holland, R. L., Esq., 34, Queen Ann Street 2 2 

Holt, I., Manchester 10 6 

Hooper, William, Great Russell Street, Covent Garden ... 5 5 

Hopkinson, — , Manchester 12 6 

Hop wood, H. J. S., Richmond 110 

Homer, Messrs., and Sons, 20, Bucklersbury 10 10 

Howard, J., Manchester 2 2 

Howell, M., Peckham 1 1 

Howroyd, — , Manchester 10 6 

Hughes, G. H., jun., Holyhead 110 

Humpage, B, 44, Chancery Lane , 2 2 

Hunter, J., Grosport 10 6 

Ingham, R. H., Manchester 110 

Jackson, T., Manchester 110 

Jackson, J., 47, Southampton Row 2 2 

James, J. P., Cardiff 1 1 

Jenner, William M., Sandgate 110 

Jennings, J. E. H., Sheffield 110 

Jennings, W., Halifax 10 6 

Johnson, J. H. and S., Liverpool 5 5 

Jones, P,, 11, Norton Folgate 5 5 

Jones, T. J., Newport 110 

Jones, S. U., Leamington 10 

Jones, C, Birkenhead , 110 

Jones, J., Salford 110 

Joy, F. W., Cardiff. 2 2 

Judson, T., Ripon 10 

Keene, A., Leamington 10 

Kellett, — ^, Manchester 10 6 

Kennington, A., Jersey 10 

Kent, A., Basingstoke 3 3 

Kemot, George C, 2, Chrisp Street, Poplar 110 

Lathbury, R., Liverpool 2 2 

Lea and Perrins, Worcester ,.21 

Le Feuvre, F., Jersey 10 6 

Lewin and Cornish, Plymouth 10 

Lloyd & Son, Richmond 110 

Lockyer, George, Deptford 110 

Lone, H., Croydon 110 

Luckombe and King, 86, Snow HUl 10 10 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


£ 9. d. 

Lynch, J. B., Manchester 110 

Macfarlan, John F., Edinburgh... , 10 lu 

Machri^, William, 838, Oxford Street 110 

McGiime, J. R., Liverpool , 2 2 

McMinn,—, Manchester 5 

Madgwick, W. B., Southampton 10 

Maggs, S. B., St. Leonards ....^ 10 6 

Mafeham, H., Sheffield 1 I o 

Manthorp, S., Colchester 110 

Marks, (x., Bradford-on- Avon 110 

Marshall, C. £., 6, Bedford Street, Mile End 10 6 

Mason, W., Hastings 1 l o 

Mason, J., Reigate , 5 

Mason, W. W., Manchester 5 

Mather, W., Manchester * .1 X o 

Matterson, E. H., Halifax 10 6 

Matthews, W., 1, Wigmore Street 1 1 

Maudaley, W., Preston , 1 i 

Maunder, F., Sheffield , 1 1 o 

Mawson, John, Newcastle-on-Tjne 110 

May, E., Tewkesbury • 110 

Medley, W., Derby , I 1 

Meggeson, George, 61, Gannon Street ,5 5 

Mercer, N., Liverpool 2 2 

Middleton, Francis, 338, Oxford Street 2 2 

Millais, T., Jersey , 110 

Mitchdl, J.^ Manchester 10 6 

Moore, James L., 1, Craven Place, Hyde Park .330 

Morgan, W., Pillffwinlly , 10 6 

Morson, Thomas N. R., Queen's Square 21 

Mount, J., Manchester 10 6 

Mount, W., Canterbury 10 

Moysey, W., llfracomtle 110 

Mumbray, R. G.^ Manchester 10 6 

Mumby, C., Gosport '. 10 6 

Munday, H., Manchester 5 

Newlove, —, Manchester 10 6 

Nicholson, J. J., 338, Oxford Street , 110 

Olliver, G. E., Weymouth 10 6 

Orridge, Benjamin B., 30, Bucklersbury 10 10 

Paine, Standen, Brighton 110 

Paine, W., Canterbury 10 

Palk, Edward, Southampton 11 

Palmer, Robert, 33, Wilton Place, Belgrave Square 5 5 

Parker, T., Halifax 10 6 

Parsons, W., Portsmouth 10 6 

Peake, H., Dover 110 

Peatson, H. R., Salford 10 6 

Pedler, Geo. 8., 199, Fleet Street 5 5 

Penton, C. W., Tunbridge Wells 110 

Phillips, E. James, Newport, Monmouth 1 1 

Phillips, John, Newport, Monmouth 110 

Philpot, A. W., Maidstone ,,.■ v. 10 6 

Pickup, J., Manchester 1 I 

Pickup, v., Salford '. 10 6 

Piquet, John, Jersey ••*• 10 6 

Pochin, H. D., Manchester , 2 2 

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166 suBacRimoim to thb jacob wbjl xbhobiai.. 

^ «. £. 

Pollock, Thomafl, 129, Feachui^ Street S S 

Procter, W., LiTerpool 110 

Proctor, William, Newcastle-on-iyne 110 

Ptoctor, Barnard S., Neweastle-on-TTne 110 

Pyne, J. J., Manchester 5 5 

Bandall and Son, Meisrs., Southampton 5 

Bansome, T.. Manchester 5 5 

Reddish & Co., Salford 110 

Bedfem, J., Ashby-de-la-Zouch 110 

Bedwood, T., 19, Montagae Street, Bossell Sqnare 5 5 

Richardson^ A., Manchester 10 6 

Roberton, J., Manchester 110 

Robinson, B., Pendleton 10 6 

Rogers, Arnold, and Sons, 16, Hanorer Square 21 

Rouse, F. J., Clapham 110 

Rowe, Jm Plymouth 10 

Russell, C. J. L., Windsor 1 1 

Salisbury, W. B., Leicester 2 2 

Salisbury, J., Sheffield I 1 

Sandford,G. W., 47,Pieoadilly 5 5 

Sanger, J., 150, Oxford Street 5 5 

Sanger, W. A., 150, Oxford Street 1 i 

Savory, J., 143, New Bond Street 5 5 

Seaton, O. A., Sherborne 110 

Seddon, — ^, Manchester 110 

Sewell,jun., J., Sheffield 110 

Sharp, C, 17, Bloomsburj Square 10 6 

Sharpe, G. Y., 6, Kensington Terraoe 110 

Sharpe, J., Salford 110 

Shaw, A. H., Stockport 5 5 

Shaw, J., Lirerpoof. 110 

Sircom, R., Bristol 110 

Smale, T. C, Ripon 10 

Smeeton and Son, Leeds 5 5 

Smeeton, W., Ironbridge 110 

Smith, a. W., 51, Hove Tillas, Brighton 5 5 

Spearing, J., Southampton 110 

Spencer, T., Wokingham 110 

Squire, Peter, 277, Oxford Street 21 

Standnng, T., Manchester 10 10 

Standring, J., Manchester 110 

Stanford, E. C, Worthing 110 

Stott, J., Thirsk 15 

Stroud, J., Bristol 110 

Sumner and Co., Liverpool 5 5 

Sutterfoj, J. N., Long Sutton 10 

Tajlor, J., 13, Baker Street 1 1 

Taylor, S., Pendleton 10 6 

Teasdale, T. B., Darlington 110 

Thomas, J. H., Boston 1 1 

Thomas, R., East Looe 110 

Thomas, J. J., Stoke Newmgton 2 2 

Thompson, J., Think 10 

Thompson, J. R., Thirsk 10 

Thompson, A., Carlisle 110 

Hiompson, T., Richmond, Yorkshire 110 

Tomlinson, T., Manchester 110 

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COUNCIL MSBTnra ik bdihbuboh. 167 

£ g. (L 

Towle, — , Manchester , « ••.. 5 

Truman, F. G.) Jersey 10 

Tuke, Dr., Chiswick 1 i 

Ure, Alexander, F.R.C.S., 18, Upper Seymour Street 3 3 

Veitch, William, Shildon - 10 

Walker, T. D., Liverpool 1 1 

Walsh, E., Manchester 5 

Ward, J., Falkingham 110 

Warner and Barday, 55, Fore Street 10 10 

Waugh, George, 177, Beoent Street 21 

Waugh, Alexander, 177, ttegent Street 5 5 

West, — , Manchester 5 

Westmacoit» G., Manchester 110 

Weston, Charles, Lineoln 110 

Wharrie, D., Lrrerpool 110 

Whiting, G^ Beaufort House 10 10 

Whitwdl,J., Thirsk 10 

Wigg, Henry John, Lynn 110 

Wilde. E, 5 

Wilkinson, W., Manchester 110 

Williams, H. L., Newport, Monmouth 110 

Williams, £., Manchester 10 6 

Williams, T. J., Liverpool 110 

Wilson, W., Sheffield 110 

Withenngton, T., Worcester 2 3 

Wood, B., Halifax 110 

Wood, C. H., 17, Bloomsbuiy Square 10 

Woolley, G. S., Manchest^ 5 5 

Wright, C., Manchester ....^ 1 I 

Wright, J., Manchester 5 

Wright, W., Liverpool 1 1 

Wright and Francis, 11, Old Fish Street - 10 10 

Wylde, John, Mandiester 110 

Young, G., Millwall 10 



At a meeting of Council held in Edhiburgh, on Saturday, 18th August, Bfr. J. B. 
Young, Vice-President, in the chair, the following resolution was proposed by the 
Chairman, and unanimously adopted by the meeting: — 

"The Council cordially concur in appioying of the proposed establishment of 
Pharmaceutical Scholarships in oonnexioa witii the Society, as a memorial of their 
late President and Founder, Mr. Jacob Bell. 

*<That the Secretary be requested to issue circulars to the Members and Asso- 
dates throughout Scotland generally, requesting their co-operation in reference to 
the * Betl MemonaJt^* and ftirtber, to take such steps regarding local subscriptions as 
shall be considered best suited to aid the object in vieir." 

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At a meeting of Council of this Association, held August 1 1th, the subject of the 
Jacob Bell Memoriid was introduced by Dr. Edwards criviog some information as to 
what had been done in London, and the steps that had been taJcen in furthering that 

The Council warmly approved of the contemplated Memorial, and were unanimous 
in their desire to aid the efforts of the London Committee, and all the Members 
present at once handed in their names to the Secretary as subscribers to the fund. 

The following resolution was also proposed and immediately adopted: — 

" That in the opinion of this Council it is advisable to assist in raising funds for 
the * Bell Memorial/ and in order to carry out this object, the Secretary be authorized 
to issue a circular to all the Chemists in Liverpool, appending thereto a list of the 
local subscriptions up to the date of issue." 



Sous Members of the Society at Manchester, desiring to obtain contributions to 
the ** Bell Memorial Fund" from that city and its vicinity, considered that the best 
means of doing so would be to have a meeting of those llKely to take an interest in 
the matter, and accordingly a circular was sent by the local Secretary to all the 
Members of the Socie^ in the neighbourhood, and to several of tlie more influential 
non-members, appointing a meeting, which was held at the Clarence Hotel, on the 
l8t August. 

Mr. Standring was called to the chair, who introduced the subject to the meeting, 
and explained the proceedings of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society in the 
matter, and spoke highly of the late Mr. Bell's exertions on behalf of the Society, 
and of the Chemists generally. 

The following resolution was moved l^ Mr. Robertson, seconded by Mr. T. Jackson, 
and supported by Mr. H. D. Pochin: — 

** That the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society, having determined on the 
establishment of Pharmaceutical Scholarships as a memorial of the late Mr. Jacob 
Bell, resolved that this meeting will heartily co-operate in that object" 

A Committee was afterwards appointed to carry out the foregoing resolution. 




If we view the Pharmaceutical Society as an educational body, and compare 
the extent of its educational resources with the number of young men who enter 
our profession, vre cannot help being discouraged by its palpable insufficiency. 
But had the Society means and convenience for the scientific training of all these 
young men, how small is the proportion of them who could devote the necessary 
time, or could suitably incur tne expense, which the curriculum at the ^* Square" 
involves. I speak, of course, with especial reference to those who are resident in 
the provinces, constituting as they do a large majority of the class referred to ; 
to the London Pupils and Associates my remaru do not apply: if they do not 

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make use of the facilities the Society affords, the/ haTe commonly only themselves 
to blame, and they will find out, when too late, how great the loss they have 
sustained by their negligence. 

It becomes, therefore, an important question how the educational influence of 
the Society may be best extended? The answer, I think, is obvious; by the 
association of Members in different localities, and the establishment of classes 
for the studv of the principal branches of science, a knowledge of which is 
essential to the educated Pharmaceutist. 

There are few large towns in the kingdom in which Schools of Pharmacy of a 
greater or less extent might not be carried on. They cannot, it is true, except 
in a few of our verj larg^t cities, assume any form at all comparable to the 
metropolitan one ; it is neither essential nor desirable that they should do so. 
Except in those very large cities, such institutions can hardly be made self- 
supporting. A quiet inexpensive usefulness is therefore to be sought, rather 
than a complete but costly establishment. 

Two or three Pharmaceutists, really in earnest, may almost anywhere do much 
to improve the intellectual character of the young men in their locality ; but it 
will seldom happen that two or three will have to work alone ; when a start has 
once been made, the movement will commonly meet with sympathy and support 
from most influential principals, at any rate from all whose sympathy b worth 

After determining to do something, the first question seems to be — How 
much is it advisable to attempt? The danger is rather in attempting too much 
than too little. The first part of the work is relatively the hardest ; it is easy to 
increase from a small beginning, not so easv to reduce an over elaborate pro- 
gramme without dissatisfaction. A couple of short courses of lectures are 
sufiScient to create an interest in the movement, and according to the success of 
these, future operations must depend. 1£ difficulty be felt, at first, in obtaining 
lecturers, there will always be found those who are willing and capable to devote 
an hour or two per week with the young men, and this given up to rational 
discussion on scientific subjects, could not fail to be of ^eat use, and would act 
as an indtement to them in the pursuit of scientific reading and incjuir^. If we 
delay doine good until opportunity offer to do it on a large scale, it will usually 
remain undone. 

It is necessary to bear in mind the fact that in provincial towns the number 
of young men in the profession is limited, and as the changes year by year are 
not sufficiently numerous to bring forward an entirely new set of students, the 
courses of lectures, &c., must be arranged so that the interest of the same class 
shall be kept up for a series of years. There must, of necessity, be some fees 
attached to the lectures to assist in defraying the expenses inseparably connected 
with them, but these should be kept as low as possible, in consideration of the 
fact that to those for whose benefit they are espedally intended outlay is an 
object of some importance. Perhaps the best plan is to have the fees paid in 
one sum as an annual subscription, entitling tne subscriber to admission to 
whatever lectures or meetings are held during the year. The treasurer's report, 
at the end of the year, will commonly be found to show a deficiency— especially 
if the number of students be not large ; this, however, is usually pretty easily 
adjusted by a subscription amongst the Members themselves. 

Some of the readers of the Pharmaceutical Journal may recollect that a few 
months ago a notice appeared in its pages of an effort which was being made in 
Newcastle to establish a school after the plan I have mentioned. It was an 
object in which our late worthy President took great interest, and it seems to 
me possible that there may be those to whom the little experience alreadv 
afforded by the experiment may not be wholly useless. Whilst the Poison BiU 
was before Pariiament, the Pharmaceutists ot the vicinity were called together 
in many other places to consider in what way its provisions might affect 
their interests. Opportunity was taken at the meetings to discuss the possibility 

VOL. I. H 

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170 FSRSI lOmM 8YKUP0S. 

of oommencing claMes, to enoourafe ami tansi acieiitilie rcadEe^ amongst the 
joiuig men eaga^ in the vaiions establishmeots in the towa. 'Ihe yonng men 
themselves had signified a wish that something of tlua kind thoiild be done. It 
is not necessary to detail the different stages ue mat<yr assumed, Imt the result 
was, that in a Terj little thne we found onnelfiea located in a eomforiaUe keture- 
room, with some twenty students, and a prc^amme of abont six-and-twenty 
lectures for the summer's work. 

Hiese are now all delivered, and we. look back upon ow first session with 
satisfaction ; and in no way is this more compkie than in reviewing the regularity 
and attention of the students. 

Our prospect for the winter is not less encouraging. A pKofessicMsal gentleman 
of good scientific standing, and oonsiderable experience, has volunteered a conrse 
of twenty lectures on Chemistry, and one of our own Members has offered a 
somewhat shorter course on Inorganic Biateria Medica, both to commence in 
October. In the matter of funds we are not far amiss ; our balance in hand 
will perhaps hardly carry us through the year> but there are still some of our 
Members mterested in the cause who have not been called upon for subscriptions. 

If at the end of our first year it should haopen that we are unable, or find it 
undesirable, to continue the lectures, we shall simply suapead our operations ; 
and we believe the proportion of benefit derived will bear a fair relation to the 
money laid out. But we have a well-founded hope that we shall be aUe to 
continue from year to year, doing a little |^od in a quiet way. 

In condurion, I night just remark that, if the subscriptions firom our town to 
the Memorial to our late good and energetic President be not in amount or 
number equal to what might have been expected, judging fironi. oar number of 
Members, it must not be supposed that we are inchfferent to the success of the 
object, or that we do not appreciate the disinterested labours to which the 
Society owes its very existence^ but rather that the tenishing of our own rooms 
had previoaBly absorbed such cash as we could spare for those pivposes. 



This mnp, which holds a place in the three Pharmacopoeias, is now greatly 
employed as bdng the most convenient mode of exhibiting iodide of iron. The 
formulfle for this article are, I think, open to improvement. Experience leads 
me to infer that a concentrated syrup, or one approaching perfect saturation 
with sugar, gives the best results as r^ards permanence, and that the greater 
amount of wator it contains, the more prone it is to decomposition. I shaU pass 
over those processes which recommend the whole of the water to be used in 
making the solution of iodide of iron, and then converting this into a syrup by 
the addition of sugar, and wiU^ confine myself to the consideration of what 1 
think the better plan — viz. mixinj^ solutions of sagar and iodide of iron. If we 
dissolve, by heat, 5 lbs. 8 oz. (avoirdupois) of sugar in two pints of water, we 
shall get a sui>erBaturated syrup— uf est, one that on cooling to M^ F. will have 
a specific gravity of 1.352. If we set this aside in a closed vessel, it will gradu- 
ally begin to deposit crystals, until the syrup contains 67.2 per cent, of sugar, 
and stands something about 1.340; this seems to be the maximum density of a 
solution of loaf sugar at 60** F.* There is evidently an error going the round of 
the chemical works, regarding the solubility of cane-sugar; most works state 
that it dissolves in one-third of its weight of cold water, and one says that it is 
soluble in two-parts of water. (I think there can be no doubt of this latter 
statement.) Again, a French woik says, '^11 $e dismn^ disss le ^ de son peidt 
d^eau froidey^ &c. Now, if this was correct, a saturated syrup at 60^ F. would 

It appears to vary slSgbtiy ia dilte«nt vatiatiwof i 

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ooiitwii 75 ^er cent, of ragar (75 + V = 1^)» but fron experimenti I find 
ikml it oontaiai onhr 67.2 per cent, of Migar and 32.8 per eent. •f water, there- 
iere a sattiTSted solution Gontains a IHtle lets than one^frhird of its n^le weight 
of water— ^ est^ sagar dwolYefl in about half its weight of eekl water. 

By mdog the supersaturated syrup descvibed above, and a smU ^fuaatiif of 
water for the solution of the iron, we get a verj concentrated or oen-aciueoiis 
product ; e. ff, if we add gradually, in a fladc, five drachsns of iodine to an exeess 
of iffOB filiiigs covered by an ounce of waiter, it is only necessary U> keep it gentfy 
agitated for some time until the combination is neaorly eompleted, and then |9 
apply a gentle heat, that all traces of Fes I3 may be destroyed. 

In filtering the green solution wo should allow the extremity of the funnel to 
dip nearly to the bottom of the vessel into which the mixture is being filtered, 
at the same time pouring ever f^tly a htount quaniUy of the syrup, which, by 
floating upon the surface of the liquid in filter and receptacle, prevents the con- 
tact of the atmosphere. To this solution we now add seven fiuld ounces of the 
strong syruDy minus thai fued above^ in the filtering. This is a modification of 
the Dublin mrmula, containing half the quantity of water, which is replaced by 
syrup. Thua» when we only use sufficient water to maintain the solution of the 
ingredients, the syrup keeps remarkablpr well witli ordinary care. 

As regards the many proposed additions for its preservation, I think they are 
anything but desirable adjuncts^ exclusi(»i from the light and air, by keeping in 
eacthea vessels well closed, being all that is required. 

The addition of citric acid was, I believe^ proposed some time since as a 
preservative agent. I have tried it^ but experienced no benefit resulting from 
lis use, except it be the rendering of the sugar more soluble — that is, by re*> 
tardtn^ the ccystallieing of that substance; from this cirenmstance a larger 
quantity might be introduced. 

I think tlMt if a pill of iodide of iron were introduced^ we could not do better 

than imitate the excellent pills of M. Blancard. One of these left exposed to 

the atmosphere for any reasonable time, will be foxmd to be still intact, and to 

have not undergone the slightest decomposition, provided the external coating 

f balsam and reduced iron (de fsr porpJiyrisc) be not broken. 


We have received a letter from Dr. Medlock, Consulting Chemist to the 
General Apothecaries^ Company, in explanation of the following passage of Mr. 
Haselden^s paper, which appeared in the last number of this Journal : — 

*^ There is but one more class of names which I shall at present venture to 
touch upon— that is, where several names are seemingly used towards the same 
preparation ; and this is particularly to be observed in the syrup of phosphate 
of iron, sometimes called syrup of 5Zi/)erphosphate of iron and sometimes syrup 
of pyrophosphate of iron. I have no doubt that generally the same preparation 
is looked fi)r, but in the first, if prepared as the name would imply, an opaque 
syrup of an insoluble compound is the result ; in the last two, an excess of acid 
to the phosphate enables tiie operator to produce a clear preparation, but this is 
uncertain in its strength and unstable in its nature. In order to meet this diffi- 
culty, ^e Grcneral Apothecaries' Company have introduced a preparation by 
the assistance or admtion of citrate of ammonia to the phosphate of iron, and 
thus a preparation in scales is obtained, analogous to the ammonio-cftrate of 
iron, whicn still sails under the name of pyrophosphate of iron. Thus the 
name, well-sounding in itself, is given to an article of which it does not truly 
represent its real character." 

Dr. Medlock states that the phosphate of iron contained in the preparation 
of the General Apothecaries' Company referred to, is prepared by means of 


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pyropboepbate of soda, wbile in the caae of superpbospbate of iron, the ordinarjr 
tribasic pnoBphate b used. "The pyrophosphate of iron," he says, "baa been 
found to dissolve very readily in a weak solution of basic citrate of ammoniaj 
and of this the General Apothecaries' Company prepare a. very desant scale 
preparationi and also a greenish syrup, which is sold under its strictly correct 
name of symp of pyrophosphate of iron.'* 

We do not concur with the author in considering the name a strictly correct 
one, nor do we think that Dr. Medlock's statement tends in the slightest degree 
to inyalidate the force of Mr. Haselden's remarks. 


Wb baye received from Dr. Garrett a printed pamphlet, intended only for 
private distribution, entitled " Sanitary Observations," but which appears to be 
simply a personal explanation on the part of the author of the recent discussion 
on the water of Hastmgs, which was first alleged by Dr. Garrett to be contami- 
nated with lead. It will be remembered that this question was made the 
subject of comment in a leading article of the April number of this Journal, 
where it was stated that the whole subject had been investigated by the Local 
Board of Health, and by the Hastings Medical Society, but without detecting 
any ground for the assertion. Dr. Garrett, however, who refused to co-operate 
with these bodies, was not satisfied with their verdict, and in these " Observa- 
tions" he undertakes to show that " their conclusions were in perfect contra- 
diction to their evidence and analyses, and their verdict subversiye of the best 
interests of the town." 

As far as we can sec, the only fresh evidence which he brings forward in his 
own favour, is taken from the report of Dr. Taylor, who received from the 
above Society seven samples of water, three of which, marked Nos. 1, 3, and 5, 
were taken from the reservoirs, and were sent with a view of ascertaining if 
they were capable of exerting any action on lead. Dr. Garrett says, 

" Dr. Taylor states that he made the following experiment : — ^ Eight ounces 
of water were exposed in an open jar in contact with eight square inches of 
plumber's lead as it was used for cisterns, the surface of the metal having been 
previously cleaiied but not polished — the result, he says, was that after forty- 
eight hours' contact of the lead with the water, ^* sample No. 5" was found to 
contain as much as one grain in five gallons of wat^r.* " 

The following are abo extracts, quoted by Dr. Garrett from Dr. Taylor's 
report: — 

" No. 5 resembled pure soft water derived from the beds of sand.'' ** No. 6 
water was remarkable for its comparative purity or freedom from saline matter. 
It contained a mere trace of sulphate of lime." Again, *^ No. 5 gave no indica- 
tions of thb salt (bicarbonate of lime)." 

It appears, therefore, from the above, that .the water marked No. 5 differs 
entirely in its composition from the others, Nos. 1 and 3, and is capable of 
exerting a slight action on metallic lead ; but before any importance can be at- 
tached to the result, it must be stated to what extent this water is concerned in 
supplying the cisterns of the town. The result of Dr. Taylor's examination of 
the other four samples (taken from the cbterns), in which not a trace of lead was 
detected, althoush the test employed was *' capable of revealing the presence 
of one-hundredth part of a grain in a gallon," Dr. Garrett accounts for by sup- 
posing it most Utefy that the water was drawn during the busy part of the day, 
and consequenUy had not had time to exert any action on the metal. 

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A FEW years since the presence of starch or cellolose in any particular 
individual was regarded as an absolute proof of its vegetable nature, and 
kence many otherwise doubtful organisms were placed among plants. Of late 
years, however, the researches of physiologists have shown that Uiese supposed 
absolute distinctive characters of plants are not to be depended upon, for they 
have succeeded in finding substances isomeric with starch and cellulose, and 
possessing similar chemical reactions to them in undoubted animals. As this is 
a subject of much interest, a brief notice of the discovery of cellulose and starch 
cannot but be regarded as very desirable in this Journal. 

Cellulose was first found in the tunics of the Ascidians by Schmidt* in 1845. 
This discovery was fully confirmed by the researches of Eolliker and Lowig,f of 
Schacht,! of Huxley,§ of Virchow,|| and several other observers. The presence of 
cellulose in certain animal organisms we regard, therefore, as perfectly established. 
As to that of starch, however, much doubt has been entertained by many ob- 
aerven, which will be apparent as we proceed with our notice of that substance. 
Gottlieb first discovered paramylon^ a substance isomeric with starch, in EugUna 
mridii^ an organism commonly regarded by German naturalists as an animal, 
but by others again (and, as we believe, correctly so,) as a plant. This discovery, 
therefore, of Grottlieb, proves nothing of a satisfactory nature as to the presence 
of starch, and bodies isomeric with that substance, in animal tissues. In 1853 
Virchow published a communication ^'On a Substance presenting the Chemical 
Reaction of Cellulose, found in the Brain and Spinal Cord of Man."^ Mr. 
Busk, in repeating these observations, was led to conclude that the corpuscles 
thus described by Virchow were starch and not cellulose,** as they possessed all 
the structural, chemical, and optical properties of the starch of plants, as is 
evident from the following observations of Busk : — ^^ They were of all sizes, 
from leas than a blood-disc up to l-500th inch or more— generally more or less 
ovate, but many irregular in outline, and apparently flattened, as all the larger 
kinds of starch I believe are. Many of the larger ones showed the appearance, 
which in starch (according to Busk) has been erroneously described as mdicative 
of a laminated structure; whilst in others this appearance, under any mode of 
illumination, certainly did not exist. The point that would correspond with the 
so-called nucleus of a starch-grain, was unlike that of most kinds of starch, 
central^ and consequently the laminated marking was concentric to the grain, 
which is rarely the case in the starch of plants.** Mr. Busk then further 
proceeds to show that the structure of these corpuscles was identical with that of 
vegetable starch, and then passes on to indicate the identity of their chemical 
composition thus : — *' Simple watery solution of iodine coloured them deep blue, 
which ultimately became perfectly black and opaque. They were soluble after 
swelling and expanding in strong sulphuric acid and by heat ; and, moreover, they 
acted upon polarized light in the same way as starch does. Some of the smaller 
grains exhibited a distinct and sharply defined black cross, of which the lines 
crossed at angles of 46° in the middle of the grain ; but in the majority there 
was only a single dark line in the long diameter of the grain, and which always 
seemed to correspond with an irregular fissure or hilus, as it might be termed, 
in the same direction, which was presented in a great many of the grains, and 

• Zur Verglaekeiiden Anat. d» WirbeUos^ p. 61. 
t Afwal & Sci. Nat, 1846, p. 193. 
i MvU, Arckiv,, 1851, p. 176. 
§ QuarL Joum, Microt. Sci, toI. i., p. 22. 

J[ Virchow'g Archw.y B. vi., H. i., p. 135 } and Quart. Joum. Mic, &k, vol. ii., p. 101, and 
vol ill, p. 284. 
^ Tirehow's Archw.^ B. vi., H. i., p 135; and QuarL Joum. Mic. Sciy vol ii , p. 101. 
•♦ Quart. Joum, Mic. Sei,rol ii., p. 106. 

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[ to be the indication of a partial inrolllng of them, as in the starch of the 
horse-chesnut. This longitudinal fissure was not unfrequentlj crossed by a 
jHiorter one at right angles. When the coyering glass was closely pressed, the 
grains were easily crushed, breaking up in radiating cracks aroand the 
marn;in ; and Bometimes, when thus compressed, a concentric aminlatioii 
would become evident, which was before in apparent.^' Busk also states 
that in several instances he saw amylaceous particles (coloured blae by 
iodine), contained in cells which they only partially occupied. Similar cor* 
pnscles were afterwards noticed by Yirchow in diseased human spleens,* and 
m other parts of the human body. Like bodies were also afterwards ob- 
served by Bonders, Rokitansky, nLolliker, and others. Mr. Stratford of 
Toronto dso published a paperf *' Upon the Presence of Starch in the Blood of 
an Epileptic Patient ;" and in August, 1855, Mr. Thomas Albert Carter, now 
Dr. Cfarter, sent a communication to the Edinburgh Medical JournaLt *^ On the 
extensive Diffusion and frequency of Starch Corpuscles in the Tissues of the 
Human Body,** in which he indicated the presence of starch in the liver, 
kidneys, spleen,pancreas, cerebrum, and some other organs and parts of the human 
body, as also in the like organs of the sheep and ox ; and he concluded ** that 
man, in common with some of the lower animals, must be regarded as a starch 
secreting organism.*' Dr. Carter subsequently published an inaugural dis- 
sertation, entitled ** Starch as a Constituent of the Animal Bod^ ; together with 
tome Observations on the Formation of Fat in Animals/* which was delivered 
to the Medical Faculty of the University of Edinburgh in April, 1856 ; and as 
his conclusions were still strongly doubted, he again published a paper in the 
Edinburgh Medical Journal § on the same subject, in which he brines forward 
strong evidence of the almost universal occurrence of certain corpusdes in the 
tissues of the animal organism, and endeavours to show that such corpuscles were 
starch, and not cellulose, as had been believed by Yirchow and others. Dr. 
Carter then lays down in the form of propositions the principal condnsions 
which he had arrived at pertaining to the physiological relations of animal 
starch. They are : — 

'' Ist. That the presence of starch in the animal body is necessary for the 
well-beinnr, if not for the preservation of the lives, of individuals belonging to 
the principal groups of animals ; — as shown by its constant occurrence in t^- 
marsed members of those groups. 

" 2nd. That the corpuscles undergo processes of development, growth, and 
decay : as proved by their variable cUmensions, the diverse conditions of thdr 
outer wall, and the different appearances of their contents. 

'* Srd. That its function is not local, but general ; as indicated by its tolerabljr 
equal dissemination throughout nearly the whole of the textures of the body. 

** 4th. That some of the starch found within l^e organism in its healthy state 
is apparently functionless and excrementitious ; as shown by its presence in the 
urinary excretion, and in the mucus of the tubes, &c.**|| 

The subiect was afterwards investigated by several physiologists, but our space 
will not allow of our referring to them in detail. The following notice, how- 
ever, from the Medical Times of June 4, 1859, under the head of '^ Microscope 
and its Bevelattons,'* is much to the point, and will be sufficient for our 
purpose : — 

** Five years ago Virchow pointed out, for the first time, the existence in certain 
of the human organs of abnormal products, analogous in their chemical qualities to 
cellulose and starch, and sometimes pretty elosdy resembUng starch gnumlss in 

Comptes Rendus, No. 23, Doc. 5. 1853. 
t Quart. Joum. of MierMcopietU Scienc€^ for January, 1854. 
* Ediii. Med Jour.^ voL i., p. 180, 

Edin, Med. Jovm,, vol. ii*., p. 78. 

Edin. ^fed. Joum., toL iii., p. 803. 

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farm. Lntely, Dr. Carter, in the ESnburgk MomHUy Jotirnal, announces tliot lia 
finds starch granules in almost all tlie organs of man and the lower animals in their 
normal state — a proposition which seems supported by M. Luys, who has pnhlislied 
a work upon the incessant prodnction of starch granules on the surfkce of the skin. 
This startling and singular assertion has receired a curious explanation Arom M. 
Bobin, who gives a Tery simple account of the matter. Examining the epitheliid 
glycoigenic papiUse of the amnion, recently pointed out bj M. Bernard, and en* 
desvouring, lijr squeezing, to extract their contents, he found in the preparation a. 
considerafaie number of starch granules. He at first imagined that this was one of 
the facts announced by Dr. Carter, but on closer investigation lie found that the- 
granules only existed on the surface, never within the tissues examined ; and that, 
in fact, the granules were always deposited from the fingers of the operator. How- 
ever much the hands were washed, still starch granules adhere to them, and am 
deposited from them on a wet surface. M. Robin examined most carefully these 
sections of the skin, and never found the granules within its structure; they are 
deposited on the cutaneous surface from the surrounding media, dust m the air* 
lin^n, bread, Ac. They are most abundant on those parts of the body — the hands 
and face^whieh sre exposed. M. llobin, finding that no degree of washing of his 
hands snfloed to remove these granules, washed one of them in a solution of potash, 
strong enough to dissolve the granules, and then at ouce covered it with a glova 
]£ight hours afterwards, upon careful examination of it, he could find no granule 
upon the surface washed with the potash. On the other hand, however, they were 
present in abundance. It is almost impossible, adds M. Kobin, to make a micro- 
scopic preparation without finding these granules in it ; they are therefore to be 
clasised like filaments of cotton, &c., as mere accidental ingredients. There can be 
no doubt that Dr. Carter's observations refer to grannies of vegetable starch ; his 
description precisely corresponds with that of those granules. [The low specific 
gravity of these granules, their remarkable resistance to ordinary causes of destruc- 
tion, and their presence in the greatest part of vegetables around US| sufficiently ex- 
plain the abundant presence of these granules everywhere. A few weeks ago we 
related some curious observations in reference to their presence in all kinds of 
dust — 'the dust of ages,' and even in the bodies of mummies; at all times and 
everywhere they appear to be floating in the dust of air.]" 

From the above experiments of M. Robin, and from some experiments we 
have since made, we think that it may be concluded that Dr. Carter is in error 
when he states that starch is almost universally distributed in the animal 
organism, while at the same Ume we think that some of his observations, as well 
as those of other observers^ have been made with so much care that we cannot but 
believe that starch must be produced in certain cases at least in the higher 
animals. But whatever opinions we may entertain as to the presence of starcn in 
the higher animals, we entertain no doubt that starch granules may be found in 
the ceUa of certain organisms which are commonly regarded as belonging to the 
animal kingdom. As our paper has already exceeded our proposed limits, we 
must content ourselves with the following additional notice of the presence of 
starch in the animal organization related by Mr. H. J. Carter, F.R.S., in the Annah 
of Natural History^ for May, 1859. (See Paper ** On the Identity in Structure 
and Composition of the so-called Seed-like body of Spongilla with the Winter- 
eg^ of the Bryozoa ; and the presence of Starch Granules in each.^') He de- 
scnbes the starch granules thus : — 

'* The granules resemUe those of wheat, being subelliptical, compressed, thin, 
and mailced with concentric circular lines $ they vary in number and size, being 
ftequentiy much larger than the spherical celis in which they are originally formed, 
and from, this passing down to immeaaurable minuteness, and occasionally into 
amorphous starch. Sometimes a large starch grain may be seen still within the 
spherical cell m which it was formed, when the latter much exceeds the average 
size of these cells; but on other occasions the large grain is replaced by a great 
number of minute ones, as indicated by the application of iodine, and Uu tly, as just 
stated, by amorphous starch." 

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In the April number of the Pharmaceutical Journal for 1853,* there ap- 
peared a paper by Mr. Daniel Hanbury " On the Insect White- Wax of China," 
m which the Histor}", Prodaction, Commerce, Properties, and Uses of that 
substance were fully and ably considered. A question of importance that re- 
mained respecting it, was the nature of the tree or trees, upon which the insect 
producing it (Coccus Pe-la X^'estwood) fed. Mr. Hanburv writes as follows : — 
" Respecting the tree or trees upon which the wax -insect weds, it is evident that 
our information is as yet extremely defectiye. Mr. Fortune entertains creat 
doubts whether the insect really feeds as reputed on any species of Ithus, 
Ugustrum^ or Hibiscus, When in China, he obtained from the province of 
Sze-tchuen, through some Catholic missionaries^ a living plant which he was 
assured was that on which the wax-insect is found. This plant, which is now in 
England, is a deciduous woody -stemmed shrub of about 1 i feet high. As it has 
not yet flowered, neither the genus nor even the natural order can with certainty 
be aetermined ; but judging from its leaves, the plant has much similarity, as 
suffjorested by Mr. Fortune, to some species of ash (Fraxinusy^ 

This question has now been set at rest ; for specimens of the plant in flower 
and fruit having been received from Shanghae, it has been ascertained to be the 
Fraxinus chinensis of Roxburgh. 


Fob some years past occasional importations of a kind of wax have taken 
place indirectly from Japan, by way of China and Singapore. This wax was 
alluded to by Mr. Daniel Hanbury in a note to a paper published by him in the 
Pharmaceutical Journal ** On the Insect White Wax of China."! Mr. Hanbury 
describes it as follows : — 

" My specimens consist of a white wax, of somewhat rancid odour, in circular 
cakes of from four to four and a half inches in diameter, nearly one inch thick, 
flat on one side, and rounded off on the other, as if cast in a small saucer. 
They are sparingly covered with a white powder, and in a sample presented to 
me by Messrs. 1. Merry and Son, present here and there traces of a sparkling 
crystalline efflorescence. *' 

The fusing points of two samples which Mr. Hanbury examined were found 
to be respectively 125^ 6°, and 131** Fahr. Since the ports of Japan have been 
open directly to British tradefs, the importation of this wax has largely in- 
creased, and we now receive it no longer priiicipdiy in cakes, as described above, 
but in large square blocks or cases, eacn of which averages in weight about 
133 lbs. Some of it is reported to have been sold at 70*. per cwt. ; but the 
present price is too high to allow of the greater portion being disposed of. 

This wax is said to be obtained from the fruits of the Rhus succedaneum of 
Linn.,t as a substance answering in general characters to it is stated by 
K»mpfer and Thunberg to be obtained from that plant. Thunberg§ says :— 
*' Oleum hujus seminum contusorum et post coctionem adhuc calentium prelo 
submissornm expressum, candelis conficiendis inservit et sebi consbtentiam ac- 
quirit." Ksempfer|| makes a similar statement^ and has a figure of the plant. 
Good specimens of the fruit of the plant said to yield Japan Wax have been 
imported with the wax itself. Upon examination this fruit appears exactly to 
resemble that of JRhus succedaneum^ Z., as given above, by Slaempfer. Never- 
theless, we are informed b y Mr. Sowerby that upon sowing some of these fruits 

• Vol. xii.,p.476. 

t Pharm. Jwam., vol. xii., p. 476, note A. 

t Limn. Sutt, Nat., t. ii., p. 242. 

§ Fiora Japcnica^ p. 122. 

U Kwnp. Ammnitatet exotica^ p. 794. 

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at ibe Royal Botaoic Qardens, Regent's Park, the seedling plants wbich were 
obtained had serrated leaflets, whereas the Rhus succedaneum^ as described and 
%iired by Kssmpfer as above, are said to be entire. Roxburgh* also says they 
are entire. Japan wax has also been described by Martiny as follows : — 

" Cera JaponicGy Japanese WaXy Tree-Wctx^ incorrectly Cera Americana^ 
American Wax. — Under these names there has of late times appeared in com- 
merce a species of wax, the origin of which is at present unknown. It has been 
supposed by Landerer not to be of vegetable, but of animal origin, and, possibly 
identical with stearine (Fetiwachs) or adipocire (Leichensei/e). 

" To determine this, H. Miiller instituted some experiments, the result of which 
was that the wax in question was found to be identical neither with stearine nor 
with beeswax; it is softer at the same temperature, and fuses at + 45^ C. 
(= 113° F.); moreover, it solidifies upon slow cooling, under similar circum- 
stances, perceptibly more slowly ; it has not the odour and tastelessness of com- 
mon wax, but, on the contrary, always smells and tastes like rancid tnllow ; it 
is far more soluble in alcohol than beeswax ; it is saponified by caustic alkalies, 
and a taper made with it burns with as bright a lignt as a similar one of bees- 

*' It is supposed that Japanese Wax is derived from Rhus succedanett, L., a tree 
belonging to the Natural Order Anacardiacea^ a native of Japan. Candles are 
made m Japan from the oil of the seeds of this tree. According to Nees von 
Esenbeck, the wax of Rhus succedanea completely resembles the Japanese Wax 
found in trade, and when treated with sulphuric acid its surface becomes of a 
reddish brown^ as does that of beeswax', the acid remaining uncoloured. The 
seeds of another Japanese tree, Rhus vemici/era, D.C., also contain a tallow-like 
oil, which is used in the making of candles. 

'* Japanese Wax very much resembles white wax, but it is less white, more yel- 
lowish, and in substance is more tender and crumbling, besides which, it 
possesses the properties we have already enumerated. It probably contains 
more oxysen than beeswax .''f 

In the Journal dePharmacie, for December, 1842, there will be found a paper 
by B. Sthamer, entitled, ** Sur la composition de la Cire du Japan," containmg 
much valuable information upon a kind of wax from Japan, which, from the 
description civen by the author, would appear to be identical with that now 
imported. The author states that he undertook to investigate the subject at 
the desire of liebig. 

From the above evidence it is quite clear that a kind of wax is obtained in 
Japan from the Rhus succedaneum of Linn., but it is, at the same time, very 
probable that other plants may also jield a portion at least, of the present wax of 
commerce; moreover, this wax, m some of its characteristics, so strongly 
resembles beeswax, that we can scarcely believe that it is altogether of vegetable 
origin. Mr. P. L. Simmonds, in the China Telegraph, gives the fofiowing 
account of Japan Wax : — 

^^ Rhus succedanea, the species which furnishes the Japan Wax, has long been 
grown in our greenhouses, having been introduced from China nearly a century 
ago. It might be raised, we should suppose, in the Cape and Australian 
colonies^ in the Mauritius, and India, and would be far preferable as an olea- 
ginous plant to the species of candle-berry myrtles from which wax is obtained. 
It will grow in any common soil, and may be readilv increased by cuttings. 
We shall probably soon learn what is the ordinary mooe of culture in the plan- 
tations of Japan, and whether any attention is paid to manuring, pruning, &c. 
The wax is of medium quality, between beeswax and the ordinary vegetable 
tallows, such as Bassia butter, Borneo vegetable tallows, Cecum butter, &c. 
Though there are shades of difference, several of these varieties of wax possess 

• Flor. Indic^ toI. iw, p. 98. 

t Encydopadieder Medieiniseh j^tarmaeeuiischen Naturalien und Rohwaarenhmde, Bd. i., 
p. 172. 

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die essential properties of that formed by the bee ; indeed, it was formerly 
supposed that bees merei j collected the wax already formed by the vegetable ; 
bttt Huberts experimieiits show that the insect has the power of transmntiog 
sii^ar into wax, and that it is in ^t a secretion. Japan Wax is soilo*, mora 
bnttle, and fatty than beeswax, easily kneaded, and melts between 40<^ and 42^ C. 
It contiuns twice as mnch oxygen as be^wax, and has a different conipo8itioi», 
consisting of palmitic acid, united with oxide of glyceryle. The small parcels 
which formerly reached this country haTe been used in Price's Patent Candle 
Works, in substitution for wax, and for hard neatrai fat, and, after oonvemion 
into the acid sUtc, both fbr candles and night-lights. If the wholesale price can 
be reduced, this wax will find its way into extensive consumption on the Conti- 
nent for various purposes.'* 




On the OempositloB of the Ontlcle of Plants.— M. Fremy, in his memoir on 
the Composition of Vegetable Cells,* expressed his opinion that cellulose was 
capable of existing in seyeral isomeric conditions; because the cellular membrane 
contained in the pith of certain trees and the tissue of champignons resists the 
solvent action of cuprate of ammonia, while the cellulose of roots and fruits is 
immediately dissoWed. This view was contested by some members of the Etench 
Academy, who considered that the difference of action was due rather to a difference 
in the purity of the membranes, the presence of a large amount of inoi^nic salts, 
&c. M. Fremy, therefore, has continued his investigation of this subject, and has 
shown that two kinds of cellulose exist, which are isomeric; one occurring in cotton, 
in almost all cortical fibres, in the utricular tissues of fruits and roots, and whidi is 
immediately soluble in the cupric reagent; and a second, principally constituting 
the pith of trees, ligneous fibres, the utricular tissue of the epidermis, &c, and 
which is not immiediately dissolved by cuprate of ammonia. The latter kind M. 
Fremy has named paraeeUviMe, By the prolonged action of boiling water, or of a 
temperature of \bO^ C, and in other ways, this latter body may be oonrerted Into 
the soluble modification. 

In the course of this investigation M. Fremy was induced to examine the pellide 
which covers the epidermis of plants, and which was discovered by VL Bronquiart, 
and named the cuticle. Tiiis substance was obtained by removing with the hand 
the external membrane of the leaves of the iris, without detsucfaing the green 
parenchyma. This colourless and transparent membrane consists of two parts— one 
external, which is the cuticle, the other internal, composed of the epidermic cells. 
These cells, however, consist of paracellnlose, and in that state are insoluble in the 
onpric reagent; the membranes were therefore boiled for half an hour in dilute 
hydrochloric add— which has the effect of altering the paracellulose and rendering 
it soluble; they were then washed with water, and treated with the cuprate of 
ammonia, which entirely dissolved the cellulose; the insoluble portion was washed 
first with water, then with hydrochloric add, which removed the copper and 
ammonia, then with a dilute solution of potash to dissolve the albuminous matters 
and pectic add, and lastly with alcohd and ether to remove fatty substances. The 
membrane was thus obtained in a state of purity; microscopical examination showed 
that it was entirdy free from other tissues, and consisted of a continoous membrane 
without aqy appearance of organisation, and which had the openings corresponding 
te the stomata. The eutide of a great variety of leaves, the petals of fiowers, and 
the epidem of fruits, were thos obtained, varying considerably in thidcnesa. The 
experiments were chiefly made upon the eutide obtained from apples ; this sub- 
stance contained ten to fifteen thousandths of inorganic matter; it was insoluble in 
all the neutral solvents; was unaltered by dilute potash, by ammonia, cuprate of 
ammonia, by boiling hydrochloric acid, and by cold sulphuric and nitric adds. It 
possessed very great elastidty. Submitted to analysis, it gave 

• Sea last »* Beport," Pharmaceutical Jowrnal^ p 115. 

Digrtized by VjOOQ IC 


Carbon 73«66 

Hydrogeu ll*87- 

Oxygen U-«7 

This remarkable cotnpoBitioB, diSering so much from the other vegetable tissues, 
places this substaooe by the side of the fatty bodies. In fact, the reactions of this 
flMmbnuie are peifiectly analogovs to that class of sabitances. Submitted to the 
SMtion of heat it gives rise to tme fatty wAAt'y acted upon by boiling nitric acid, it 
f ir o daee s all the bodies which are formed from the fats nnder the same circum* 
•tmoes,* and parUcularly suberic acid, which is also produced by cork ; lastly, 
submitted to the action of concentrated and boiling potash, it loses its membranous 
appearance and is saponified like a true fat. The soap thus formed gives bv its 
decomposition an acid liquid, soluble in alcohol and ether, and presenting all the 
diaracters of a fatty acid. M. Fremy therefore concludes that the epidermic ceils 
of the plant are covered by a membrane composed of an immediate principle, whidi 
lie terms CMOine/ This substance presents certain analogies to the fatty bodies; it 
is saponified lilte them, and resembles them in its elementary composition, and by 
the bodies whidi it forms imder the action of heat, or nitric acid. It differs, 
however, 1^ its perfect insdubiiity in ether and by its membranous character. 
IL Fremy is still engaged in the investigation of this subject 

On some Bodies Analovona to Cane-ausar.—K. Berthelot has publishedf the 
results of some new researches upon the saccharine bodies. He divides the whole 
class of sugars, properly so called, into two ftindamental groups, of which cane-sugar 
and glucose are the respective types. The glucose group is characterized by to^ 
mentlog directly, in contact with yeast; by being destroyed by the strong alLdies 
at 100^ C, and also in the cold ; and by reducing the potassio tartrate of copper. 
'When dried at 100'' the bodies belonging to this group are isomeric, and represented 
by the formula Cis Hm Ou. These b^ies differ in their crystallization—in the 
Amount of their rotatory powcr->in the modifications they undergo by heat and the 
adds — in the nature of their combinations with water, the bases, and common salt— 
io the formation of mucic acid, &c 

The bodies analogous to cane-sugar are difllcultly fermentible by yeast; almost 
nnchanged at 100^ C. by the alkalies and potassio tartrate of copper, submitted to the 
action of weak adds they are converted into new sugars, easily and directiy fer- 
mentible and belonging to the glucose group; dried at 130^ C. they are isomeric, 
and have the formula Cu Hu On. The sugars of this class are also distinguished 
from each other by their crystallization, rotatory power, unequal resistance to heat, 
adds, and ferments, their combinations, the formation of mucic add, &g. Between 
these two groups sugar of milk stands intermediate ; analogous to the glucose series 
by the action which the alkalies and salts of copper exert upon it, it yet approaches 
the other sugars by its composition, Cu Hu On at 150*^ C, by its resistance to the 
action of yeast, and by its capability of being converted into a giucose directly 
formentible by the weak acids. 

In bis present memoir M. Berthelot treats of several bodies which, according to 
the above classification, are analogous to cane-sugar. Some years ago he discovered 
one of the first examples of this new category, which he named MlHtose. He now 
describes the properties of tvro others, namely,' Trihaiote and Meihitoae. 

Trehalose* — At the last Fans Exhibition a manna was exhibited, fh>m Turkey, 
which wss simply labelled Trehala.l According to information recdved by M. 
Guibourt, trehala is a vegetable substance, employed in the East as food, and is 
constructed by an insect, the LarimuM nidificansy at the expense of a plant of the 
genus Echinops. It occurs in the form of whitish, ovoid, hollow coocons, smooth 
inside, and with a roug^ crisp exterior. Treated with water, trehala swells out, and 
is conyertcd into a mucilaginous mass. It contains gum, trehalose, and a par- 
ticular kind of starch, much less attackable by water than that from wheat or 
potatoes. To obtain the trehalose, the Turkish manna, powdered, is treated witii 
boning^alcohoL Sometimes it crystallizes out on cooling, while in other cases it Is 
necessary to evaporate the solution to a syrupy consistence, and allow it to stand ftir 

* ICtscherlich has alreadj shown that tiie envelope of potatoes, and the cuticle of Aloe Lmaum 
produce a fatty acid when tisated with nitric acid ; 100 parU of the skin of potatoes gave 6*2 of 
a &ttv acid soluble in alcohol. 

t Anmdet d€$ Ckm, et d9 Ph. t Pharm, Jottm., yoL ZTiii., pp. f83 and 402. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


sereral dayt. The crystals are collected, pressed, washed with cold alcohol, and 
also boiled with a rery small quantity, in order to purify them. Thev are then 
dissolved in boiling spirit, and treated with animal charcoal. The solution, on 
cooling, deposits the trehalose, which may, if necessary, be again crystallized. The 
crystals of tr^aloso are rectangular octohedrons, hard and brilliant, cracking under 
the teeth, baring a strongly saccharine taste, but less characteristic than cane-sugar. 
The analysis of trehalose, fused and dried at 130® C, corresponded with the formula 
Cm Hu On. The crystals, simply dried in the air, contain two atoms of water in 
addition, a portion of which is lost by prolonged exposure. If some of the crystals 
of trehalose be placed in the bottom of a long tube, and heated to 100% they fuse 
into a vitreous, transparent liquid. If placed in a capsule, however, they may be 
heated up to 120°, 140% and even 180% without fusing ; while they lose all their 
water of crystallization at 97°, and become opaque. Once fUsed at about 120% the 
mass swells up, and becomes more and more viscous, as the water evaporates, but 
without completely solidifying. Trehalose ftised and then cooled, forms a substance 
similar to barley-sugar. Below 180° it undergoes no sensible alteration by heat. It 
can even be heated to 200° C, and yet obtained again in crystals by re-solution. 
These characters indicate that trehalose is more stable than cane-sugar, and the 
fermentible sugars hitherto known, for all these bodies maintained at 180°, or even 
less, are completely destroyed. Heated above 200% trehalose itself is decomposed, 
loses water, and is converted into a black insoluble matter, with disengagement of a 
gas, and the odour of caramel. In the ur it bums with a reddish flame, leaving a 
combustible carbon. 

Trehalose is very soluble in water, insoluble in ether, almost insoluble in cold 
alcohol, but very soluble in boiling alcohol. It is deposited in regular crystals, 
during the cooling of its alcoholic solution. Its aqueous solution may be brought to 
a syrupy condition without crystallizing, at least for a certain time. The crystals 
formed by spontaneous evaporation are often larger but less regular. Trehalose 
po^esses the power of molecular rotation. It is dextro-gyre, like the majority of 
the sugars. This power, for the crystallized trehalose, is equal to 4-199°, and for 
the anhydrous 4-220°. This amount varies a little with the temperature, but is 
sensibly the same when the solution is first made and twenty-four hours after. 
According to the preceding numbers, the rotatory power of trehalose is triple that of 
cane-sugar, and greater than that of any other known sugar. The manner in which 
this power is affected by acids is very characteristic ; while cane-sugar is modified 
almost instantly at 100° by the dilute mineral acids, and transformed into a 
mixture of two glucoses, which is levo-gyre, and consequently reversed ; trehalose 
is very tardily modified by sulphuric acid, even at 100°, and is changed into a 
single sugar, which is still dextro-gyre, but four times less active, and probably 
identical with grape-sugar. Trehalose, in contact with yeast, ferments very slowly, 
and in an irregular and incomplete manner. On the contrary, the glucose obtained 
from trelialose by sulphuric acid, ferments immediately, furnishing alcohol and 
carbonic acid. The alcohol so obtained presents a slight amylic odour. In these 
respects cane-sugar resembles to some extent trehalose. The latter, however, is a 
more stable body, and more difl9cult to ferment. The reactions of trehalose are 
extremely analogous to those of cane-sugar : it is unaffected by potash or baryta at 
100% it does not reduce in any marked manner the potassio-tartrate of copper, it is 
precipitated by the ammoniacal acetate of lead. Nitric acid converts it into oxalic 
add without the formation of mucic acid. Heated to 180° with stmic, benzoic, 
butyric, or acetic acids, it forms a small quantity of a neutral compound, analogous 
to the fatty bodies. Under the influence of dilute sulphuric acid, it is converted, as 
before said, into a sugar, analogous, if not identical, with grape-sugar. 

According to the whole of the preceding characters, trehalose constitutes a new 
sugar analogous to cane-sugar, but much more stable. By its relative resistance to 
the action of heat, of acids, and of yeast, it appears to stand intermediate between 
the group of sugars properly so called, and those principles which contain an excess 
of hydrogen, such as mannite, dulcine, and glycerine. 

M. Mitscherlich recently discovered a substance in the ergot of rye, namely iny«»ss, 
which presents the most striking resemblance to trehalose; so much so that the 
author is inclined to regard them as identical, notwithstanding the difference of thdr 
origin. Their composition is the same, even in the proportion of water of crystalli- 
zation, and also their general reactions, those of the alkalies, the acids, ferments. 

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tardineH of modification by ralphiiric acid, taaUm at 100% Ao. Their crystalline 
form 18 also essentially the same. The temperature at which they part with their 
water only offers some diilerence, becanse trehalose is completely dehydrated at 
100% which is not the case with mycose. The essential difference between these 
bodies appears to consist in their rotatory power; that of trehalose is equal to +199% 
while that of mycose, according to Mitscherlich, is +173^. 

Mdizitose is obtained from the manna of Brian9on, which is a concrete, saccharine 
exudation, produced by the larch tree {Finm iarix, Linn,). This substance was once 
employed in Pharmacy, but is now never used, and is not to be met with in com- 
merce. It occurs in the form of small round whitish globules, of several millimetres 
diameter; it is almost entirely composed of meUtitoae, To obtain this body the 
manna of Brian^on is treated with boiling alcohol, and the solution evaporated to an 
extractive consistence, and allowed to stand for several weeks. The melezitose 
crystallizes in a syrupy mother liquor; it is pressed, washed with tepid alcohol, and 
crystallized from boiliog alcohol It is thus obtained in very little, short, hard, 
brilliant crystals, which, examined by the microscope, appear to be oblique rhombic 
prisms, analogous to those of cane-sugar. These crystals, viewed in the mass, 
appear opaque, due to a slight efflorescence; their taste is sweet, resembling glucose, 
and therefore much weaker than cane-sugar. Melezitose, dried at 110% has the 
same composition as cane-sugar and trehalose, and corresponds to the formula Cn 
H|| On. At the ordinary temperature it appears to contain water of ciystallization, 
but it is BO easily lost by efflorescence that it cannot be determined with certainty. 
It does not exceed one equivalent. Melezitose fuses below 140^ into a transparent 
liquid, without any sensible alteration. On cooling, this liquid condenses into a 
vitreous mass, like barley-sugar. At 200° it is decomposed. It is very soluble in 
water, insoluble in ether, almost insoluble in cold alcohol, little soluble in ordinary 
boiling alcohol Absolute alcohol, added to a concentrated aqueous solution, slowly 
precipitates it in the crystalline form. Its aqueous solution, left to spontaneous 
evaporation, becomes syrupy, and remains a long time without crystallizing. Mele- 
zitose is dextro.gyre, like cane-sugar; its rotatory power is equal to +94-1^. It is 
modified by acids more slowly than cane-sugar, but quicker than trehalose, without 
reversing its rotatory^ power, and produces a single sugar, identical with grape-sugar. 
Melezitose, mixed with yeast, ferments badly, but is converted by acids into a sugar 
directly fermentible, identical with grape-sugar. It does not fUmish mucic acid. 
Its general reactions are precisely the same as those of cane-sugar, which it strikingly 
resembles. It differs however, by its action on polarized light, and by a more 
marked resistance to the action of ferment. 

The existence of four isomeric sugars, possessing certain general characters in 
common, is thus established — namely, cane-«ugar, trehalose, melezitose, and 

M. Berthelot has also carefully investigated the properties of four sugars obtained 
from other sources; these are, Uie sugar firom the Java palm iSaouerua Rumphii) ; 
from the Sorghum species; from the maple; and from the carob (Ceratonia sUiqua, 
or St. John's bread). These four sugars are perfectly identical with cane-sugar; tliey 
possess the same crystalline form, the same rotatory power, and the same reactions; 
they are all, in fact, the same body, and serve to indicate the great diffusion of this 
substance in the vegetable kingdom. 

Ob tbe Trmsusfosvuttlon of Two Immediate Prinelplts of InTortobrata 
Aimi— ^i« tBto Snvar.* — ^M. Berthelot has succeeded in converting ChiHne and 
TVatcms, two immediate principles contained in the skeleton of invertebrate animals, 
into sugar and aloohoL The organic part of the skeleton of the VerUbraia consists 
essenti^y of nitrogenous matter, insoluble in cold water, but soluble in the alkalies, 
and analogous in its characters to the albuminous substances. By the prolonged 
action of boiling water it yields gelatine. The organic portion of the skeleton of the 
Invertdrata on the contrary, is constituted in great part of pruiciples quite distinct 
from tiie gelatiginons bodies; sometimes these principles resemble the horny bodies, 
but in other cases tibey present much greater resistance to the action of reagents, 
and oflbr a remarkable analogy to the essential proximate constituents of vegetable 
tissues. Of the latter taechiiine, contained in the skeleton of the Crustacea, the 
aracfanida, the insecta, and several zooph ytes, infusoria, &c. ; and the substance 

« AmaL </• Chim. ei d$ Phy. 

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principally oonstitattn^ ibe enrelope of eertain tamcsted moRnaes, md of mme in- 
ftisoria. These two principles possess in common tlie following properties: they 
ore insohible in water, cold or boiling, in aloohd, acetic add, andotlier solvents; they 
are onacted upon by potash concentrated and boiling, or l)y the dilute acids^ and 
they present none of the characteristic reactions of the aRwmfaioiu substaneea. 
Chltine, discovered by Odier in the skeleton of insects and the crvstacea; examiaed 
first by Lassaigne, who recognised the presence of nitrogen, and by Payen, has 
been more particularly studied by Schmidt, and afteiwarde by Flremy, Lelimann, 
Schlossbcrger, &c. Ciiitine contains, aceorfing to the analyses of Schmidt, Lek- 
mann, Schlossberger, and the aathor, a fifteenth of its weight of idtrogen. Its eam- 
podtion may be represented as consisting of an isomer of oeUalose eorabined with an 
isomer of muscular fibrine. 

The principle contained in the envelope of the Tunieata waa discovered and 
analyzed by Schmidt It may be obtained free from nitregep; in this state it 
possesses the same composition as cellulose, Cn Hio Oi«. As tl^ principle is quite 
distinct from vegetable cellulose in its physical properties^ its stracture, and ita 
chemical characters, the author, to avcHd confusion, has given it the name of 

In order to ascertain more completely the nature of tiie relation which apparently 
exists between these principles and vegetable cellulose, the author has endeavowed 
to effect in the former bodies the same transformation which is eharacteiistic of the 
latter — namely, their conversion into a fermentible sugar. 

Ttmieine was prepared from the envelopes of an aac^Skn (Cyn^a papUMd), 
which were boiled for several hours with concentrated hydrechloric acid, the insetabfce 
portion separated and washed by decantation, and then boiled with a solution of pot- 
ash of 32° of the areometer ; the insoluble part was washed with water until it wa 
neutral, and then dried. Submitted toanalysis, the reaults accorded with the formula 
Cia Hio Oio. Tunicine, in the dry state, is a white opaque substance^ of almost ham j 
consistence, without any crystalline structure, insoluble in all the solvents. In tiie 
moist state it is soft, supple, and tenacious. Its tenacity, however, without douhty 
varies with the age of the individual from which it ie derived. Examined und» the 
microscope, it presents a fibrous structure like an animal tissue, and quite distinct 
from cellulose. Moistened successively with ooncentnited sulphuric acld^ and a 
solution of iodine, it assumes a very pale bluish coloration, but more analogous to 
that which cholesterine aoqaires under the same ciroumstancee. Fluoboric gas acte 
upon moist tunicine, and liquefies it without any sensible eoloralion. 

The resistance of this substance to the action of reagente is very groat, aa is 
obvious from the manner of its preparation. Its conversion into sugar was eflbcted 
by placing it in cold concentrated sulphuric acid, in which it slowly ^uefied witfaovt 
any coloration. This solution was then poured drop by drop into 100 times ite weight 
of boiling water; after being boiled for an hour the solution waa neutralised with 
dialk, filtered aiui evaporated, when a syrupy liquid was obtained, which eansisted of a 
mixture of sugar and some other substance^ the nature of which was net determined. 
This liquid energetically reduced the potassio-tartrate of copper, and became deeply 
coloured by boiling with potash. Diluted with water uid mixed with yeast, it ihr- 
mented with production of curbonic add and alcohol. These several characters 
establish the formation of a sugar analogous to gluco» at theei^ense of a prindpte 
ccmtaiaed in the envelopes of the asddians. 

The same experiments were r^>eated with dliCuM, ohtained from lobsters and 
also from cantbarides. It was prepared in precisely the saoM manner as tjmicine, 
It presented still greater veaiatanee to the action of ceagante than tunicine; it was, 
however, by the same pfocess, converted iato glueose, which was fermented and 
the alcohol isolated. 

The presence of nitn^ in chitiae has been eontested; several analyses vere» 
therefore, made upon this body, pr^ared in difihient way% aiad firom varioM souxces^ 
the result of which mdieated thftt nitrogea ia an eMenUal eonatitiieBt. 

These resulu estehlish a new aad mora striking oonaexion, founded upon m 
definite chemiisal transfomnation, between the immediate prinoiples contidned in the 
envelope of the invertofarata and these whid& form the v^ietable tissueS) for th^ 
confirm the isomerism of tutMcine and eeUnloae^ sad lead us to regard diitine as a 
combination of a non-nitrogenous princi^, aaalogetts or identieal with tunidne, 
with a nitrogenous prindple analogousto the homy matters. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


I AtttMi Of Air Ml m MixtaM •# StilpliMt of Oalelvm aad OarbOMft« of 

^M. Pekmze, in the coune of some esperiroeDts on the proportion of c«r- 
X of Mdft piOKnt in aome ipceimens of artificial soda ash, found that a aped- 
t wUdi indicated a certain per-centage of alkali, after being heated to dull rad- 
Boat for a ftw minutea, apparentljr contained a amaller proportion of carbonate of 
aoda. He therefore made aoroe further experimenta with a Tiew of ascertaining the 
canae ef tliia diacrepancy. He found that in some soda ash heated to redneaa for an 
hovr and then exhausted with water, the aolutiMi gaye an abundant ccjatallizatlon 
of anlpfaAto of soda, and contauwd a very amaU quantity of carbonate of aoda; the 
inaoliihle portiou oonsiated principaUy of carbonate of lime. He also found that, 
dmoBig the cidcination in the air, the soda ash increasea in weight in proportion as 
the amount of carbonate of soda diminiahee; but that, if the calcination ia effected 
im an alaBoaphere deprived of oxygen, no change of any kind takes place. The 
rcaalta, therefoie, adntit of a aimple explanation. The airiphide of calcium which la 
eeatained in the aoda ash in the.atate of oxyaulpbide, under the influence of the heat 
and the air, abaorba oaEygen, and becomea converted into anlphate of lime. Wban 
the caleined mass ia Ueated with water, an exchange of aeida and bases takes plaoe, 
and sulphate of soda and carbonate of lime is formed. 

This dcoomposition ia of conuderable importanoe in the analyaia of aoda ash. It 
shows, the neoeaaity of drying the aamples out of contact of air. It is alao of ia- 
porlaDOS in tiie manofacture of carbonate of aoda. This alteration takes place at 
much lower temperatures than that of a red heat) and even occurs if the sample be 
Oixpoaed to the air for aome months. 

flaoeharatod Ume for uae In Medlelae. Ooneentrated Iiime Water. — "Dr. 
Cleland haa introduced a solution of lime in syrup for use, in preference to ordinary 
lime water, in medicine. He prepares it as follows:— Slake 8 oz. of quick lime, rub 
up with it 9 oz. of wlilte sugar, add 1 pint of water, stir for some time, till the hard 
stiff maasea which the sugar and lime are apt to run into, are as much as possible 
dtasoWed; then filter. The product should be perfectly clear, and of only a slightly 
yellowish tint. A solution made in this way will contain 1 8 grains of lime in every 
ounce, by weight, and altogether about 106 grains of solid matter to the ounce. 
Taken undiluted a few drops are sufllcient to roughen the tongue. When diluted, 
the taste ia at first an acrid one of lime; but this ia immediately replaced by a sweet 
taste in the back of the month, admitted to be pleasant. Made aa just recommended, 
the aolution ia not Uablo to decompoaition unless it is exposed to the air. By 
employing a smaller proportion of water to lime, a still stronger solution may be 
obtained, but not with any practical advantage, aa there ia increased difllcolty of 
filtration and greater tendency to decomposition. The strongest solutions are 
scarcely, if at aH, affected by boiling, but if diluted, a copious precipitation tat^ 
place on application of heat. This, however, will not serve as a test of strength, as 
addition of sugar in suiBcient quantity will make any solution, of whatever strength, 
remain dear on ebullition. This preparation may be giren in doses of from 20 or 
30 to 60 miniffla or more, in a glaas fi water, two or three times a day. 



Pro/eaaar of Pharmacy and Phanma^eogmMy in the UnivenUy of Eriangen, Hon, Mem* 
of the rharmaceuticii Socie^ of Grtal Britaim, jpc. 

Aftbb that Baget and Lodibert had made the diacovery of caryophylUne in clores, 
in the year 1895, it was remaikable that fionaatre ahonld find none of thia conati- 
toent in the clovea of Cayenne.* As I haye, upon two occasions, succeasfully em- 
ployed thia partieiiUr kind of ck>vea for the preparation of caryophylKne, there ap- 
peara gronnd for eonclnding either that I operated upon a greater quantity of material 
than did Bonaatie, or that I adopted an entirdy difEsrent proceea in order to obtain 
thia hitherto rare aubatance. 

In the preparation of oil of dofea, it ia n ccoaaa r y, hi order to obtain the hirgeat 
piodoce, to aal^eet the clovea to repeated diatillatlon. In thia process, how* 
ever, one cannot xviM that through a too Strang fire some of the contents of the 

• Ti ^omm i dorf; Neu«$ Jom^tai, Bd, u. St. 1, S. llg. 

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still should Bplash oyer [der BlaaenmhdU Uberm:hk$»i]^ especially daring the l3it dls 
tiUation, when a comparatively small qoantity of oil comes orer. In such case, the 
oil is mixed to a greater or less extent with dusky, white, or brown flocks, whidi 
subside to the bottom of the vesseL If the distilled product be now placed on a 
filter, the watery part speedily passes through, but the oil, with its flocculent admix- 
ture, filters with extreme slowness. After several days the oil will have run 
through, leaving, however, both the flocculent residue and the filter strongly impreg- 
nated with it. Let the flller and its contents be now washed with cold alcohol of 
88^ Beck [sa Sp. gr. 0.839] until the latter runs off tasteless— for which process a 
comparatively large quantity of alcohol is requisite. The filter should now be 
dried; its contents should be collected, mixed with much animal charcoal, treated 
with boiling alcohol (.839), and filtered hot. The clear solution upon cooling sets 
into a uniform white magma. This, which is caryophylline in an amorphous form, 
is to be transferred to a filter, allowed to drain, and then dried in the air. I hare 
never, by this process, obtained caryophylline in the form of crystals, probably from 
my solutions being too much concentrated. The process is, upon the whole, simple, 
though costly as regards alcohol; I have applied it in the case of Bourbon aind Am- 
boyna cloves, as well as in operating upon Cayenne cloves. 

The following process, however, is simpler and less expensive. It was put in 
practice upon some Cayenne cloves, and m fact upon a sample, 10 lbs. of which, 
after a fourteenth distillation, yielded only 25^ ounces of oil, wliile in general, from 
a like weight, one ought to obtain 83^ ounces. 

If there be taken cloves (of any kind) which by repeated distillations with water 
have been as much as possible deprived of essential oil, and they be introduced with 
water into an alembic charged up to the neck, and a quick heat be then applied, 
there suddenly passes over a brown, flocculent, turbid liquid. To refer to an actual 
experiment, after Cayenne cloves had been distilled for the thirteenth time, and 
the quantity of oil obtained in the last distillation was so inconsiderable that further 
treatment was thought unnecessary, I rapidly subjected them four times over to the 
process described, thus obtaining from 38 to 40 litres of a brown distillate. The 
alembic was now emptied and cleansed from the exhausted materials, the brown dis- 
tillate was introduced and distilled. From the flrst 7 litres of milky distillate that 
passed over, there separated 5 drachms of oil, which, however, was of weak taste, 
and perhaps consisted chiefly of caryophyllic acid. The distillation was continued 
until the solution that passed over scarcely possessed the smell or taste of doves, 
and was as clear as water. On the next day, the residue remuning in the alembic 
having become cold, was transferred to a filter and washed with cold water until it 
ceased to yield any colour. When dried, this mass constituted crude caryophyUino— 
free, however, from all trace of oil of cloves. It was now transferred, with the ad- 
dition of some animal charcoal, to a proper (and for such extractions peculiarly 
adapted) tin vessel, treated in a water-bath with boiling alcohol (.839), and the solu- 
tion flltered hot. The crude caryophylline, which had separated upon cooling, and 
which formed with the alcohol a sort of magma, was now transferred to a filter; the 
spirit running from it of a yellowish brown. The filtered liquor was again thrown 
upon the charcoal, raised to the boiling temperature and filtered, by which, however, 
but little caryophylline was separated. This, however, was placed upon a filter; the 
alcohol that drained from it was distilled off to a few ounces, and the residue mixed 
with some animal c^iarcoal and evaporated— and then treated with fresh boiline 
alcohol. The caryophylline thus purified, and perfectly white, weighed, when added 
to that previously obtained, I ounce and 5 drachms. 

A portion of the cloves which had been submitted for the fourteenth time to the 
process of distillation, and had then been dried in the air, were treated in the tin vessel 
with boiling alcohol, and rapidly placed on a filter. The brown solution, upon 
cooling, deposited some caryophylline in cloudy flocks, but its quantity was incon- 
siderable; and when it is requisite to prepare the substance in larger quantity, the 
process, just described, of driving it over with water is certainly the most to be re- 
commended, and the cheapest. 

If one had to operate upon a considerable quantity of cloves, as 50 pounds or 
more, it would probably be the simplest way of all, after obtaining the oil, to trans- 
fer the contents of the still while yet hot to a coarse strainer, and when drained 
again, to boil them. The mixed decoctions might be allowed to subside for some 
days in large gUss bottles, the clear supernatant liquor pou^d off from the sediment. 

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and ihU latter then washed with cold water Bereral times. Haring been thrown 
upon a filter and dried, it might then be treated with alcohol and animal charcoal 
as already deBcnbbd.-^Wi89enachqftliehe MitAeilungen der phystcaHich-medicinUchen 
Sociam zu EHangen^ 1859, Heft. IL 8. 54. 




This neat little tree, which, in the neighboarhood of Cantagallo, in Brazil, flowers 
in December and January, and ripens its fruits towards the latter part of April or 
in May, grows without attention m most of the provinces of Brazil, and might, with 
a little care, be made more profitable than many other vegetable prodacts which 
require cultivation, more attention, and labour. For the province of Pari, the pro- 
duction of annatto is one of its many sources of wealth, though this dyestuff is, by 
some unscrupulous mann&ctnrers, adulterated, and its price, consequently, has 
become depressed; Parit is the only Brazilian province where it is cultivated. 

For domestic purposes it is mudi employed here, as well as in the United States 
and Europe^ being used for colouring butter and cheese, and likewise for beautifying 
and seasoning some dishes; as a medicine it enjoys a somewhat favourable reputa- 
tion in Brazil, and as a dyestuff, it is almost indispensable. 

Notwithstanding the scandalous sophistications, its price in Park is now from 10 
to 12 millras per arroba (1 miUreis » 50 cts. ; 1 arroba = 32 Portuguese pounds), 
and promises to again rise to its former height of 18 mlllreis, if the necessary pre- 
cautions against adulterating it should be taken. 

It is a matter of experience that the annatto tree grows luxuriantly in almost any 
kind of soil, and is, therefore, recommended for the cultivation of such land as is 
not well fitted for the production of alimentary articles. 

The mode of growing this tree is as follows: The land is prepared at the same 
•eason and in the same manner as for cotton. The land is furrowed, and at a dis- 
tance of eight or ten feet two or three seeds are planted, which must have been first 
soaked in water for some time. After some time, other seeds are planted, where the 
first ones had not germinated; after three months a weeding takes place, when the 
superfluous plants are likewise pulled out, not more than one being allowed in one 
place. Now all the necessary attention has been paid to this tree, with the excep- 
tion, perhaps, of another superficial weeding, if the weeds should grow too fast. 

The fruit capsules ripen after eight or ten months, and are collected when they 
have assumed a reddish colour and some are breaking open. The branches with the 
ihiit (eaixos) are detached fh)m the tree, in consequence of which it bears more 
without growing high enough to render the collection of the fruit a matter of diffi- 
culty. The capsules are spread upon estetras (mats) or cloths, and frequently 
turned; after thus drying in the sun for three or four days, they are collected into 
piles, and beaten or thrashed with clubs, to separate the seeds, which are cleaned 
from the empty capsules by ventiladoresj, or upon sieves, by shaking and blowing. 

To obtain the colouring matter, the following apparatus are in use:— A machine, 
consisting of two upright cylinders, which by means of screws are brought together 
dose enough to crush the seeds, which may be also accomplished by millstones; 
three large wooden water-tubs, one of which is separated into two parts by boards, 
an ordinary press, two large copper kettles, several tubs (gamelkui), &c. 

The seeds are kept overnight, imder water, in one of tiie large tubs ; the second 
tub ii filled with pure water, to have it always convenient and to wash all the 
implements used. Next morning, small portions of the soaked seeds are taken out, 
and by two persons well rubbed between their hands and against the sides of the 
gameUas, a little of the water from the first tub being added once in a while. After 
the water has bec(»ne saturated with the colouring matter, it is poured upon a sieve 
in one of the divisions oi the third tub, and then strained into the second division by 
means of an urupema (fine sieve). The seeds are well rubbed upon the first sieve, 
and then slightly bruised between the cylinders, after which they are rubbed again 
in the gameUa with some water, expressed with the hands, and strained through the 
first and afterwards through the second sieve. The strained liquids from the first 
and second washings are mixed, and, in a large gamella, allowed to settle, which 
requires about eight hours ; the sediment is called iapiocca de urucii. The seeds are then 

▼OL. . o 

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again treated in the same way a second and third time hetween the cylinden, in the 
gamella and the vieve, and are lastly expressed, to gain all the liquid. When passine 
through hetween the cylinders, the seeds are the third time completely mashed, and 
the liquids of the second and third washings are immediately introduced in a kettle 
to eyaporate. From the sediment, tapiocca de nmcii, the supernatant liquor is 
decanted sod set aside to gain the balance of the colotving matter, which may be 
still suspended. When the evaporating liquid assumes the consistency of syrup, 
the tapiocca de urucik is gradually added and the whole stirred constantly. The fire 
must now be slackened, and regulated with great care, and incessant stirring is 
essentia], until the mass is of the consistence of a thick extract, when the kettle is 
lemoTed from the fire and allowed to oool. The mass is then taken ont in pieces 
with both hands and thrown into a box lined with banana and palm leaves; each 
time the hands are rubbed with a^e de mammono, impure castor oil, to keep the 
mass from adhering to the hands. 

From the nncultivated Bixa OretlanOf common in this neighbottihood, I hare 
prepared annatto. From a sparingly bearing tree I collected 16 pounds of capsules, 
the seeds of which, by three washings, without crushing, yielded 3 pounds of a nice 
colour, which separated from the first washing only in about eight days. The liquor 
was experimentfdly evaporated in brass, iron, copper, and porcelain vessels to a 
thick extract, and completely dried in the sun. The colouring matter evaporated 
from the beginning in the sun was the beat, the others followed in this order: 2, the 
product from the porcelain dish; S, frt>m the brass; 4, from the copper, and 5, frxm 
tiie iron kettle, xhe quality of annatto from the same port may, therefore, con- 
siderably vary, as the manufacturers use any evaporating vessel they may happen 
to possess. The annatto dried in the sun is easily soluble in water, fbrmiDg a beaa* 
tiful orange yellow solution. 

Should the culture of cofRse near the coast of Brasil become unprofitable, on 
accoant of the soil becoming exhausted, annatto might easily be(X>me a staple product^ 
and then the process of its preparation would, doubtless, be much improved. Bixa 
OreUana, as stated before, will grow in almost everr soil, with less than half the care 
and labour to be bestowed on rae often failing coiRe tree. But then the question 
would arise, would the consumption increase with an increased supply of annatto ?<— 
Archw der Pham^ 1859, March, 291—397 ; and Amer, Jour, ofPharm. J. M. If. 


The rhizome of the Verabrum vhride^ known under the various names of American 
Hellebore, Swamp Hellebore, Indian Poke, and Itch Weed, has been recently much 
employed in the United States as an arterial sedative in inflammatory affections. . 
This substance was first made known as a medicinal agent by Dr. Charles Osgood, 
in a communication published by him in the American Journal of the Medietd Sciences 
for August, 1835. Its reputation is said to be now fhlly established as a sedative to 
the nervous system and circulation, and is therefore well worthy of a further 
trial in this country. In its local action it resembles that of white hellebore 
rhizome, producing, like it, irritation, rubefaction, and even in some instances 
vesication. When much diluted with starch or some other mild powder, it also 
acts like white hellebore as an errhine and sternutatoir. In the United States, 
however, it is principally employed as an internal remedy. From the well known 
drastic properties of VeriUrum albums we should have expected a similar action with 
this medicine, but it is stated that all who have employed it agree, that **it seldom 
or ever purges." 

Its properties are thus described by Dr, Wood (Wood's T^erapeuHee and Pharma^ 
oology f vol. ii., page 152): "The body of the root or rhizome is fleshy, somewhat 
more than an inch long by an inch in thickness, coated with membranous coverings 
above, and thickly invested beneath with numerous whitish or yellowish fibres or 
rootlets. In the recent state it has a disagreeable odour, which is k)St by drying. 
Its taste is bitter, with an unpleasant acrimony spreading through the mouth and 
fauces, and very durable. It imparts its sensible properties to water and alcohol; 
but iu virtues are impaired by beat, and appear to be destroyed by long boilinj^." 
It is supposed to owe its activity essentially to the presence of an alkalM idenucai 
with veratrioy but a further chemical investigation of this substance is desirable. 
The rhisome ought to be coUected for use in the autumn, and shoold not be kept; 

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nuxe than a year, as its properties are much deteriorated by long keeping. The 
best preparatioQ is the tinctorc^ which is recommended to be made by digesting, 
Axr fourteen days, eight onnoes of the dried rhizome in sixteen fluid ounces of 
zectifled spirit. The dose of this tincture is six or eight dropi» repeated erwf 
tfaiee oar four hoars, and increased if necessary. 


BT SDMUSD "WILLIAM DATT, ▲.&., M.B., lf.R.I»A.., 
FroflBSior of Agrloattnro snd Agriooltunl OhcatistTy to tbe Royal Dublin Society. 

It is well known to Chemists that sulphuric acid or oil of Titriol, as it is met with 
in oommeroe^ almost always contains yariable proportions of arsenic; but it appears 
to me that this fact has been overlooked by the public, and that they are not aware 
lo what extent this highly poisonous substance occurs in general in commercial 
sniphuric acid, and thus becomes the means by which arsenic enters the different 
snbetances in whose preparation that acid is employed. 

My attrition was first called to this subject by the difficulty I experienced in pro- 
earing any oonmiercial sulphuric acid which did not contain a comparatively large 
propt^on of arsenic, rendering it quite unfit and dangerous to be used for many 
purposes of experimental illustration. This arises from the fact, that the vitriol 
noanufacturer has found that it is for more economical for him to make sulphuric 
add from iron pyrites (a compound of sulphur and iron), which he can obtain for 
about twenty-five shillings a ton, than from native sulphur, for which he is obliged 
to pay about seven pounds for tbe same quantity. This ore of iron contains almost 
invariably more or less arsenic, which passes into the sulphuric acid manufactured 
from pyrites; whereas, the native sulphur containing little or no arsenic, tbe sul- 
phuric acid made from it is not so liable to be contaminated with that poisonous 
Bubstance. Pyritic sulphuric add, on account of its being much cheaper, seems in 
a great measure ^at least in Dublin) to have taken the place of that manufactured 
from natiTe sulphur, and hence the occurrence latterly of so much arsenical sul- 
phuric add in commerce, and the presence of arsenic in so many substances in the 
preparation of which that add is directly or indirectly employed. 

The vitrid and manure manufacturers have been in the halnt of making an 
inferior kind of pyritic sulphuric acid, which, owing to its dark colour, is termed 
brown sulphuric add: this contains a comparatively Urge proportion of arsenic, and 
is chiefly used in making superphosphate and other artifldal manures ; and the 
manufacturer appears to think that the add which is too impure to be used in the 
arts, is good enough for making manures and for other agricultural purposes. This, 
however, from the experiments I shall presently refer to, appears to be a great 

Knowing that sulphuric acid containing arsenic was so largely employed in 
making superphosphate and other artificial manures, and that they therefore must 
contain variable quantities of that substance, I have for some tune thought that it 
was not improbable that phmts grown with such manures might imbibe or take up 
from the soil where those substouces had been employed, a certain quantity of 
arsenic, and in this way be rendered more or less unwholesome as artides of food. 

As a preliminary experiment to ascertain if plants had the power of taking up 
arsenic when it was presented to their roots in the soil, I transplanted into a flower- 
pot in June, 1857, three small planto of peas, and when they had recovered the 
transplanting, I commenced watering them every second or third day with a satu- 
rated aqueous solution of arsenious add; and this treatment was continued for more 
than a week without its appearing to exercise any immediate injurious effects on the 
plants. At this time, however, I was obliged to leave home for some months, so 
that 1 was unable to continue longer the watering with the arsenical solution, or to 
observe further its effects on those plants. On my return I found that they had 
grown to about their frill sise, had flowered, and produced seed, showing that 
arsenic, though so very destructive a substance to animal life, had not apparently 
exerdsed any decided injurious effects on those plants. 

Having collected the stalks, leaves, and pods of the peas, I earefVilly kept them for 
examination, to ascertain if those plants under the treatment they had been sub- 


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jectcd to had taken np any arsenic. Profesfiional business, however, of one kind or 
another prevented at the time my pursuing the subject any further^ and I did not 
resume the inquiry till recently, wIieD, being engaged in the detection of arsenic in 
a case of suspected poisoning, my attention was again called to this subject. 

In the case I allude to, the quantity of arsenic present in the stomach and its con- 
tents was very minute, and I had recourse to several methods for the detection of 
that metal before I could affirm positively as to the existence of arsenic; and I found 
tiiat by employing conjointly Beinsch's and Marsh's methods, by far the most satis- 
factory results were obtained. 

These methods are well known. The first consists in boiling the suspected sub- 
stance along with diluted hydrochloric add, together with some pieces of metallic 
copper, when, if arsenic is present, it will be deposited in the metallic state on the 
surface of the copper, giving it a peculiar steel-grey appearance; and on heating the 
copper i^er being washed and dried, the arsenic can be volatilized as arsenious acid, 
and identified by its appropriate tests. The second method consists in bringing the 
suspected substance, in a state of solution, in contact with a mixture of zinc and 
diluted sulphuric acid contained in a suitable apparatus, when the arsenic, if present, 
wUl combine with the hydrogen being generated, and will form arseniuretted hydro- 
gen, a gaseous compound which is characterize by its producing a stain of metallic 
arsenic when any cool surface is held over a small jet of the gas whilst burning. On 
trying by these methods the stalks and leaves of the pea-plants which I had .watered 
with arsenious acid, I found that arsenic could be readily detected in them, and was 
present even in the seeds, showing clearly that arsenic had been fireely taken up by 
those plants, and that every portion of them appeared to have Imbibed the poison. 

This experiment having shown me that arsenic might be taken up in considerable 
quantity by plants without its destroying their vitality, or appearing even to inter- 
fere with their proper functions, I preceded to ascertain if the arsenic, as it existed 
in difierent artificial manures (such as the superphosphate), would in like manner be 
taken up by plants growing where those manures had been applied. To determine 
this, I transplanted, last April, a small cabbage-plant into a fiower-pot in which I 
had previously put a mixture of one part of superphosphate to four parts of garden 
mould. The cabbage after a short time appeased to recover the transplanting, and 
when it had been growing in the mixture for three weeks, I cut ofi* the top of the 
plant, which looked perfectly green and healthy. On examining it for arsenic, I 
obtained the most distinct indications of the presence of that substance, though only 
a very small amount of cabbage, viz., 113 grains, were used in the experiment. This 
result was therefore perfectly conclusive as to the power possessed by some plants, 
at least, of taking up arsenic from manurea containing that substance. As in this 
•experiment I was aware that I had placed the plant in a most favourable condition 
for absorbing the poison, and that a larger proportion of superphosphate had been 
employed than was used in practice, my last experiments were to ascertain if the 
presence of arsenic could be detected in our crops grown with superphosphate in the 
ordinary way. 

I procured for this purpose some Swedish turnips which had been grown with 
superphosphate, and having most carefully washed each turnip to remove every 
partide of adliering day, I cut up in small pieces 2 lbs. weight of one of the turnips, 
and boUed them in a large glass fiask for about three hours with 36 fluid ounces of 
distilled water, to which I had added 3 ounces of hydrodiloric add (spec. grav. 1.14), 
placing in the mixture 100 grains of perfectly dean and bright turnings of metallic 
copper. After removing the copper turnings and washing them well with water to 
separate the vegetable matter, and then boiling them for a few moments in a mixture 
of spirit and e&er to remove any fatty matter which might have been deposited on 
the metallic copper, and finally, after the spirit and ether had been poured off, 
washing well with distilled water, the copper was found to have acquired the 
diaracteristic steel-grey appearance produced by the presence of arsenic under such 

The copper turnings were then carefully dried, and. afterwards heated strongly in 
a glass tube dosed at one end, when a very perceptible white sublimate was pro- 
duced, which, on being dissolved in hot distilled water, and this solution added to a 
Marsh's apparatus in operation (the hydrogen flame, which before the addition of 
the solution did not give the slightest indication of a metallic stain on a cool piece of 
white porcelain being placed over it), produced immediately the characteristic stains 

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of metallic arsenic in a most striking manner, proving beyond all doabt that the 
matter deposited on the copper was metallic arsenic, and tlie sublimate arsenioua 
acid, formed during tlie heating of the metal. 

This experiment was repeated with the same results, using 2^ lbs. weight of turnip 
taken from another of the turnips, it being previously peeled. I may observe that 
in these, as well as in the foregoing experiments, I was most careful that no source 
of fallacy might arise from the arsenic being derived from the reagents employed, 
which were previously ascertained to be free from arsenic; and to avoid all possi- 
bility of error, comparative experiments with the reagents alone were made in almost 
every step of the different investigations. 

The turnips I experimented on were grown by Mr. John Rathbone, Dunsinea, Co. 
Dublin, and I was informed that six hundred-weight of superphosphate had been 
used to the Irish acre, the superphosphate being previously mixed with peat and 
day, in the proportion of one part of superphosphate to three parts of the mixture 
of peat and clay. 

These experiments appear to me to be perfectly conclusive as to tbe power 
possessed, by some plants at least, of taking up arsenic when it is introduced into 
the soil by artificial manures which contain it, even when they are employed in 
the usual way and proportions b}* agriculturists, and how objectionable it is to use 
any materials in the preparation of those manures which will introduce so destructive 
and dangerous a substance as arsenic into the soil. 

I thought it would be desirable to ascertain the proportion of arsenic present in 
tbe brown sulphuric acid used by one of our Dublin manufkcturers for t& purpose 
of making superphosphate and other manures. In 12 fluid ounces of the acid, by 
the usual methods of determining the quantity of arsenic in such cases, I obtained 
an amount of metallic arsenic equivalent to about 12 grains of arsenious acid, or 1 
grain to each fluid ounce; and the ounce of acid weighing about 800 grains, the 
arsenious acid would be -ri^th part of the weight of the acid, which would be equi- 
valent to about 2.8 lbs., or nearly 3 lbs. weight in the ton of sulphuric acid. But it 
is probable that the generality of brown sulphuric acid employed contains much 
more arsenic than this sample I examined, its specific gravity being only about 
1.780, whereas the usual strength of the acid is 1.845. Dr. Owen Bees found 13.5 
grains of arsenious acid in 12 fluid ounces of commercial sulphuric acid; and Mr. 
Watson, in the London Medieai Gazette, states that the smallest quantity of arsenious 
add which he detected in the same amount of commercial acid was 21.3 grains. 
There is therefore every reason to suppose that the acid usually employed for agri- 
cultural purposes contains a far greater quantity of arsenic than the sample I 
examined; and as the proportion of sulphuric add used in making these artificial 
manures is very large (thus, for example, in the manufacture of superphosphates, 
the most valuable manure of this cl«s, about one ton of acid is used for every two 
tons of bones employed), the quantity of arsenic present in such manures must be 

These facts appear to me to have some important bearings, for though the 
quantity of arsenic which occurs in such manures is not large when compared with 
their other constituents, and the proportion of that substance which is thus added 
to the soil must be small, still plants may during their growth, as in the case of the 
alkaline and earthy salts, tidce up a considerable quantity of this substance, though 
its proportion in the soil may be but very small. Further, as arsenic is well known 
to be an accumulative poison, by the continued use of vegetables containing even a 
mmute proportion of arsenic, that substance may collect in the system till its amount 
may exercise an injurious effect on the health of man and animals. 

As connected with this subject, I may observe that I was informed of a curious 
&ct — that sheep did not appear to like Mr. Kathbone's turnips which were grown 
with superphosphate, so well as those where the ordinary farm-yard manure had 
been employed, and that they could not be made to eat enough of the former turnips 
to fatten them properly. If this was really tlie case, it would appear to favour in 
some degree my views as to the probable unwholesomeness of vegetables grown with 
manures containing even in small quantities so deadly a poison as arsenic, which 
my experiments have shown that plants are capable of taking up from such manures, 
finally, these investigations appear to. have a medico-legal bearing; for in cases of 
suspected poisoning by arsenic, where the evidence may chiefly depend on tlie 
detection of a small quantity of that substance in the liver and other viscera, as is 

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Bometimei the case, my experiments would tend to throw much doubt and uneer- 
tainty on such cnses, because the presence of a minute quantity of arsenic in the 
viscera may not be owing to its direct administration, but to its baring found its 
way into the system through the regetable, and, indirectly, animal food taken by 
the indiTiduaL 

These and other important considerations connected with this subject can only be 
determined by a series of carefully conducted experiments, which I purpose com- 
mencing, and I hope at some future time to hare the pleasure of communicating 
their results to this Sodety. — L<mdon, Edinburgh^ amd DMm FhUotofMcol Magazine, 



Thx sttfeject of green paper-hangings is one of considerable importance, both in a 
sanitary and manufacturing point of view ; and although much has been said and 
written, clear and correct notions regarding it are by no means generally entertained. 
Some writers have treated of green papers as though the colonrlng matter employed 
always consisted of arsenite (rf* copper, whereas the fact is, as I have already pointed 
out to some extent in a former communication, that in a very large proportion of 
the green papers in use the colour consists of a mixture of chromate of lead and 
Prussian blue; this mixture is nearly always employed in tiie case of the dark green 
flock papers. Now, chromate of lead is as poisonous a substance as arsenite of 
copper; and if the papers prepared with the one pigment are rightly condemned, 
so ought those to be that are coloiued with the other. Further, these same pigments 
are almost universally employed in the dyeing of green carpets, curtains, table and 
chair covers, silks, muslins, and a variety of other articles of fomiture, dress, and 
ornament ; and if the papers coloured with them are to be condemned, so^ in 
general should the articles above enumerated, as well as many others ; for the olrjec- 
tlons urged against the green papers, apply for the most part equally to these. 

In the room in which I am now writing there is a green Turkey carpet, a green 
velvet sofa, several green morocco chairs, and three green table covers. Now, if 
the views of those who ha^e so strongly cautioned the public against the use of 
green papers be correct, and if they are really injurious, in the first place, I ought 
to be very ill, suffering from some of theefl^ts of either lead or arsenical poisoning; 
and secondly, I ought (which would be a serious sacrifice) to get rid forthwith of 
the greater part of the furniture contained in the room which I habitually occupy. 

Again, since neariy all yeHow worsted and cotton goods are dyed with chromate 
of 1^, these ought likewise to be discarded. * 

It thus becomes evident that the subject possesses extensive bearings, eanitaiy 
and commercial; and it is therefore of extreme importance that the public, on the 
one hand, should know whether these pigments are injurious, and, on the other, that 
the manufacturer should likewise be thoroughly well Informed on this point. 

I will now make a few remarks, which will serve to show whether, and under 
what circumstances, these green papers are injurious, and these remarks will apply 
equally to the papers coloured with either the arsenical or lead pigment. 

All green papers may be divided into the unsized, sized, and flock. In the first, 
the colouring matter is spread over the surface of the paper, and is not secured by 
a layer of varnish or size ; in the second, the attachment of the pigment is ensured 
by this coating; while the flock papers are thus made— the flock consists of a layer 
of dyed wool, the colouring matter being enclosed in the hairs of the wool forming 
the flock. 

Now, danger to health from the use of green papers can only arise in two ways, 
either by the volatilization of the poisonous pigments contained in them, or by thdr 
mechanical detachment and dispersion through the air of the room, when they fall 
on the eyes, or become inhaled. No apprehension need be entertained as to the 
first-named cause, for chromate of lead and arsenite of copper are not volatilized at 
ordinary temperatures. There remains, then, for consideration only the danger 
arising from the detachment of the poisons. It is obvious that this is greatest in the 
case of the unsized, and least in the flock papers— those, in fact, the use of which 
has of late been so strongly denounced— least in those, because the colouring matters 

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ai^ o a do a c d in the hairs of the wool, and for the further reason that theie hairs an 
so strong and elastic tha( they are not easily broken and detached. In fact, these 
flock iMtpers resemble precisely woollen and cotton goods dyed green or yellow; and 
if their nse is to be condemned, then, as I have before remarked, so ought that of 
most other green and yellow articles of wearing apfMirel and f amitnre--a somewhal 
serions oondusioii at which to arriye» 

These facts are sufficient to show that the danger arising from the use of green 
p^ier-hangings is not very great, and that it is almost confined to the unsiaed or 
nnglazed papers ; they at the same time prove how desirable it is that the use of 
arsenite of copper and chromate of lead as pigmentary substances should, as far as 
possible, be dispensed with, and this might be readily done in most cases by the 
anhstitution of other and unobjectionable colours. 

In my Beports on the Adulteration of Food, I showed that chromate of lead and 
arsenite of copper were frequently employed to colour sugar confectionary, as well 
as other articles. Such a practice is fraught with danger, and cannot be too strong 

I am indnoed to make these remarks, because I believe, first, that greater alam 
than is needful is entertained by the public as to the use of these green papers; and 
seeond, that the interests of manufacturers are greatly pr^udiced thereby. While 
it is the duty of the sanitarian to guard with jealous eye the public health, he 
should be most caieful that in doing so he does not unnecessarily interfere with trade 
and mannfiMTtures.— Xowcgt. 



Thx agent understood by the word <*ligbt,'* presents phenomena so varied in 
kind, and is excited to sensible action by such different causes, acting apparently by 
methods differing greatly in their physical nature, that it excites the hopes of the 
philosopher much in relation to the connexion which exists between all the physical 
forces, and the expectation that that connexion may be greatly developed by its 
means. This consideration, with the great advance in the experimental part of the 
subject which has recently been made by £. Becquerel, were the determining causes 
of the production of this subject before the members of the Boyal Institution on the 
present occasion. 

The weU known effect of light in radiating from a centre, and rendering bodies 
visible which are not so of themselves, as long as the emission of rays was continual 
— ^the general nature of the undulatory view, and the fact that the mathematical 
theonr of these assumed undulationa was the same with that of the undulation of 
sound, and of any undulations occurring in elastic bodies, were referred to as a 
starting position. Limited to this effect of light, it was observed that the illumi- 
nated body was luminous only whilst receiving the rays or undulations. 

But superadded occasionally to this effect is one known as photphortscenccy which 
is especially evident when the sun is employed as the source of hght. Thus, if a 
calcined oyster-shell, a piece of white paper, or even the hand, be exposed to the 
sun's rays and then instantly placed before the eyes in a perfectly dark room, they 
ore seen to be visible afier the light has ceased to faU on them. There is a further 
philosophical difference, which may be thus stated : if a piece of white oyster-shell 
be placed in the spectrum rays issuing from a prism, the parts will, as to illumina- 
tion, appear red, or green, or blue, as they come under the red, green, or blue rays; 
whereas if the phosphorescent effect be observed, t.«. that effect remaining after the 
illuminating rays are gone, the light will either be white, or of a tint not depending 
upon the colour of the ray producing it, but upon the nature of the substance itself 
and the same for all the rays. 

The ray which comes to the eye in an ordinary case of visibility, may be con- 
sidered as that which, emanating from the luminous body, has impinged upon the 
substance seen, and has been deflected into a new course, namely, towards the eye» 
It may be considered as the same ray, both before and after it has met with the 
visible body. But the light of phosphorescence cannot be so considered, inasmuch 
as time is introduced ; for the body is visible for a time sensibly after it has been 
illuminated, which time in some cases rises up to minutes, and perhaps hours. 

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This condition connects these phosphorescent bodies with those which phosphoresce 
by heat, as apatite and fluor-spar ; for when these are made to glow intenaelj hr a 
heat far below redness, it is evident that they have acquired a state which has 
enabled them for a time to become original sources of light, just as the other 
phosphorescent bodies have by exposure to light acquired a like state. And then 
again there is this further fact, that as the fluor-spar which has been heated, does 
not phosphoresce a second time when reheated, still it may be restored to its first 
state by passing the repeated discharge of the dectric spark over it, as Pearsall has 

Then follows on (in the addition of effect to eflfect) the phenomena of fluoreictneet 
and the fine contributions to our knowledge of this part of light by Stokes. If a 
fluorescent body, as uranium glass, or a solution of sulphate of quinine, or decoction 
of horse-chesnut bark are exposed to diflUse daylight, they are illuminated, not 
merely abundantly but peculiarly, for they appear to have a glow of their own ; and 
this glow does not extend to all parts of the bodies, but is limited to the parts where 
the rays flrst enter the substances. Some feeble flames, as that of hydrogen, can 
produce this glow to a considerable degree. If a deep blue glass be held between 
the body and the rays of the sun, or of the electric lamp, it seems eren to increase 
the effect ; not that it does so in reality, but that it stops rery many of the lumi- 
nous rays, yet lets the rays producing this effect pass through. By using the solar 
or electric spectrum, we learn that the most effectual rays are in Biost cases not the 
luminous ones, but are in the dark part of the spectrum ; and so the fluorescence 
appears to be a luminous condition of the substance, produced by dark rays whidi 
are stopped or consumed in the act of rendering the fluorescent body luminous : so 
they produce this effect only at the first or entry surface, the passing ray, though 
the light goes onward, being unable t^ produce the effect, again ; and this effect 
exists only whilst the competent ray is falling on to the body, for it disappears the 
instant the fluorescent substance is taken out of the light, or the light shut off 
from it. 

When £. Beoquerel attacked this subject, he enlarged it in every direction.* 
Eirst of all he prepared most powerful phosphori ; these being chiefly sulphurets of 
the alkaline earths, strontia, baryta, lime. By treatment and selection he obtained 
them so that they would emit a special colour: thus, seven different tubes might 
contain preparations which exposed to the sun, or diffused daylight, or the electric 
light, should yield the seven rays of the spectrum. The light emitted generally 
possessed a lower degree of refrangibility than the ray causing the phosphorescence; 
but in some instances he was able to raise the refrangible character of the ray emitted 
to that of the exciting ray. By taking a given preparation, and raising it to different 
temperatures, he caused it to give out different coloured rays by the single action of 
one common ray ; this variation in power returning to a common degree as the 
temperatures of the phosphori became the same in all. He showed that time was 
occupied in the elevation of the phosphorescent state by the ray; and also that time 
was concerned in various degrees during the emission of the phosphorescent ray: 
that this time, which in many cases was long, might be affected, being shortened by 
the action of heat, and then the brilliancy of the phosphorescence for the shortened 
time was increased. He showed the special relation of the different phosphori to the 
different rays of the spectrum, pointing out where the maximum effect occurred ; 
also that there were the equivalents of dark bands, m. bands in the spectrum, where 
little or no phosphorescence was produced. 

These phosphori were many of them highly fluorescent. Thus, if one of them was 
exposed to the strong voltaic light, and then placed in the dark, it was seen to be 
brilliantly luminous, gradually sinking in brightness, and ultimately fading away 
altogether : but if it were held in the rays beyond the violet end of the spectrum 
(the more luminous rays being shut off^, it was again seen to be beautifully luminous, 
but that state disappeared the mstant it was removed from the ray. Now this is 
fluorescence, and the same body seemed to be both phosphorescent and fluorescent. 
Considering this matter, and all the drcumstanoes regarding time, Becquerel was 
led to believe that these two luminous conditions differed essentially only in the time 
during which the state excited by the exposure to light continued ; that a body 
being really phosphorescent, but whose state fell instantly, was fluorescent, giving 

* Annales de CkioM et ds Physifus, 1859, tome Iv., p. 1. 

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oat ito light while the exciting ray oonlinaed to fUl on it, and durhig that time only; 
and that a phosphoresoent was only a more sluggish body, which continued to shine 
after the exciting ray was withdrawn. To inrestigate this point he uirented the 
phogphoroacope ; an appaiatos which may vary in its particular construction, but in 
which discs or other surfaces illuminated by the sun or an electric lamp, might, by 
reTolution, be rapidly placed before the eye in a dark chamber, and so be regarded 
in the shortest possible space of time after their illumination. By such an apparatus 
Beoqnerel showed that aU the fluorescent bodies were really phosphorescent ; but 
that the emission of light endured only for a very short time. 

An extensive series of experimental illustrations upon the foregoing points was 
made with fine specimens of phosphori, for which the speaker was indebted to M. 
Beoquerel himself. The phosphoroscope employed consisted of a cylinder of wood, 
one inch in diameter and seven inches long, placed in the angle of a black box with 
the electric lamp inside, so that three-fouiths of the cylinder were external, and in 
the dark chamber where the audience sat, and one-fourth was within the box, and 
in the full power of the voltaic light By proper mechanical arrangements this 
cylmder could be revolved, and the part which was at one Instant within, rapidly 
brought to the outside, and observed by the audience. As the cylinder could be 
made to revolve 300 times in a second, and as the twentieth part of a revolution was 
enough to bring a sufficient portion of the cylinder to the outside, it was evident 
that a phosplunescent effect which would last only the I -3000th or even the l-6000tb 
of a second might be made apparent. All escape of light between the moving cylinder 
and the box was prevented by the use of properly attached black velvet 

The cylinder was first supplied with a surface of Becquerel's phosphori. The 
effect here was, that when by rotation the part illuminated was brought outside the 
box it was found phosphorescent If the cylinder continued to rotate it appeared 
equally luminous ill over, and when the rotation ceased, or the lamp was extinguished, 
the light gradually sank as the phosphorescence fell. Then a cylinder having a 
•nrfaoe of quinine or sesculin was put into the apparatus. Whilst the cylinder was 
still it was dark outside ; but when revolving with moderate velocity it became 
luminoai outside, ceasing to be so the moment the revolution stopped. Here the 
floorescence was evidently shown to occupy time; indeed, the full time of a revolution; 
and taking advantage of that, the self shining of the body was separated from its 
iUumination within, and the fiuorescenoe made to assume the character of phos- 
phoresoenoe. Another cylinder was covered with crystals of nitrate of uranium, a 
hot saturated solution having been applied over it with a fine brush. The result 
was beautifuL A moderate degree of revolution brought no light out of the box ; 
but with increased motion it b^gan to appear at the edge. As the rapidity became 
greater, the light spread over the cylinder, but it could not be carried over the whole 
of its surface. It issued as a band of light where the moving cylinder left the edge 
of the box, diminishing in intensity as it went on, and looking like a bright flame, 
wrapping round half the cylinder. When the direction of revolution was reversed, 
this flame issued from the other side ; and when the motion of the cylinder was 
stopped, all the phenomena of fluorescence or phosphorescence disappeared at once. 
The wonderfully rapid manner in which the nitrate of uranium received the action 
of the light within the box, and threw off its phosphorescence outside, was beauti. 
fully shown. 

The electric light even when the discharge is in rarefled media, or as a feeble 
brush, emits a great abundance of those rays, which produce the phenomena of 
fluoresoenoe ; but then if these rays have to pass through common glass they are 
cut oflj being absorbed and destroyed even when they are not expended in producing 
fluorescence or phosphorescence. Arrangements can, however, be made, in which 
the advantageous circumstances can be turned to good account with such bodies as 
Becquerel's phosphori or uranium glass. If these be enclosed within glass tubes, 
having platinum wires at the extremities, and which are also exhausted of air and 
hermetically sealed, then the discharges of a Ruhmkorff coil can be continually sent 
over the phosphori, and the effects both fluorescent and phosphorescent be beauti- 
fully shown. The flrst or immediate light of the body is often of one colour, whilst 
on the cessation of the discharge, the second or deferred light is of another ; and 
many variations of the effects can be produced. 

In connexion with rarefied media, it may be remarked that some of the tubes by 
Geissler and others have been observed to have their rarefied atmospheres phos- 

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phiecescent, glowing with light for a moment or two after the discharge through 
them was saBpended. Since then Becquerel has obcerred that oxygen is rendered 
phoephorescent, ue. that it presents a persistent effect of light, wh«i electric 
dischaiges are passed through it. I have scTeral times had occasion to obserre that 
a flash of lightning, when seen as a linear discharge, left the luminous trace of its 
form on the doads, enduring for a sensible time after the lightning was gone. I 
strictly Terified this ftct in June, 1857, recording it in the PhUMophicai Magazme,* 
and referred it to the phosphorescence of the cloud. I haye no doubt that that is 
the true explanation. Other phenomena, having relation to fluorescence and phos- 
phorescence, as the diflteienoe in the light of oxygen and hydrogen exploded in glass 
globes, or in the air, were referred to, with the expression of strong hopes that 
Becquerers additions to that branch of science would greatly explain and extend 


When calomel aad lime-water are mixed together, and the Bubajode formed, 
separated by filtration, mercury may be detected in the filtrate^ as those who have 
tested the dear solution are aware. 

I have nowhere seen this reaction explained. In Dr. Pereira*s Mataria Medica 
we find it stated, that *' suboxide of mercury is precipitated and chloride of calcium 
remains in solution." Professor Graham, in his Elements qfChemiairyy mentions 
two double salts of mercury with Ume. These are obtained by dissolving chloride 
of mercury in chloride of calcium to saturation, when crystals will separate, found 
to contain Ca CI + 5 Hy Ci + 8 HO. The other forms on evaporating the *^ mother 
liquid,** when crystals are obtained, Ca CI + 9 Hy CI + 6 HO. 

It may be inferred then, that when calomel and lime-water are shaken together, a 
portion of mercury combines with the latter to form a double salt, which remains in 
solution. If the liquid, free from the suboxide, is evaporated, raercuzy may still be 
found in the concentrated solution— i«oving the great solubility of Uie compound* 
Whether the supernatant portion is serviceable as a lotion, would be worth knowing* 
but as an eminent surgeon lately directed the suboxide to be separated by filtration, 
and the clear solution to be used, I should imagine that it is efficacious. 

It may be remarked, although probably known, that subchloride of mercury, in 
the proportion of ten grains to a fluid ounce of lime-water, is not entirely decomposed, 
a oonsideraUe quantity of calomel remaining with the suboxide. In the proportion 
of five grains to the ounce the action is almost or quite complete, varying with the 
purity or impurity of the lime-water. W. A. Boobas. 

1, Piecadify, Menehe%ter^ AuguU, 1859. 


Mb. J. R. A. Douglas, formerly house surgeon, Middlesex Hospital, in a letter to 
the Lancet^ July 23, recommends the following substitute for lint, vrhich is in 
extensive use in the Parisian hospitals:— 

" I have Anglicized it by the name of 'pink,' as pinking is the process by which 
it is made. It is merely cheap cotton perforated by a common punch. The long- 
doth is folded some fourteen times, and holes are driven through it with a hammer 
and a sixpenny punch on a piece of lead. The holes are about one-eighth of an inch 
in diameter, and twice their breadth fh)m each other. My firm having been for 
many years surgeons to Messrs. Curtis and Harvey's powder-mills, I have had op- 
portunities of testing it in bums and other large suppurating surfaces. These being 
extremely sensitive, do not require the removal of the pink so frequently as lint or 
other applications, as the pus passing through the perforations is easily removed 
with a soft sponge, which cannot be done with other applications, nor will the high^ 
vascular granulations in bums bear the sponge when uncovered. I have found it 
very unefvl in gunshot wounds, and in compound fractures, where, as a perforated 

* PkUo$opkicttl Magaftttiey June, 1857, p. 506. 

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buidage, it grtes sapport without conflning the discharge, which never accomulatefl 
vnder it; and when rtmoTed, the sorfkee is covered with healtfaj lymph, withmrt 
pne. Mr. Aahbee, the intelligent nmiager of Meanrs. Gnrtit't powder niilla, haa 
promised to prepare some linen or cotton hy their elahorate machinery, if jHMsible; 
in the mean time, the hospital patient, nearly- comralesoent, would be grateftil for 
the occupation to relieve his monotony, and the cheapness of material and instm- 
ments makes it worthy of trial. Any ointment may be spread on it, and where 
laiige pieces are nsed, it can be rewashed. 


Mb. W. J. Faynb, the deputy coroner, held an inquest at St. Thomas's Hospital, 
on the bod^ of Bichard White, aged twenty -six, a. porter in the employ of Mr. 
Pellatt, a wine and beer merchant, London Bridge Stores, who died in that hospital 
daring the administration of chloroform, preparatory to undergoing an operation. 
From the evidence it appeared that he had received an injury of the fbot in stepping 
from one steam-boat to another. He was removed to St. Thomas's Hospital, when 
it was found that he had sustained a dislocation of the ankl& This was lednced fay 
medical treatment, but as matter formed it became necessary to remove a portion of 
the bone, which was done while he was under the influence of chlorofwro. Snbae- 
quently it was fotmd to be still farther necessary to amputate the limb, and on 
Wednesday, August 10th, chloroform was again admiaiatered to him by Mr. Gervia, 
the boose surgeon, who was holding the puke, in the presenoe of Dr. Bristow, Mr* 
Solly, and others of the medical profession. Suddenly Uie pulse stopped, the chloro- 
form was withdrawn, and every known means for the purpose of restoring animation 
were resorted to, but without effect, as death had taken place. A poit-morkm 
examination clearly showed that the cause of death was from the effects of dbloro- 
form. It was the deceased's own wish to have the chloroform adminiatered to him. 
Verdict— ** Died from the effects of chloroform." 


Mb. Habbbv, a gentleman resident in King Street, Bloomsbury, last week com- 
mitted suicide by swallowing nicotine. He fell dead, with the phial still in his hand. 
This is the second case of suicide in London by taking nicotine. The first was that 
of Mr. Witt, connected with the Museum of Geology, which occurred about eighteen 
months since^— -lonce/, Aug. 28th. 


Mb. JiMES Francis, of Lusted Farm, Cudham, Kent, had been in the habit for 
several years of using a wash to his sheep, containing mercury and soft soap, as a 
preventive against flies; and had generally applied it by dipping them, but this year 
Ldd them on their side and poured the wash (one pint to a sheep) over them. The 
flock (about 128) having been thus dressed, were turned into a dry barren part of 
the field to drip. About an hour afterwards the shepherd noticed some oi them 
looking badly; in a short space of time they began to die, and by the mornmg only 
nxteen remained alive out of the large number. It is supposed they had sucked the 
moisture from each other's wool, there being no M-ater in the field, and the great 
heat causing thirst. 


Tbb daughter of a gentleraan at Birkenhead, fourteen years of age, lately went 
into the garden which a^oins the house they were staying at, and ate a quantity of 
potato bells (fruits). Next day she was taken very ill, and vomited a great deal. 
A surgeon was called in, but she continued very ill until the ensuing day, when she 
dicdw^lAitfe^ Aug. 28th. 

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1h answer to an inquiry on this lubject, a correflpondent of The Builder states : 
<<I planted vegetables in a place where daylight oonld not penetrate, over which I 
suspended a paraffin oil lamp, with a reflector to throw the light upon the plants. 
Hbey have grown up a beautiful dark green. I have also lighted a greenhouse with 
lamps ereiy night, and find it not only increases yegetation, but gives a beautiful 
deep tinge to the plants." 


This trial* was resumed on Monday, Aug. 15th, at the Central Criminal Court, 
before the Lord Chief Baron. 

Mr. Seijeant Ballantine, Mr. Bodkin, Mr. Clerk, and Mr. Merewether were 
counsel for the Crown, and Mr. Seijeant Parry and Mr. Gifiard appeared for the 

The evidence adduced on this day was a repetition of that already given in this 
Journal. On Tuesday the examination of witnesses was resumed. Dr. Julius 
repeated his former evidence, and in cross-examination stated that the medicines he 
administered to the deceased were chalk mixture and catechu, compound tincture 
of camphor, grey powder, and compound ipecacuanha powder. He also administered 
quinine, diluted sulphuric acid, diluted prussic acid, ether, and gentian. The 
prussic acid was administered under the prisoner's prescription. He nerer pre- 
scribed bismuth, nitrate of silyer, or acetate of lead. He did not mention that the 
lady was in a state of pregnancy before the last trial: untU the pott-mortem exami- 
nation he had no means of ascertaining the fact, and it would not hare made any 
difference in the treatment if he had b^n aware of it. 

Dn Bird stated that Dr. Julius did not tell him before he yisited the deceased 
that he entertained any suspicions as to the illness, but after he had been in 
attendance for three days, he formed an opinion that something was being adminis- 
tered which had the effect of counteracting the medicine he was giving. The 
deceased, more than once, in the presence of the prisoner, expressed a wish for 
further medical assistance, and it was after this that Dr. Todd was requested to 
attend. The prisoner subsequently told him that the pills prescribed by Dr. Todd 
produced violent palpitation of the heart. Witness had never before heard of 
sulphate of copper and opium producing such an effect. On the 30th April two 
evacuations were procured, and were numbered 1 and 2, and forwarded to Mr. 
Buzzard. Witness stated that he had never been present at a potl-mortem examina- 
tion where the death arose ftom the administration of arsenic in small doses. He 
certainly had formed the opinion that the deceased was the subject of slow arsenical 
poisoning, but Dr. Julius had suggested the probability of this being the case. 
Corrosive sublimate would have produced the same results and symptoms, and 
would not necessarily have been attended with salivation. Witness then detailed 
the particulars of the medicines he prescribed for the deceased, and the quantities 
of the several ingredients of which they were composed. 

Mr. Caudie, assistant to Drs. Julius and Bird, deposed to having made up the 
whole of the medicines prescribed for deceased, and stated positively there was no 
arsenic nor antimony in any of the medicines prepared by him. One of the pre- 
scriptions given by the prisoner contained Scheele's prussic acid, the quantity of 
which he considered very large, and feeling nervous, witness reduced the strength 
by using the acid of the Pharmacopoeia. There were antimony and some prepara- 
tions of arsenic in the surgery, but they were kept locked up in a cupboard by 
themselves. After the death of deceased, witness gave samples of all the ingredi- 
ents he had used in preparing the medicines, in order that they might be analyzed 
by Dr. Taylor. 

Mr. Bumardy M.ltC.S., deposed that he had received the two sesled bottles, 
marked 1 and 3, which he had handed over to Dr. Taylor. 

Mr. Richard BarweH M.R.G.8., deposed to having made the post-mortem examina- 
tion in the presence of Drs. Julius and Bird. The brain, the heart, the lungs, and 
the liver were healthy. The deceased appeared to be between five and seven weeks 
advanced in pregnancy. On examining the stomach he found at one end a large 
black patchy but there were no ulcers nor any appearance of acute inflammation. 

' See vol. xyiil, page 630, and page 1.51 of our last number. 

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He had heard the eyidence as to the symptoms exhibited by the deceased, and could 
not reconcile them as the result of any disease with which he was acquainted, but 
they were quite reconcilable with the fact of some irritant having been frequently 
administered. Witness placed a portion of the contents of the stomach and the 
intestines in a jar, which he sealed and delivered to Mr. ^i'Xntyre, to be conveyed to 
Dr. Taylor for examination. 

Dr. Wilkes, Demonstrator of Anatomy at Guy's Hospital, stated that he was 
present when Dr. Taylor made an examination of the intestines of the deceased, and 
be agreed with the last witness as to the appearances they presented. He also was 
of opinion that the death of the deceased was most probably to be accounted for by 
tome irritant poison. 

Dr. Todd stated that Dr. Julius told him the nature of the case before he saw the 
deceased, but did not tell him of his suspicion that some irritants were being 
administered. When he saw deceased, he observed a peculiar expression of coun- 
tenance — an expression of terror, as though she was under the influence of some one, 
and not in accordance with the appearance of a patient suffering from an ordinary 
disease. He at once had the impression that she was sufTering from the effects of 
some irritant poison, and he directed Dr. Julius to make up the sulphate of copper 
and opium pills, with a view of allaying the irritation. In his belief the death was 
occasioned by the administration of some irritant, such as arsenic, antimony, or 
corrosive sublimate. The only disease that could in any way account for the 
gymptoms, would be what is called acute dysentery. 

Evidence was then given that during the month of April the prisoner had about 
XI 50 to his credit at £e London and Westminster Bank, and on the 16th of April 
a sum of £71 5s., the amount of dividend of the deceased, was paid to his credit. 

Mr, Buzzard was recalled, and stated that he was present when Dr. Taylor began 
to analyze the contents of the bottle. He did so by what is called Reinsch's test, 
and showed witness some crystals of arsenious acid, and the copper that was used 
was coated with a dark grey substance. The only test used by Dr. Taylor was 
what is known as Reinsch's. 

Dr. C ilf. Babmgtcn deposed that during his practice he had seen many cases of 
acute dysentery, and in his opinion none of the symptoms exhibited by deceased 
were a proof that she died from that disease. 

Dr. Lewis Bawerbank stated that he had practised in Jamaica more than twenty 
years, where acute dysentery was prevalent. The symptoms of the deceased were 
not reconcilable in any way with that form of disease, but in his opinion were the 
effects of some irritant poison. 

Dr, Copland gave similar evidence. 

On the third day Dr, Alfred Swaine Tayhr was examined, whose evidence, as 
given before the magistrates, was corrected in one important particular. Dr. Taylor 
observed: ^*In one of the bottles, that was numbered 5, 1 found 855 grains of 
chlorate of potash, a matter which is used in making percussion-caps or any ex- 
pLoaive mixture. I examined another bottle, Ko. 21, which appeared to contain a 
dMr watery liquid of a saline taste, and I tested a portion of the contents by 
Reinsch's test, and upon first trying the copper it was entirely consumed. I made 
a further test, which led me to suppose that there was arsenio present in the 
solution, but it turned out that I was mistidcen, and that it did not contain either 
arsenic or antimony, and that the arsenical appearances originally produced came 
from tiie copper gauze. Chlorate of potash is a cooling medicine. 

Bv the Gburt — ^By the destruction of the copper the arsenic contained in it was 
set free, and tins destroyed the effect of the experiment. 

Examination continned.^Chlorate of potash would act upon the kidneys and carry 
off any mattm contained in them. (Dr. Taylor concluded by stating, that from the 
symptoms exhibited by the deceased, and the manner she was treated, he could 
ascribe the death to no other cause than the administration of some irritant poison.) 

Cross-examined by Serjeant BaUantine.'-l was examined several times upon this 
inquiry. The qnanuty of arsenic that I discovered I should say was less than half 
a grain. I discovered the presence of arsenic by using copper gauze of the same 
description that I used afterwards to the contents of the bottle No. 21. In the ex- 
periment I made with this bottle the arsenic was deposited by myself. The reason 
of the failure of the experiment was that this bottle was the only one that contained 
chlorate of potash, and this destroyed the copper. Dr. Odling also came to the con- 
clusion that the bottle contained arsenic, and we both stated that fact in our exami. 

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198 TBIAIi <Ur J>B. 8MXTHUB8T* 

nation before the magiftntes and the ooroDer, and we were of oonne botii mtsiaken. 
We belieTed, no doubt, at Uie time that the arsenic we found waa contained in the 
liqiud. I alio told the magiatfatee that I liad tetted all the materiala I oaed in my 
testt, bef<»e I commenced making the analyua, to see if they were pure. I have 
used the same description of copper gauae for a great many years, and ne^er before 
discoyered the presence of arsenic in it I shall certainly continue to use it» but I 
shall take care not to do 'SO with chlorate of potash. 

Serjeant Parry here asked for the depositions of Dr. Taylor taken before the 
magistrates, and a portion of it was read. It was to the effect that he had discovered 
the presence of arsenic in the botUe No. 21, in which there was chlorate of potash, 
and tiiat the latter was a harmless saline mixture, acting upon the kidneys, and that 
if poison had been administered in it, its effect would probably be to cany off the 
noxious ingredient from the body yery quickly, but that by the repetition ooostaotiT 
of such a proceeding chronic inflammation of the intestines would be created, which 
would yield to no treatment, and would end in the deathpf the patient from exhausti<m. 

The deposition made by I>r. Taylor before tiie coroner was also put in. It was to 
the same e£^t as that made by him before the magistrates. In the course of it Dr. 
Taylor stated that he had tested a box of homoaopathic pills that were found in the 
prisoner's lodging, and found th^ were composed of starch, gum, and sugar, which 
were the usual ingredients of which he discovered those pills to be composed. 

Cross-examination continued. — ^At the time I gave this evidenoe I firmly belieyed 
that arsenic was contained in the mixture, and that it had not come there f^m my 
test, but had been placed there by some one. When I was examined before the 
coroner, I expressed my opinion to be that the death was more referable to antimony 
than to arsenia The finding of the arsenic in the bottle did not have any effect upon 
the opinion I subsequently formed in reference to the case. The moment I disco* 
yered the mistake that had been made, I gave the information to Seijeant Ballantineu 
Xhr. Odling made an independent examination of a portion of the ccmtents of the 
bottle in question, and Dr. Brand also analyzed some part of it, and we all came to 
the conclusion that there had been a mistake in the first instance. My tests have 
been disputed and contested before this occasion, but no instance ever occurred where 
I was proved to be wrong. Supposing no chlorate of potash or other ingredient had 
been made use of to carry off the arsenic in a case d arsenical poisoning, I should 
expect, as a general rule, to find arsenic in the tissues of the body. No arsenicwaa 
found in the body of the deceased. I did not form my theory, to account for the 
absence of arsemc from the tissues of the body, in consequence of finding, as I sup- 
posed, the arsenic in the chlorate of potash. I was examined as a witness in the case 
of Mr. Wooler, who was charged with the murder of his wife by slow poisoning. In 
that case there was no doubt that death was the result of arsenic, and the only 
question was by whom that poison was administered. I found a grain of arsenic in 
tiie liver of Mrs. Wooler. I did not examine the stomach of that lady. In 
a case of slow arseidcal poisoning the vessels of the stomach might be found 
gorged with blood. That was so in the present case. There were a variety of symp- 
toms attending slow poisoning by arsenic. Sometimes the poison caused eruptions 
on the arms and hands, excoriation of the nostrils, and a hacking cough. A 
clammy sweating would be one of the consequences of antimonial poisoning, unlesa 
there was diarrhooa and vomiting. The action of small doses of antimony upon 
the liver would be to enlarge the liver, and cause a deposit of fot on that organ. 
I do not think that antimony would have the effect of softening the liver. 

Be-examined.— After Dr. Odling and myself had given our evidence relative to 
finding the arsenic in the bottle, we thought it was possible there might be some 
mistake, and we made other experiments to satisfy onrselvea. We made seventy- 
seven experiments with the same copper gauze, and in seventy-six of them no 
arsenic was discovered, and the only instance in which it was found was in the 
evacuation. I have been engaged in making these experiments for twenty-nine 
years, and such an occurrence as the one referred to never took place before. In 
cases of slow arsenical poisoning some of the symptoms I have mentioned would be 
found in each particuUur case. 

By Serjeant BoiKsnliiie.— Arsenic is sometimes found in bismuth. 

Mr, BarwtU was recalled, and in answer to questions put by Seijeant Parry, he said 
he found the liver of the deceased enlarged, hardened, and in an incipient state of 
flatty degeneration. The liyer was very much hardened in the left lobe, and thia 
might have been the result of continuous bilious irritation. 

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Dr, OdUng, the Profesfor of PMctical GbaniMtiy at Gay'a Hospital^ ptoi^ ttat 
be Mdsted in aaalyzing a portion of the intestineB of the deoeafed, and he amed 
in the itatement made by Dr. Tajlor as to their condition, and laid he wu laaifled 
that there was antimony in the body. He then gave the sane aooovnt of what took 
place with reference to the examination of the botUe containing the ohlofate of potesh. 

By the ./mIS^s— Unless the copper is dissolyed, Reinst^'s test is infiOUUe in the 
dieooTery of anenic 

By Sajeant BaOantm^—l agree with the other witness that the death of the de- 
ceased arose irom the administration of some irritant poison, and I do not know of 
any disease that would aocoont for the sjrmptoms that have been spoken to. 

I>r. Brand deposed that he examined the contents of the bottle Now SI, and found 
that it did not contain arsenic He also stated that the reason of the failure of the 
experiment made by J)r. Taylor was, the copper being dissolyed by the chlorate of 

By the Cburi— The condition of the copper was not supposed, until this occurrence 
took place, to have any effect upon the tesd, and if he had made the experiment at 
the time Dr. Taylor did, he should have also been of opinion that there was arsenlo 
in the substance. 

Mr, SerjeoMt Parry then addressed the jury for the prisoner in an eloquent speech, 
which occupied more than three hours in deliyerr. 

The foUowing eyidence was then adduced for the prisoner : — 

Mr. J. E, B(^$y late Lecturer on Chemistry at the GrosTenor School of Medicine^ 
deposed that he was acquainted, by reading, with the symptoms of slow poisoning by 
arsenic. He knew the nature of chlorate of potash, which was a perfectly hamStesa 
salt ; in his opinion, it would haye no eiflfect in eliminating poison from the system. 
He had giren chlorate of potash, as an experiment, with arsenic and antimony, and 
it had no effect whatever. Supposing arsenic and antimony to have been admlnia. 
tered for five or six weeks, he shoiUd expect to find it in the tissues of the body ; 
and not finding it, he should form the opinion that no poison had been administered. 
He could state positiyely, from his own experience, that nearly all the bismuth that 
was sold contained arsenic, to the extent of half a grain to the ounce. He did not 
consider Marsh's test for the discovery of arsenic in bismuth, a correct one. Grey 
powders frequently contained antimony, and he should say a greater proportion than 
bismuth would contain arsenic. Witness stated, in cross-examination, that he was 
examined on behalf of Palmer, to prove that as no strychnine was found in the body. 
Cook could not have died fh>m strychnine, and that he still entertained that opinion. 

Mr, John Lemk Thudwombe deposed, that he was a doctor of medicine, and lecturer 
on practical and experimental chemistry. He was connected with the Grosvenor 
School of Medicine; he had heard the evidence of the symptoms exhibited by the 
deceased, and the appearances presented upon the poti-mortm examination, which 
in his opinion were aU consistent with the deceased having died a natural death, 
fh>m the disease known as diphtheritic dysentery. Witness made an analysis of 
grey powder, and found it to contain arsenic and antimony. He had also analysed 
bismuth, and found that it contained both arsenic and antimony; he could not say 
the quantity; he found more than a trace. In one instance, in 120 grains of bismuth 
he found about half a grain of arsenic. He would not state exactly what quantity 
of grey powder he analyzed; he could have stated it, but had not had time to ascer- 
tain the exact quantity. The grey powder he analyzed was the description given to 
children. It was not given several grains at a time; one-twelfth of a grain was 
snfllcient, but he was sorry to say that it was frequently given to children in doses 
of half a grain to three or four grains. He thought the quantity of arsenic and 
antimony contained in the bismuth and grey powder would aooonnt for a small 
portion of arsenic being found in an evacuation. 

Dr, F. WMf also conneeted with the Grosvenor School of Medicine, gave similar 
evidence to that of the last witness as to the cause of deatii, and was of opinion that 
the deceased died of dysentery. 

Dr, G, F, Girdwood deposed, that he had very great experience in midwifery, and 
had seen many cases in which pregnancy was attended with dysentery, to which he 
attributed the death of the deceased. He considered it highly improper to administer 
mineral medicines in such a case. 

Dr. W, TyUr Smith stated he had devoted great attention to cases of midwifery, 
and that excessive vomiting was often a symptom in early stages of pregnancy, and 
he had known instances in whioh it had been fatal. 

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Mr, Serjeant BaUantine then replied upon the whole case. 

After which the Lord Chief Baron commenced summing up, vhich was not con- 
eluded till the following day (Friday), having occupied eight hours and three- 
quarters. The jury retired at ten minutes to four to deliberate ou their rerdict, and 
returned into court at half-past four with a verdict of Ouiity. 

The Lord Chief Baron was about to pass sentence, when the prisoner pulled a 
paper from his pocket, and addressed the court for about twent}--five minutes, pro- 
testing tiiat he was innocent of the charge. 

The Lord Chief Baron having referred to this statement, which he observed was 
contradicted by the sworn testimony of witnesses, as well as by the evidence under 
the prisoner's own hand, proceeded to pass sentence in the usual manner. . The 
prisoner was then removed from the dock. 


KoTicE.— TT. Richards (Falmouth^ will feel greatly obliged to any reader of 
this Journal who will favour him with the address (by letter) of Mr. or Mrs. Nelson, 

Sale of Poisoirs. — Mr, G. BvrreU (Montrose) has sent us the particulars of a 
case of intended suicide which was prevented in the following manner: — A man 
having applied for some prussic acid for the purpose, as he alleged, of killing rats, 
Mr. Burrell's assistant retired for a minute, and returned with the bottle duly fabeUed 
with the article required, but which he in the meantime had filled with water and a few 
grains of Rochelle salt, to give it a flavour. The man was subsequently apprehended on 
a charge of robbery, but just before the officers seized him he drew forth the bottle 
and swallowed its contents, placidly informing the officers that he had taken poison, 
and would in a few minutes be beyond the reach of human law. He has subsequently 
been committed to prison, and is none the worse for the dose. 

A, H. suggests that Patent Medicine Stamps should be pierced and gummed, the 
same as postage stamps, to facilitate their use. 

AnH' Quackery sends an advertisement by a Member of Council which he thinks 
is not consistent with the position occupied by the advertiser. 

A. J. (Liverpool).— We have no knowledge of the action of iodide of potassium 
on dogs. The question is not suited to this Journal. 

A Registered Apjtrentice (Southampton). — On adding lime-water to chloride of 
zinc, oxide of zinc is precipitated and chloride of calcium left in solution, and these 
do not react upon calomel. If the lime-water be added to calomel, black oxide of 
mercury is precipitated, with chloride of calcium in solution, to which chloride of 
zinc may be added without altering the appearance of the mixture. 

A Member (Bristol) will see that his suggestion is carried out in the present number. 

C, H, (Manchester).— ^cttftaii Nitro-muriaticum dilvtum. Equal parts of the diluted 
nitric and muriatic acids. 

R, V, (Liverpool).— See vol. xvii., page 440. 

Phncrhis Corneus, — ^We have received a communication under this signature, 
which we should be glad to puUish if the author will forward his name. 

Calcium (London). — ^The lime used in London 'is prepared principally fh>m the 
chalk formation, and not fh>m the lime stone used in many parts of the country, 
which accounts for the difference in colour alluded to. 

A, P. S, (London).— iforAwo InJi Vol vu., p. 183. 

R. H. W.—Pharmaceutkal Latin Gromwiflr, Ainsworth's Zo/in i>«?<i<wifliy, Balfour's 
Manual of Botany, 

J, W. R, (Calcutta).— Cbrf Liver Oil and Quinine. See vol. xiv., p. 427, and vol. 
XV., p. 239. Cod Liver Oil and Iodide of Iron, Vol. xvii., p. 86. 

Z. (Westminster).— (1.) Water. (2.) The dose of lupuline is from 6 to 12 grains. 
The other questions we are unable to answer. 

Instructions from Members and Associates, respecting the transmission 
of the Joumalt before the 25th of the month, to the Secretary, Elias 
Brembidoe, 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Advertisements (not later than the 2drd) to Mr. Crurchill, New 
Burlington St. Other communications to the Editors, 17, Bloomsburj Sq. 

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VOL. L— No. IV.— OCTOBER 1st, 1859. 


Thb trial of Dr. Smetburst on the charge of having poisoned Isabella Bankes, 
has excited such general and intense interest among all classes of the public, 
and so many questions have arisen out of it, relating to the mode of conducting 
criminal prosecutions, and the value of medical and chemical evidence in such 
cases, that it seems necessary to record in this Journal more completely than 
has yet been done, the facts and opinions that have been adduced, especially in 
reference to the controverted points. In doing this we shall have occasion to 
repeat some ports of the evidence we have dready published, but such parts 
only will be given as are deemed important, or seem likely to be referred to 

The deceased lady, Isabella Bankes, appears to have been forty-two years of 
age, and unmarried, when, an attachment having sprung up between Dr. 
Smetburst and her, a marriage was effected between them, although he still had 
a wife living. Dr. Smetburst and the deceased now lived together as man and 
wife. She became pregnant, and at about the same time was taken ill, being affected 
with vomiting and diarrhoea. Medical assistance was called in, but the com- 
plaint, which was considered to be bilious diarrhoea, did not yield to the treat, 
ment adopted. Further advice was obtained, but the vomiting and pur^ng 
continued in spite of all the means resorted to for their suppression, and the 
medical men, wno were not aware of the existence of pregnancy, suspected that 
ihe patient was suffering from some irritant poison contmuously administered. 
This suspicion became so strong, that Dr. Smetburst, the reputed husband of 
the patient, was charged before a magistrate with attempting to poison his wife. 
When this chaT|ge was first made against Dr. Smethurist he was admitted to 
bail, but the patient having died the following morning, Smetburst was again 
apprehended on a charge of wilful murder. Previous to this apprehension, 
some of the evacuations of the patient had been obtained by the medical atten- 
dants, and sent for analysis. At the time of the decease, and for two days pre- 
viously, the sister of the deceased was with her; with this exception, T>r. 
Smetburst had the enture charge of the patient, and by him all food and medi- 
dnes were administered. When the prisoner was apprehended on the charge of 
murder, a large number of substances contained in bottles found in the 
possession of the prisoner were seized, and sent, together with parts of the body, 
to be analyzed. These were all submitted to Dr. Taylor, who was assisted m 
the examination of them by Dr. Odling. At the examination before the ma^ps- 
trates, the disreputable nature of the connexion between Dr. Smetburst and 
the deceased having been shown, as well as the motive supposed to have 
actuated the former m seeking the life of the unfortunate lady, whom he induced 
to bequeath to him all the property, about £1800, over which she had control, 
medical evidence was given to show that the symptoms and death of the deceased 
could not be referred to any known natural dbease, but were consistent with 
the effects of some irritant poison administered in small repeated doses ; and 
thb was followed hj chemical evidence to the effect that arsenic mixed with 
chlorate of potash m solution was contained in one of the bottles, numbered 21, 
found in the prisoner's possession, and a small quantity of arsenic in an evacua- 
tion which had been sent for examination previously to the death of the deceased. 
Chlorate of potash was idso found in a bottle, No. 5, but nothing calculated to exdte 
suspicion was found in any of the other bottles and packets of medicines, thirty-seven 
in number, which had been taken for analysis ; nor was arsenic found in any part 
of the body of the deceased. Dr. Taylor stated on this occasion that the bottle 

▼OL. I. p 

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No. 21 containedasolution,in each fluid onaoe of which there were seven grains of 
chlorate of potash and one grain of arsenious acid. He represented the chlorate 
of potash as an innocent sort of medicine, occasionally used in dysentery, diar- 
rhoea, cholera, scarlet fever, and other biliary complaints ; that its properties 
were diuretic ; and that it would therefore tend to purify the system from all 
noxious matter. He thought that if mineral poison were administered with 
chlorate of potash, the surplus would be carried off rapidly. The mixture con- 
tained in bottle No. 21 had a cooling saline taste, which was not disagreeable, tpd 
it might be mixed with any kind offood and swallowed without the person being 
ftware of it. He believed that the effect of giving small doses of this mixture 
from time to time would be to produce nausea, vomiting, pain in the bowels with 
purging, and, if the doses were continued, it would poduce chronic inflammation 
and ulceration of the bowels and stomach, the ultimate effect being to slowly 
lead to death by exhaustion. 

Upon this evidence the prisoner was committed for trial on the charge of 
wilful murder. A report of the case, as heard before the magistrates, is contained 
in the number of this Journal for June, 1859. Some interest was excited in 
reference to the chemical evidence, from the fact that difficulty was experienced 
in detecting the anenic in the solution with chlorate of potash. It appeared 
that the only test used by the C3iemists was that known as Reinsch's test, which 
consists in acidulating the liquid with hydrochloric acid, and then heatiujg it in 
contact with a piece of bright metallic copper, when arsenic, if present, is depo- 
sited on the copper. Operating in this way the copper was ra^icQy dissolveo, a 
result which was found to be due to the action of the chloric acid of the chlorate 
of potash, which was decomposed in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The 
manner in which this result was described in the ptibHshed reports of the evidence, 
and the explanation given by the principal chemical witness in the attempt to 
show that death might be caused by repeated small doses of arsenic without any 
trace of the poison being left in the body after death, were the points in the 
examination before the magistrates and the coroner which attracted most 
attention among scientific men. The pregnancy was discovered at the imt- 
mortetn examination of the body, but no stress was laid on the fact, nor did it 
appear in any degree to alter the previouslyr formed opinion of the mescal 
witnesses, who were men of reputation and high standing. The conduct of the 
prisoner in leaving his lawful wife and going through the ceremony of marriage 
with a lady, who, having lived in the same house with his wife and him, must 
have known that he was already married, although in some degree unac- 
countable, could not fail to excite a strong prejudice against him in the 
public mind, and this was strengthened by the further fact that, while his 
unhappy victim was at the point of death, he induced her to make a will in 
his favour. The suspicions of the three medical men who attended the 
patient having ripened mto a settled conviction, founded upon the symptoms 
thQT observed, that the case was one of slow poisoning by some irritant poison, 
and this being strengthened by the discovery of arsenic in an evacuation, and as 
supposed, of the same poison, associated with chlorate of potash, in a botUe 
found in the possession of the prisoner, it only remained to account for the non- 
discovery of the poison in the tissues of the body to render the case one of more 
than suerpidon against the prisoner. The required explanation was furnished by 
Dr. Taylor, whose theory of the action of chlorate of potash seemed to supply the 
required link in the cham of evidence, and to leave small doubt, not merely of 
the guilt, but of the skilful design of the accused. For what purpose, other 
than that sn^ested, could a mixture of chlorate of potash and arsenious acid . 
have been made ? How could arsenic be found in the evacuations without a 
trace of it being capable of detection in the tissues of the body, unless it had 
been given in connexion with some substance by which *'the surplus would be 
carried off rapidly P" Who could have administered the poison but he who was 
the sole attendant upon the patient, and by whom all her food and medicines 
were given to her? 

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Such was ihe case^ as far as known to the public, when the trial of Dr. 
Smethurst, of which a brief report is given in our last number, occurred. The 
medical evidence for the prosecution was similar on thb occasion to that which 
had been £^ven before the magbtrates, but an important alteration was made in 
the chemi^ evidence. The Chemists had discovered that they were mistaken in 
oondndin^ that solution No. 21 contained arsenic as well as chlorate of potash. 
Tb% aisemc, ibej now said^ came from the copper used in the experiment. Thi» 

rof the case, therefore, was given up, and the beaotifhl Ateoryy to account 
ihe continued administration of arsenic without its beinj^ absorbed or 
retained bjr any of the ti^ues, lost in oonsequence much of its effect. The 
chemical witnesses, it is true, still adhered to their statement that arsenic wa» 
found in an evacuation which was sent them for analvsis before the death of the 
patient^ but having admitted a mbtake in one analysis, what confidence could 
be placed in the other, which was made with the same impure copper f 
The explanation offered that the arsenic found in solution No. 21 was set free 
from the copper gauze by the action of the chloric acid, cannot be received as 
8i^sfiu!tory, for the quantity of ooppter capable of being dissolved by the 
products of decomposition of seven grains ot chlorate of potash, could not, in 
(he opinion of praotical men, yield one jgrain of arsenic from any sample of fine 
copper ffauze. The whole of the chemical evidence on this point requires to be 
thoroui^y sifted before its value can be determined. It does not indeed 
mpear to have been much relied upon in the course of the trial, or in the 
meussion which has subsequently taken place. There was obviously no 'suf- 
ficient evidence that the deceased died firom the effects of arsenic. Hie medical 
witnesses for the prosecution ventured only to assign the death to some irritant 
poison. It might be arsenic, or antimony, or corrosive sublimate. The evidence 
mr arsenic was next to nothing. Antimony, however, was found in some of the 
viscera, although not in the evacuations. Mercury was not found at all. While 
the Chemists for the prosecution were compelled to admit that the arsenic they 
found in one of their most important results, was derived firom impurity in the 
test employed, the Chemists for the defence, whose opinions were altogether at 
variance with those ^en on tiie other side, endeavoured to show that the 
arsenic in the evacuation and the antimony in the viscera may have been derived 
from impurities in the medicines which were administered, and thus grey powder 
has been brought into temporary disrepute by the allegation made at the trial 
that it jp^nerauy contains both arsenic and antimony. This wiU also require a 
iortiier mvestigation before its value can be determined. 

The medicaTevidence, like the chemical, was conflicting, one set of witnesses 
asserting that the svmptoms were not those of any natural dis^e, and could 
only be referred to the action of some irritant poison, while the witnesses on the 
iKttor side as eonfidenily asserted the oontraiT^. Here, however the witnesses 
for the prosecution had a manifest advantage over those for the defence, as the 
fofmer alone had beoi at the bedside of the patient. The chemical evidence 
having to some extent failed, tiie presence of poison in the body having been but 
doubtfully proved, and no poisonous agent having been traced to the prisoner, 
the case rested principally upon the medical evidence, but the question arose, 
and stOl remains undecided, as to whether, in the existing state of medical 
knowledge, it is possible to indicate with certainty that symptoms such as those 
referred to in this case were caused by the action of certam mineral poisons? 
In the verdict of the jury the utmost importance was given to the opinions of 
the mescal witnesses on the side of the prosecution. They beheved and 
IMserted that th^ patient sufiered and died firom the effects produced by some 
mineral poison given in small but repeated doses, and if this were so, no one but 
theprisoner could have administerea the insidious but deadly agent. 

The following communications, which have been published since the trial, give 
in a concise form the opinions of the two principal medical witnesses, one for 
the prosecution, and the other for the defence. 


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Dr. R. B. Todd, one of the physidaiis to King's College Hospital, sa^'S :-— 

In my evidence on the trial, I stated tliat the' poisons used were, in my opinion, 
antimony, arsenic, and corrosiye sablimate. 

Antimony was found in the tissues of the body ; and the excessive vomiting from 
which Miss Bankes suffered was explained by the frequent administration of that 

Arsenic was found in one of the discharges from the bowels, and a peculiar 
morbid change In the lining membrane of the stomach was decidedly indicative of 
the irritation of arsenic. It is not improbable that the vomiting was partly due to 
arsenic; and the peculiar constriction in her throat; of which she complained 
frequently, was also in part at least due to that drug. 

Ko trace of arsenic, however, was found in any of the oigans or in the blood. 
But how coidd it have been, for with or after every dose there was given a certain 
quantity of antimony, which did not allow the metaUic agent to remain long enough 
for its absorption, and barely suificiently long to cause a slight irritation of the 
stomach and throat ? 

This poison was used, I ha^e no doubt, very cautiously and in comparatively 
small quantities, and most probably only during the last ten or fourteen days. It 
was not intended to employ this agent otherwise than in aid of others, to promote 
their action and to ooniuse the medical attendants by modifying symptoms, and to 
divert the attention of the chemical investigators fh>m the poison which was really 
the most destructive. Perhaps, also, it may have been thought that the employ- 
ment of arsenic might embarrass the Chemists in drawing condusions ftom their tests. 

Of the third poison — the bichloride of mercury, commonly called corrosive 
suUimate, although it has been ignored by the Chemists, and, notwithstanding that 
other medical witnesses for the prosecution have not seemed to attach importance to 
it, I have no hesitation in expressing my opinion that it was the principal agent in 
cauring the death of the victim, aided very much by antimony and slightly by arsenic. 

It must be admitted, however, that two most important points were wanting in 
the evidence in favour of this view ; and it was the absence of these proofs which, 
BO doubt, prevented the counsel for the prosecution from directing the attention of 
the jury more fully to the influence of tliis poison. 

llie proofs to which I allude were the detection of the mineral in the body of the 
patient, and the occurrence of that which so often follows the administration of 
mercuxial agents— namely, salivation. 

That no trace of mercury was found in the tissues or in the bowels, I ascribe 
chiefly to its having been given in small doses, accompanied by more or less of 
antimony. It passed through the bowels rapidly, and was either not at all absorbed 
into the blood, or in such minute quantities as admitted of a rapid elimination. Its 
action was, therefore, purely topical upon that part of the bowel towards which it 
has an aflEbuty, and it is not improbable that its energy as a purgative was greatly 
increased by the combination with antimony, while its specific action in producing 
salivation was diminished by the same combination. 

It is not improbable that Miss Bankes may have been one of those persons whom 
mercury cannot salivate. 

But another drug was given which tended to prevent the salivation, the occurrence 
of which would have instantly led to the detection of the poison employed. This 
drug was chlorate of potash. 

It had become known early in the inquiry that the prisoner had employed this 
drug without the sanction, and, if I am not mistaken, without the knowledge of the 
attending medical men. 

It had been suggested that the object of giving chlorate of potash was to promote 
the elimination of arsenic, and that the prisoner was aware of the fact (new to the 
most experienced chemical analysts) that chlorine will dissolve out arsenic from its 
association with copper. 

The influence of chlorate of potass as an eliminator of arsenic is new in medicine, 
so far as my reading and experience inform me ; and it seems to me highly impro- 
bable that this is true; nor do I believe that the drug was used for that purpose. Not 
less improbable is it that the prisoner, a man certainly not of a high order of education, 
nor devoted to scientiflc pursuits, should "have been familiar with a delicate point of 
chemical analysis hitherto undiscovered. The admission of either or both of these 
propositions would tell materially against the prisoner, as indicating that his mmd 
had been much dlracted to the study of poisonous agents. 

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That the chlorate of potass was used with reference to the administratioa of 
mexcuiy and not of arsenic is clearly suggested to me hy the testimony of the yery 
last witness for the defence. It seems that as long ago as February last the prisoner 
was anxious to disooTer something which would correct a foul smell on the breath. 
He applied to the witness, a dentist, who recommended him chlorate of potass for 
this purpose. 

Now chlorate of potass is a known remedy for the foulness and foetor of breath 
which arise from salivation. It is often used to moderate saliyation^ to promote the 
healing of the ulceration and sloughing of the mouth which accompany it, as a local 
application, and if given internally it is supposed by some to prevent or retard 

This testimony (which had not been given while I was in court, and which I learnt 
from the newspapers after the conclusion of the trial) supplies an important addi- 
tional link in tne chain of evidence in favour of bichloride of mercury having been 
much relied upon by the poisoner. He knew how important it was to prevent 
salivation, and he did not wish to trust to antimony alone. 

Is it impossible, even now, to And out where he got his chlorate of potass? 

I would also ask, is it impossible to make a further search for mercury? If the 
body were disinterred I snould recommend that the salivary glands should be 

Additional proof that bichloride of mercury was used is furnished by the symptoms. 
These symptoms were those of a dysenteric diarrhoea of the most acute and irritant, 
and, at the same time, of a peculiar kind, and the most important question raised by 
the defence was as to the probability that this was, in reality, a case of disease 
arising from natural causes and not from poisoning. 

It will be remembered that the symptoms under which the deceased ladv suffered 
were those of a severe and obstinate diarrhcsa, accompanied by frequent bloody dis- 
charges, with incessant vomiting, and of the most distressing kind, to which must 
be sdded the frequent complaint of a peculiar burning sensation in her throat. 
Tliere was abdominal tenderness, and, on one occasion at least, a peculiar rigidity of 
the abdominal muscles forcibly excited by the least pressure. These symptoms, it 
will be ftirther remembered, not only resisted a variety of appropriate remedies, 
such as in the most severe cases generally give at least a temporary relief; but lat- 
terly, in the most mysterious way, they seemed aggravated by each medicine in 
succession to an alarming extent, and led to the objectionable practice of frequent 
change of remedies. Thus, among other instances, one or two pUls, consisting of a 
quarter of a grain of sulphate of copper and a third of a grain of opium, in all (if 
two had been taken) half a gram of the first and two-thirds of a grain of the second, 
seemed to produce a frightful increase of every symptom, including the peculiar 
burning sensation of the throat— a result which no medical man could believe would 
arise from such a cause, and which is equally opposed to all medical experience and 
to the dictates of common sense. 

The symptoms suggested to the medical men in attendance the existence of ulcera- 
tion of the bowels of great acuteness and extent; but tlie intense vomiting and the 
peculiar throat affection were inconsistent with the opinion that the case was one of 
ordinary dysentery, or, in other words, a very extraordinary case of acute dysente^. 
Looking at all the circumstances, Drs. Julius, Bird, and myself came independently 
to the conclusion that the symptoms were not those of a natural disease, but were 
excited and maintained by the frequent administration of one or more irritant 
poisons of a nature to promote at once an excessive vomiting and severe diarrhoea. 

We have now the additional information afforded us by tlie post-mortem examina- 
tion. Acute sU)ughy ulcers of the upper part of the large intestine were found, and 
smaller and less numerous ulcers existed in the lower part of the same great division 
of the howeL 

The existence of such ulcers, and in such positions, was consistent with the sup- 
position that the disease was dysentery; but thev were too much in the upper part 
and too little in the lower part of the bowel. In fact, the position of the ulcers was 
reversed from that which they occupy in the natural disease. In dysentery, the 
ulcers are chiefly accumulated to the lowest part of tlie large bowel, and are least 
numerous in its upper part. In tills case the ulcers were most numerous abov^ 
and gradually diminished in number at the lower part. The ulcers also wanted a 
certain degree of thickening about them which belongs to disease. 

Now, these ulcerations were exactly, both in position, nature, and relative number 

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0iich ai bichloride of mercury would produce. When this salt is giyen in small but 
poisonouB doses, it seems to pass over the stomach and the small intestine (25 or 30 
feet of bowel), and expends its action on the first part of the large bowel, sometimes 
the lower part of the small bowel, and in a less degree the lower part of the large 

To put this matter in a plainer light, I will arrange in parallel columns the lead- 
ing points which favour each view— namely, those wliich indicate the use of a com- 
bination of antimony and biohloride of mercury, and those in favour d the natural 


Excessive and uncontrollable vomiting. 

Severe dysenteric diarrhoaa. 

Absence or slight development of certain symptoms of dysentery. 

Extreme rarity of very acute dysentery, especially as an isolated case, in this 

Aggravation of symptoms on each change of remedy. 

Frequent changes of remedies suggested by the poisoner. 

Position occupied by the ulcers, being the reverse of that occupied by the uloers 
of disease; absence of thickening of the edges of the ulcers. 

Peculiar throat symptoms — the sense of burning and constriction. 

The peculiar terrified aspect of the patient, unlike that of abdominal disease. 


The dysenteric diarrhoea and evacuation of blood. 

The existence of ulcers in the large intestine. 

To explain the excessive vomiting, the defence suggested that it was caused by 
early pregnancy. The advocates of this hypothesis forget that a major irritation, 
with Bcaroely an exception, controls a minor, even although in a different organ ; 
and in such a case as this there cannot be a doubt that the exoesslve intestinal 
irritation would have kept in abeyance that from the uterine condition, had it 
existed. Kor, I may add, is it likely that men of large experience would overlook 
an irritation of that kind. 

It is true tliat a case apparent^ to a certain extent in point was adduced by one 
jof the witnesses for the defence. The case was so imperfectly reported that I could 
draw no conclusion from it, and most c^tainly I should have my fears of *'foul 
play," or ** malapraxiSf'* if I met with such a combination as uncontrollable 
sickness, excessive diarrhoea, and pregnancy. 

I have thus endeavoured fairly to analyze this very serious case, and after the 
most careful consideration, I find myself unable to arrive at any other conclusion 
than that Isabella Bankes died from the frequent administration of antimony and 
bichloride of mercury, with occasional doses of arsenic Had iodide of potassium 
or iodine in any other form been occasionally added, the effects of the other poisons 
would have been enhanced. 

I trust this very important case will not be lost upon toxicologists, and that it 
will lead to new and careful observations upon the effects of poisons in combination, 
upon their mode of elimination, upon the means which may be used to prevent the 
aocumulation of them in the tissues and organs of the body, and, finally, that it will 
induce analytical Chemists to review carefully aU the processes hitherto in use for 
the purpose of detecting mineral and other pcNsona, with a view to dear up evezy 
possible source of fallacy. 

The interests of science and the good of mankind (the constant aim of the best 
cnltivat(»^ of science) demand all this. 

I need scarcely add, that it will be infinitely more agreeable to me to learn that all 
my arguments are fallacious, and that the innocence of the prisoner has been 
proved, than that another life should be sacrificed. 

On the other hand, Dr. Tyler Smith, of St. Mary's Hospital, states :— 

First, as regards the actual pregnancy of Miss Bankes. This was first discovered 
at the votHtuniem examination by Mr. Harwell, but such little consequence was 
attached to it that the matter was scarcely heard of until the recent trial It must 
be remarked that the duration of the pregnancy corresponded as nearly as possible 
to the length of the iUness of the patient. Mrs. Bobinson deposed that Miss Bankses 

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was taken ill tliree weeks before she left her house. She went from Mrs. Bobmson's 
to Mrs. Wheatley's on the 3rd of April, and on the 3rd of May — seren weeks from 
the commencement of her malady — she died. Mr. Barwell gives seyen weeks as the 
limit which the pregnancy might haye reached at the time of death. 

Was the illness of Miss Bankes such as could possibly have been caused by pi«g- 
naucy?— Obstinate and irrepressible yomiting, with violent purging, were the duet 
symptoms detailed at the inquest, and at the trial. It is an undoubted fact, recognised 
by every obstetric authority, that women are often reduced to great peril, and some- 
times killed, by the yomiting of pregnancy. Obstinate diarrhoea is also met with as 
s disorder of pregnancy, either alooe or in connexion with vomiting. It is in the 
early part of juegDancy that yomiting is most severe and dangerous, and it often 
b^uu at the very commencement of tins state. It is most likely to hi^»pen in the 
ease of a woman such as Miss Bankes is described to have been, pregnant for the 
first time in mature age, of bilious temperament, and the subject of previoos intflmaJ 
di«)rder. Stress was laid by some of the witnesses on the burning sensations oom- 
plained of in the stomach and throat. Pregnancy is constantly aaooQi|»anied by 
beartbum, and in certain cases there is an enormous amount of acid secretion sod 
eructation from the stomach. 

The sickness of pregnancy is commonly most distressing In the momiDg on first 
taking food« or on moving the body. This was spoken to as the fact in the case of 
Hiss Bankes by one of the witnesses. In the worst cases, the vomiting is wholly 
intractable. The remedies which arrest ordinary sickness ace of no avaiL Food 
and medicine are alike rejected, and the patient dies of starvabiML For the last two 
days of her life Misi Bankes was under the cave of her sister and a nuxse psovided 
by Dr. Julius. It told very forcibly against the prisoner that at this time, altheegh 
the stomach rejected medicine, it retained food. In two out of four fatal oases ficom 
tiiis kind of vomiAing in which I have been consulted the patients were able to take 
food for a short time before death; the sickness ceased when &tal exhaustion had 
set in. The same is related to have been the case in the history of Charlotte Beonte. 
Bier biographer states that towards the dose '*she begged constantly for food, and 
eren for stimulants. She swallowed eagerly now; but it was too late." Her Ubifiss 
is described as having lasted six weeks. 

Is it possible that the physician in attendance upon Miss Bankes made an error 
of diagnosis in assigning poison as the cause of her illness and death ? It was 
strongly insisted on, as a proof of poisoning, that Dr. Todd, Dr. Julius, and Mb. 
fiiid should, either individually or concurrently, have formed the oi>inion that their 
patient was suffering from slew irritant poisoning. Against this it is only fair to 
place the fact that they did concurrently overlook the existence of pre^^iancy, 
altiiough it was before them, and marked by one of its most common and distinctive 
symptoms. It cannot but be considered as remarkable that three medical men 
snoold have been in attendance upon a woman 42 years of age, living for the first 
time as a nwnied woman, who had been suddenly seised with an illness of which 
yomiting was a pvemineat sjnnptom, without detesting pregnancy. They appear to 
htLwe been misled by the infonnation given to them by Smethurst as to the absence 
4ii erne of the common symptoms of pregnancy, and they made no examiaatioD. 
Smetharat himself ai^ars not to have suspected pregnancy. As regands Dr. Todd, 
it may be aocounted for by the circumstaaoe that, however undisputed has great 
eminence as apure physician may be, he is not accustomed to treat the disorders of 
piegaancy. However the fact may be, the medical attendants certainly formed a 
oonclusion while they were without the knowledge of a yery important element of 
the case. 

Do the symptoms of a fatal case of vomiting from pregnancy so far resemble 
poisoning as to be liable to be mistaken for them ? There is no limit to the reflex 
irritation whk^ the pregnant uterus may excite in various organs of the body, espe- 
cially the stomach. In my Manual of Ob$Utnca, poUished in 1858, 1 state that '< an 
almost pmsonous influence seems to be exerted by the grayid vteras in soma consti- 
tatimis." Beyeral years ago I knew of a case of this kind ia whioh peison was 
actually suspected. 

Dr. Todd laid considerable empliasis on an extraordinaty expression of Miss 
fiankes^s countenance, such as he had never observed in a case of natural disease. 
Dr. Paul Dubois, the present Physician- Accoucheur to the Empress of the itoich, 
who related that he saw twenty cases of death from the yomiting of pregnancy in 

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thirteen yean, refers to *' a marked change in the features" as one of the signs 
indicating a state of danger, and calling for the induction of abortion to saTe the 
patient's life. 

A great raanj cases have been referred to by correspondents in the daily 
papers and medical journals, to show that symptoms similar to those observed in 
the case of Isabella Bankes have occurred in natural disease accompanied by 
pregnancy. The following case is given by Dr. Quain : — 

In the autumn of 1857 a lady, aged thirty-six, who had been married some ten 
years without any indication of having a family, returned with her husband from 
the country to their town house complaining of illness. She said she had a bilious 
attack, was sick after all food, and that there was a tendency to relaxed bowels. I 
treated her in the usual way, with very little success, and after two or three weeks a 
question arose as to the probability of her symptoms being connected with pregnancy. 
These symptoms went on increasing in severity, and the fact of pregnancy became 

Another physician was joined with me in attendance, but our treatment was still 
unsuooessful ; the lady suffered from more or less constant sickness, more or less 
constant diarrhoea, with much pain in the throat and in various parts of the 
abdomen. Two other physicians were subsequently joined in consultation. A 
medical gentleman was placed as resident in the house. Evez^hing that pro- 
fessional skiU, combined with the utmost watchfulness and attention, could do, was 
done in vain. She became weaker and weaker, and gradually sank exhausted 
within an hour of giving premature birth to a child. 

During the progress of the case a question arose as to the propriety of bringing on 
premature delivery, but the idea was given up for reasons which it is imneoessary 
to mention here. I should state that so markedly did the symptoms resemble 
irritant poisoning, that I mentioned this impression to a friend of the lady, and, 
even thinking it possible that in some accidental way or other poison was being 
taken, I had the vomited matter chemioslly examined. I need not say that no 
poison was found. 

In the face of these conflicting statements and opinions, from men alike 
eminent in their profession, it could hurdly be said that the guilt of the prisoner 
had been establisned beyond a reasonable doubt ; and no sooner was the verdict 
made known than indications were afforded of its being unsatisfactorv to a lai^ 
number of individuals, who appeared generally to consider that the extreme 
penalty of the law ought not to be carried out until the guill of the convict 
should be proved in a more conclusive manner. The result of the urgent 
appeals made to the Home Secretary has been a respite of the sentence, but 
what the ultimate fate of the prisoner may be, remains still undecided. 

In the discussions which have taken place with reference to this case, an 
important question has arisen, which applies generally to criminal prosecutions 
in cases of poisoning. It has been asked, is it right, when an individual is 
suspected of the crime of poisoning, that all the substances supposed to be 
capable of affording evidence of the presence of poison, should be handed over 
to an individual selected by the prosecutor, and that the examination of su(^ 
substances should be left to this individual, while the suspected party, whose 
life may depend on the result, has no means of adducing evidence founded on 
similar examinations ? This question leads to a further inquiry, whether the 
system at present adopted, of having scientific men employed on both sides in 
civil as well as criminal prosecutions, and paid respectively by the plaintiff and 
defendant, is that most conducive to the establishment of truth? That it often 
tends to the disparagement of science and of scientific men, cannot be denied, 
and if some method could be devised for having questions in which the investi- 
gations and opinions of scientific men were required, referred to commissioners 
unconnected with the parties interested, without compromising the interests of 
either, a great benefit would undoubtedly be conferred upon the cause of 

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AT A MEETING OF THE COtJNCHi, Hh September, 1859, 

Present— Messrs. Bird, Bottle, Brew, Copiss, Davenport, J. B. Edwards, Han- 
Inuy, HeniDg, Lescher, Meggeson, Morson, and Waugh, 

Mr. Joseph Sturge Southall Nottingham, 

was elected a Member. 


j^ «. tf. 

Adams, John, Loughborough 110 

Alderton, John, Hastings 110 

Allen, J. H., Tottenham ,... 110 

Applegate, Edwin, Brighton 110 

Argles, Robert, Clapham.. 110 

AtCwood, Alfred, 61, Cannon Street 5 5 

Backhouse, William, Leeds 110 

Baicent, William Henry, Sheffbrd 10 6 

Bonks, Morrin, and Son, Birmingham 2 2 

Barron, Harveys, and Co., Giltspur Street 10 10 

Baynes, James, Hull 110 

Bell, William H., 48, Albany Street 1 1 

Bell, William, Bedford 10 

Bolton, Thomas, Tenterden 1 1 

Boyce, John P., Windsor 1 1 

Boyce and Son, Chertsey 110 

Brocklehnrst, James, Manchester 110 

Buttcrfield and Clarke, York 5 5 

ChaTe, John A., Uxbridge 8 3 

Cocking, Georffe, Ludlow 110 

Condy.H. B., Battersea 5 5 

Constance, Edward, 37, Leadenhall Street 110 

Cooper, J. N., Bristol 2 2 

Cracknell, Benjamin, 21, Belgrave Road 10 6 

Cuff, R., Bristol .?. 2 2 

Cupiss, Ftancis, Diss 2 2 

Dallas, Clement, 220, Regent Street 10 6 

Deck, Arthur, Cambridge 110 

Denne, J. L., Faversham 110 

Dinneford and Co., New Bond Street 10 

Dixon, William, Southampton 110 

Dobson, John, Newcastle-on-Tyne 10 6 

Edwards, William, Newport, Salop 10 6 

Essery, William, Clevedon 10 

Eyre, J. J.; Pont Street 10 6 

Ferris and Co., Bristol 5 

Fmcham, Robert, 57, Baker Street 1 1 

Fincham, Zachariah C, 57, Baker Street ^ ^ 9 

Fisher, William, Thirak - 2 6 

Foster, Edward, Ludlow I 1 ^ 

Frond, J., Dorchester... 10 

Garratt, J. C. and S., Rugby 1 1 

Giles and Son, Clifton .- 21 

Goddard, J., Leicester 2 2 

Godfrey, —, Jersey 2 6 

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£ «. J. 

Goode and Son, Congleton 110 

Green, James, Droitwich 10 

Greenwell, Baker, 13, Queen's Terrace, St. John's Wood... 1 1 

Hackman, Leonard L., 41, Union Street 10 6 

Harris, Thomas, Leeds •• 5 

Hejward, Bkhardy Highwick. 110 

Highway, H., Walsall « 1 1 

Hills, Walter, Maidstone 10 10 

Hinds, James, Coventry ^ 10 6 

Hodgson, Edward, Stockton-on-Tees 10 

Horton, Robert, Much Wenlock « 10 « 

Howson, Thomas J., Gateshead 110 

Hucklebrldge, James M., 103, Upper Ebury Street 2 2 

Hughes, Joshua P., Pontysof. 16 

Hughes, Eras, Clapham 110 

Huaillf John, 61, Cannon Street 6 5 

Hulme and Co., Oldham 110 

Ince, Joseph, 31, Southampton Street 5 5 

Isaac, G. W., Clifton 1 I 

Jefferson, Peter, Leeds 10 6 

Jefferson, Thomas, Ciapham 110 

Jones, Edward B., Carmarthen » • ••• 110 

Jones, Humphrey, Llangollen • 110 

Kent, Thomas, 226, Blackfriars Road 110 

Knott, Thomas, Exeter 110 

Lock, William, Boston 1 1 O 

Mailor, J., Manchester « 10 6 

Marston, Richard, Ludlow 110 

Medcalfe, Ebenezer, Lower Tooting 110 

Metcalfe, Christopher L., Hull • 110 

Midgley, J. E., Manchester 2 6 

Milestone, Robert, Swallow Place, Regent Street 1 1 

Mould, Samuel, 21, Moorgate Street 2 2 

'Moskett, James, Harlestone • 110 

l^oakes, Richard, Brighton 2 2 

Pettifer, Edmund, Southgate Road 10 

Ponting, T. Cf., Bristol 2 2 

Quiller, Charles R., 15, Sloane Square 110 

Radley, William v., Sheffield 1 1 

Ramskill, Parson, Leeds 110 

Randall, Alexander, Maidstone 10 10 

Rastrick, J. L., Southsea 110 

Rees, William H., Dartmouth 10 6 

Reinhardt, George, Leeds , 2 2 

Robins, John, 872, Oxford Street 10 6 

Sanders, H. W., Bristol 110 

Savage, W. D., Brighton 110 

Sawyer, James, Carusle 110 

Schacht, G. F., Cllftoa 2 2 

Sharland, E. T., Bristol 2 2 

Spencer, Charies, Graveeend 3 3 

Stoddart, W. W., Bristol 110 

Stott, William, Sowerby Bridge 10 6 

Sturton, J., Cambridge 110 

Svmea, Charles, 97, Fleet Street 5 

Taylor, Thomas H., Manchester 110 

The Chemist and Druggist^ 24, Bow Lane 5 

Thomas, Richard, Burnley 110 

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Thompaon, C. H., Makbtone ^ 1 

Urwick. William W, 33, DenWgh Place, Pimlico 1 

Vizcr, Edwin B., 63, Lupus Street 1 

Wallworfcb, David, Maldon ^ 

Webb, Gnndrj, and Favdon, Bnstol 2 

West, Heniy J., CoTentrj « 

Wheeler, J. M., Portaea ^ 

Whitaker, William, Kuneom ^ 1 

Whitakcr, Ellia, Sallbrd „ ^ 

Wbitworth, Mw., Adelaide Road „ 1 

WilkeB, Doetor T., Upton-on-Sevem 

Williamson, David, Chaildfoid ^^ 2 

Willsher, Stephen H., Tenterden 

Wilsen, Charles T., Swansea 5 

Wilson, William, York 1 

Windle, William, 48, Portman Place 2 






















For Applebmy, — ^,... rmd Appieby, WiUiam Ebnij. 

** fialkwill, P. P., and Son ** BaikwHl and Sons 

" Blackmore, M., £2 29. " Blackmore, Martin, XIO 10c 

« Gibbons, J. 0..« «. " Gibbons, T. G. 

" Kennington.A <* Bemlngton, A. 

" Lewin and Cornish *< Cornish and Lewin. 

" Mnmbray, R G^ 10«. 6«f. ** Mumbray and Ca, £2 2s, 

" Penton, C. W., £\ U. « Penton, C. W., IDs. Sd. 

« Reddish and Co., Salfoid << Reddish and Co., Manchester. 

•« Spearing, JVjEI Is « Spearing, J., I Os. 

« Wilaon,W. ^ « Wilson, Bdward. 

" WooUoy.G.S « WooUey, James. 

Omt Rnas, T., Market Haxborongh, £2 2s. 



BT MB. ▲. r. KAffKUXm. 

"Wisdom and MendJy talk, svooeMifSb stole 
Their bopiv away." 

About two ^efltrs- ago 1 trespassed npon the space of the PhamuueuUcal 
J^uMwl by ofieriBg to its readers some observations upon the monthly eyening 
meetings. I wouM venture once more, trusting to an indulgent and considerate 
reception, to toudi npon the same snbject, uding a few further remarks in 
connexion with the contributions to the Jouxnal by Members and ABSociates of 
the Society. 

I conleaa with some degree^ and indeed I may sar with a ^eat degree, of 
relnctanee^ and regret, that the contributions upon pharmaceutical or chemical 
saljectof either in the form of epistolary commnmcatiofts or evening papers for 
dismsion by the Members and Associates, have not been so numerous as one 
could deaize or wonld expect, considering the number of those wlio belong to 
the Society^ and the vaatness and extent of the field for their operations; were 
the amlject dry and nmnteresting, or the scnl bare and barren, there would then 
be no exclamation of surprise at our apparent i^pathy. But it is not thus. 
Have we not at our diqpoeal the entire mineral and vegetable kingdoms P It b 
dear that there is, or ought to be, Ho dearth c^ matter, and to me it is equally 
80 that thene is no want of ability^ industry, or opportunilrir. How is it, then P 
is ^ questioa I have not unfreauently init to myself The following replies 
liaT<^ amongst others, suggested ttiemselves to my unagination :— The Pharma- 
oeotista and Chemists, as a body, belong to the retiring and non-obtrusive order 

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of mankind, possessing a large amount of diffidence ; and this I believe to be 
one widely operating cause. Again, looking at them individually, innumerable 
excuses — for I cannot call them reasons— appear, like so many hvdra, to rise 
at once, confusing one's verv ideas, and creating an inclination to throw up Uie 
subject after having, schoolboy like, rubbed it out more than once, in order to 
begm again and afr^. One says, I cannot write— at least, I have never tried, 
but I am sure I could not. 1o such I say, be sure of nothing until you have 
in vain made the attempt — try, write a short paper, it will receive encourage- 
ment ; then a longer and longer, until you eventually arrive at the conviction, 
that it was only necessary to set to work in earnest in order to succeed. 
Another says, I might joerchance write a short paper, but I feel quite satisfied 
that I could not read it, I never in my life stood up to read a paper upon any 
subject before half a dozen persons assembled togetner. N'importe^ say I, try ; 
every work must have a beginning, the worst readers are sometimes the best 
writers, a man who would stutter, stammer, blush, and feel shy in giving utterance 
vivd voce to his thoughts and ideas, would probably commumcate more in a short 
epistle than the orator who should speak for an hour, but who during the time 
would possibly repeat the greater portion of his matter twice or thrice; therefore 
upon such I would uree the point, write first and read afterwards— at any rate, 
send your paper, and trust to its being read ; " still waters run deep,'' and 
amongst so much, surely there must be some depth. 

Others there are who meet you with the following : — ^To write to^ advantage, 
the subject should be original; now, for my part, I have nothing original to ofifeTy 
I have jio faculty for devising or discovering anything new, and I am ashamed 
to touch upon that which has alreadv been treated by others. As a rule, such a 
notion is, I am willing to believe, a fallacious one ; mere is scarcely any subject 
fit for discussion that would be investigated so thoroughly by ao^' single individual 
as to leave no point untouched or incapable of improvement, and, if for the sake 
of experiment, several persons were simultaneously to commence writing a 
treatise upon any given subject, it is more than probable that each would take 
a somewhat difierent view, or strike out a firesh hne of operation, and although 
arriving at a similar conclusion, it would be by a diversified and different route. 
In passing through France or Belgium, one traveller would be more especially 
•struck with the want of the green hedgerows which adorn our own country lanes 
and green fields; another, with the vast number of men who wear a priestly garb 
of greater or less degree; a third, with the general gay appearance of the young, 
and the early mark of age observable on the countenances of those in mid-life ; 
a fourth, with the characteristic head -gear of the peasant eirl ; and another, 
with the repetition of the rather boastful sign of *Me brave Beige," or the excel- 
lency of the Belgian machinery. An old subject in new hands, and well treated, 
comes upon us with a degree of freshness which is sometimes preferable to 
novelty ushered in with a shufiiing sait ; we the more readily seize upon the 
points of a subject of which we are amreadv in some measure informed. 

How often do we, as years roll on and holiday time returns, stand upon the 
sea-shore,, and mom ana evening yatch the ebbing tide, and yet it never seems 
to lose its interest in our eyes, we turn to it again and again, listening to its 
constant fretting and ceaseless moaning with the same relish as in our earliest 
days. How often do we listen to the repetition of an old but well told tale with 
as much enjoyment as upon its first introduction; we do not the less admire the 
beauty and splendour of the setting sun, or ita beams shining brightly upon the 
white far out-stretched sail, or its water absorbing rays, spreading, as it were, o'er 
the wide expanse of the visible ocean, because there is no novelty therein. 

There is yet another motive remaining to be mentioned, which has, I fear, 
deterred some, both from contributing to, and attending at, the evening meetings, 
and it is a motive which I would rather have kept altogether out of sight, but I 
feel I should be omitting an important point by so doing : it was a feeling which 
had gained some ground, that the individual interest of the contributors, or the 

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Sineral advantage of tlie Soeiety, was not so much promoted thereby as that of 
e Editor of the Journal ; this mistaken feelins of jealously has been, I trust, 
for ever destroyed, root and branch, by the disinterested generosity of our late 
President; and, in furtherance of the object of this communication, I would add 
his own words : " As a rule, no man can ever be a loser by having his name in 
print attached to a respectable article." 

For the Members of Council, who are supposed to take the greatest interest 
in the Society, and the advancement of everjrthing app>ertaining thereto, how- 
ever clear it may at first appear that from their position and opportunities of 
acquiring information they would naturally be expected to do more for the 
Meetings and Journal than others, yet upon a revision of the case, and a better 
knowledge of circumstances, it is equally certain that they do, collectively and 
individually, give up much valuable time in the performance of duties connected 
with their office. Thus much in extenuation of those who have not hitherto 
been writers or contributors to the evening meetings ; still, I would, with 411 
becoming modesty but earnestness, impress upon them the importance of giving 
encouragement, by their presence and countenance, to those wno may be willing 
to read, possibljr their maiden papers, before the visitors, Members, and Asso- 
ciates of the Society — more espedally as the next session will, as it were, be the 
commencement of a new era in its history and^ progress ; and I would once 
more urge the proi)riety of proving individual interest in its proceedinss and 
prosperity by individual exertion and attendance. I have every confidence 
that, as month succeeds month, each will bring with it its share of pharmaceu- 
tical and chemical offerings. Novelties undoubtedly will be coveted and 
supplied. Several subjects were brought forward at the last meeting for which 
there was not time for discussion : many of them, some of the piU masses in 
particular, are open to further consideration ; but on this occasion it is not my 
intention to touch upon them, otherwise than as a hint thrown out. 

Pepsi ne and its liquor, with the best mode of preparing it to ensure uniformity 
of strength and preservation, is, I think, still an open question ; the preparation 
of effervescing granular salts remains a secret in the hands of the initiated ; 
further acquamtance with the new resin of scammony may be desirable, as yet 
the fondly-cherished hope of a reduction in the price of the virgin through its 
agency has not been realized ; after two centuries of a very extended use, it has 
as yet to be determined whether there be any useful or active principle in 
sarsaparilla ; in glycerine and its varied combinations there is, I think, a wide 
field still for operations. With this I for ihe present conclude, as it is more 
easy to write a long paper than a useful one. 

18, Conduii Street, I9ik September, 1859. 



A HBW Pharmacopoeia is in course of formation; its compilers have invited 
the assistance of those practically acquainted with the operations of Pharmacy. 
Forthwith every Pharmaceutist desirous of distinguishing himself, " reads up " 
that unfortunate volume, the Pharmacopceia Londinenas for 1851, intent on 
discovering as many defects as possible, and of suggesting his ideas as to the 
best methods of making its preparations. One gentleman, who has been for 
many years engaged in business — ^he has been a Member of the Society from the 
commencement—discovers that syrupus cocci is pharmacopceial, imagines (for 
he confesses his previous iterance of its existence) a possible defect, and sug- 
gests a somewhat extraordinary remedy. Anotherj after making many experi- 
ments on linimentum saponis, all tending, in his opmion, to prove the faultiness 
of its formula, is reminaed that he has ^together misunderstood the directions 
of the College, and has digested, instead of macerating, the ingredients. On this 
Utter preparation I have some remarks to make. 

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314 aBsmvATiONs ok somk prkfasatiohs of thb pharmacopoeia. 

LniiMBiraTM Sapoivi^.— The Rse of soft soap in this ought on no accoont to 
be sanctioned, for it almost always combines a portion of canstic alkali, of whidi 
it is not 60 easily deprived as the hard, and which is readily soluble in rectified 
spirit. It should always be remembered that it is an ingredient of linimentom 
opii, and is freouently prescribed with opiam in varions proportions. When 
soft soap is used, linimentum opii, though clear at first, soon becomes tnrbid, 
and in a day or two deposits almost the whole of the morphia in the crystalline 
form, thus depriving the preparation of its activity. An instance of this came 
recently under my own observation: --a lady had been usin^ the liniment finr 
0Ome time without the desired effect, in consequence of which the stren^ was 
increased, and being used soon after its preparation, produced all the e&cts of 
poisoning with opium. I would suggest that die soap be pK>wdered, and exposed 
to the air for some time, to convert any caustic alkali it might contain into 
carbonate, which is insoluble in rectified spirit. 

TDrcTuBA Qunr^ Cokposita. — ^^ Would there be any objection to facilitate 
the solution of the quinine by the addition of a Ktde sulphnnc add?" asks Mr. 
Southall. In answer to this I might remark, that the addition of a little 
sulphuric acid does not ensure the entire solution of the quinine; but that the 
desired result may be readily obtained, as Mr. Heminsway has shown, by simply 
following the directions of the much despised P. L., and digesting, not macerating, 
tihe ingredients. 

PiL. Fbbbi Co.— Mr. 8outhall^s remarks on this preparation afford a curious 
illustration of the way the directions of the Pharmaooporaa are misondenAood. 
The object of the College is to ensure the administration of a protosalt of iron, 
the method of Mr. Southall wotdd produce principaliy a persalt. The Phar- 
maeopcBia process is unexoepticmable ; the pill so made is not spongy, does not 
become hard, and presents no peenlsar tendency to oxidation. The secret of 
success is simpler tbis : to regulate the heat according to the quantity made; it 
should be sufficient to fuse the mixtmre of myrrh and carbonate, the treacle 
should then be added, lastly the sulphate, and the whole beaten until the 
darkening of tho colour shows the cessation of effervescence. Mr. S. is wrong 
in supposing that the evolution of gas is owinc entirely to the presence of fbee 
solphurie acid, since it takes place v^en perfecSy neutral sulphate of iron is used. 

P1LU1.A Htbbabotbi CmjomsDt Composita.— The formula for this would be 
considerably improved by replacing a fourth part of the treade by powdered 
gum; when so made it forms a mass which rolls readily, retains its shape per* 
foetly, and preserves the proper oonaistence for a very Ion? period ; in fiict is, 
phannaceutically speaking, the most perfect pill mass with which I am ae> 
auainted. His sugsestion to keep it in powder is certainly objectionable, from 
tne well-known tendency of heavy powders to subside when mixed widi com- 
paratively light ones. 

PiLinuA iucoBS Co.— The proposal to omit the extract of gentian is certainly 
cool. The principle of the combination being, I apprehend, the fact that, when 
bitter tonics and aperients are combined, both nave their peculiar effects 
increaaed. (Vide Paris's Phttrmaeohgia,) 

Qimm Cabbohas Exsicata would form a better preparation if the first part 
were only followed. 

PoTASsn Svi JfB UBB T UM .— Does the College mean bv this term the true 
sulphide of potaosium, or the mixture of pentasulphide of potassium with hypo- 
sulphite of potass, formerly known under the name of hepar sulphnris ? If Uie 
latter, why cause confbsion by the use of a name implying a composition whioh 
it does not possess? 

PoTASsjB AcBTAs.— The directions for testing this salt are not very dear. If 
it be digested in sulphuric acid and evaporated, it requires not merely a ^^hiffh 
temperature," but an intense and long continued ignition to deprive it of rae 
excess by sulphuric acid. The residue should be neutral to test paper. 

FongaU, Wcreeskr, 

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The Bdation of bydriodate of anenic and mercarr, more generally known as 
Doii0Tmn*s ioltttioBy la at present only adontted by the Dnblm Colliu^, bat aa it 
is eztensively employed in Ireland, it wUl probamy be retained in tSa National 
Fhannacopceia. It may, therefore, not be saperflnous to call attention to its 
okemieal constitiitioii and to the mode of ]>reparinff it. 

The ^irocess of the DobHn Pharmacc^xeia u as follows : — 

**Take of pore arsenic in fine powder, six grains; pore mercuiy, liztesn grains; 
pure iodine^ fifty gndns and a half; alcohol, half a drachm; distilled water, nine 
enmoes, or a saflSdent qtianti^; mb together the arsenic, mercnry, iodine, and 
qitri^ until a dry mass is obtaiaed, and haying tritarated eight oonees of the water 
with this in sucoessiye portions, let the whole be transferred to a flask and heated 
nntil it begins to boiL When cooled and filtered, let as much distilled water be 
added to it as wiU make the bulk of the solution exactly eight fluid ounces and six 

When the iodine is triturated with the metals, iodide of arsenic (As It) and 
iodide of mercury jfH^ I^ are formed ; but upon heating the mixture with 
water the arsenical iodide is decomposed^ arsenionsacid and liydriodicacid being 
produced. In the hydriodic acid tne iodide of mercury dissolyes. The solutioQ 
therefore contains, not an iodide, but an oxide of arsenia Now it not unfre* 
quently happens that unless the greatest care be taken to ensure the effectual 
combination of the iodine» on helping the mixture, instead of its becoming, as is 
intended, nearly colourless, a great part of the arsenic remains undissolveo, and 
any continuance of the ebullitioa only yaporizes the £ree iodine, as may be seen 
by the application of starch pi^ier. Thus^ not only is its preparation trouUe* 
tome, but the strength of the product itself is liable to yariation. 

With the yiew of obyiating these inoonyeniencee, I haye, taking into consi- 
deration the aboye theory ef the decomposition which takea place, eonatnieted 
a fityn^ylii^ by which a perfectly uniform solution is readily [produced, haying 
predsdy the same strength as that of the Phannaciq^Mua. In it the iodine 
which would otherwise be united witk the arsenic is employed ia the fionn of 
hydriodic acid to dissolye the iodide of mercury. 

Take of Av»nioQS acid ^^^., 7.98 gtalns 

Iodide of mereiory (Hg I)..^.. 86.S4 ** 

Hydriodic add ^....^... 80i49 " 

Distilled water ....^..~.....«.. 8 ooncea 6 drachms 

Introduce ike whole of these into a flask, and apply heat until they are 
dissolyed. Fkially, make up the solvtion to its original yolume with distilled 
water. The hy dnodic acid ia best prepared by decomposmg a known weight ot 
iodide of bariuD with snlphuric aokL 



BT B. y. Tusoir, 

Lectoier on Chemistry at Charing-Cross Hospital. 

It has been asserted by some, but denied by others^ that the urine of patients 
aufiering from the disease formerly known as diabetes tM^ttf, but now coinr 
monly called chronic diuresis^ contains a peculiar sugar diflEering from ^liooee m 
propertiee, but convertible into that variety of sugar by boiling with dilute 
sulphuric acid. . , . ^i • n 

A patient haying the above-named disease was admitted mto Charing-uross 
HosfHtiO, under the care of Dr. Willshire, and I availed myself of the oppor- 

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tttnitj of collecting a considerable quantity of his urine for the purpose of 

At the time of his admission into hospital, this patient voided fifteen pints of 
urine daily, which had a pale straw colour, and was perfectly transparent. Its 
specific gravity varied ^om 1002 to 1006. From the very low specific 
gravity, one of the characteristics of the urine in diabetes insipidus^ the presence 
of sugar was considered improbable. Nevertheless, as a minute quantity of 
sugar might exist, although not indicated by the ordinary tests when applied to 
the urine as passed, about six gallons of the urine were cautiously evaporated 
to a very small bulk and filtered. The filtered urine, both before and after 
boiling with dilute sulphuric add, was most carefully and repeatedly tested for 
sugar. Not the slightest incUcation of that body was, however, obtained. A 
portion of the fresh urine was allowed to stand in a warm place, in order that 
torulsB might be developed, but none were detected. 



Sir, — In yournumber for September you have inserted an article, copied from 
the London, Dublin, and Edinburgh PhU. Mag,, by Professor Davy, " On the 
Presence of Arsenic in Artificial Manures,'* which has an important bearing on 
the question of sulphur v. pyrites in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, to the 
prejudice of the latter, too conclusively, as I will endeavour to show. 

There is nothing new in the statement that plants are capable of absorbing 
arsenic from artificial manures, nor that the sulphuric acid used in their prepa- 
ration when made from pyrites commonly contains arsenic, and hence it is 
common in the chemical market for buyers of superphosphate to stipulate that 
it shall be made with vitriol prepared from sulphur. 

All pyrites, however, does not contun arsenic. Until the price of sulphur 
was so much advanced, which has enormously increased the demand for pyrites, 
the manufacturers of vitriol depended upon the United Kingdom for their supplies, 
and Cornwall and Wicklow furnished the chief portion, in which arsenic was 
invariably met with. Large importations have, however, arrived firom foreign 
countries of a different character, and some of them contain no arsenic at ul. 
In particular, that which has come from Belgium, exported by the " Belgian 
Pyrites Company of Antwerp," has been repeatedly tested for arsenic by different 
operative Chemists without ever showing a trace ; it is nodular, with crystalline 
fracture and very rich in sulphur, ^nerally testing firom 48 to 50 per cent. 
Spain has also furnished large Quantities of pyrites, which I believe also to be 
free from arsenic ; but of this I cannot speak so positively. It an 
interesting subject of investigation at the present time, and very important as 
bearing upon the question discussed by Professor Davy, as to what ores of 8ul« 
phur do, and what do not, contain arsenic. 

The Professor states that an inferior Idnd of brown acid is manufactured for 
manure purposes, whereas all sulphuric acid as it comes from the chambers is 
brown, whether made from brimstone or pyrites. The colourless acid is pro- 
duced b^ distillation from either, in order to concentrate it. As, however, this 
process increases its cost without improving its quality for many purposes, it is 
in some cases dispensed with, and used either as it comes from the chambers, or 
slightly concentrated by evaporation in open leaden pans at a low heat, and is 
always brown. The colour, therefore, is no criterion of its quality, except as to 
its per-centage of real acid. 

Hbkrt Scholbfibld. 

Newcasile-^m'Tyne, September 19, 1859. 

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Director of the Eoyal Gardens of Kew ; 

▲8si8tbd bt damixl ha.nbury, esq., f.l.s., btc. 

Africa — ^Wbst Coast, also East Coast, includino the Rbd Sea and Arabia. 

CopaL — Information is much desired respecting the varieties of this substance 
which are found in commerce, and which are exported from the West Coast of 
Afirica. Some copal is believed to be dug from the ground, but one variety at least is 
collected from the tree. This is the Sierra Leone copal, and is produced by Guibouriia 
eopaUiferoy Bennett, Kobo of the natives: specimens of this tree, including the ripe 
pods, are requested; it grows at Goderich and in other localities near Sierra Leone. 

Graina of Paradise. — Although Amomum Melegueta, Roscoe, the plant which yields 
this drug is now well known, there are some other interesting species nearly allied, 
with which botanists are very imperfectly acquainted. It is, therefore, desirable to 
procure specimens of such plants from various parts of the West Coast of Africa, 
lliese specimens should comprise the flowers and fruits, as well as the foliage. As 
the flowers are very delicate, it is necessary to preserve some specimens in spirit of 
wine or in dilute acetic acid. Some specimens of the fruits should also be preserved 
in the same manner. As the species often grow intermixed, and as flowers and 
fruits are produced at diflerent seasons, special care is requisite to avoid confusion. 

Korarima Cardamom is the name under which the late Dr. Pereira has described 
an Abyssinian cardamom, having the shape and size of a small flg, which is exported 
from Mussowab, a port at the southern end of the Red Sea. This drug, which has 
long been known in medicine, is perforated at the smaller end, and, when strung 
upon a cord, is commonly used by the Arabs and Abyssinians as beads for their 
mesbduu or rosaries. It is said to be brought to the market of Baso, in Southern 
Abyssinia, from Tumh^ a country situated in about 9^ N. lat and 35^ E. long. 
The planl^ for which the name Amomum Korarima has^ been proposed, is entirely 

OHbanum. — ^The Olibanum found in European commerce is believed to be pro- 
duced partly on the African coast, near Cape Gardafui, and partly on the southern 
coast of Arabia, whence it is shipped to Bombay. 

Olibanum is also produced in India by certain species of Boswellia, called Salai or 
Saleh, one of which is B, glabra, Roxb., another B. thurifera, Colebr. It is extremely 
doubtful if the Olibanum, afforded in India by these trees, finds its way to Europe, 
but information on this point is desired. 

African Olibanum is yielded by a tree called Pl6ssiea JloribundOy Endl. (Boswellia, 
Royle) ; but as the drug varies considerably in appearance, it is highly probable that 
it is obtained firom more than one species. The variety called Lub&n MaOee, from 
its being shipped at Bunder Mattee, is, for instance, a very different drug from 
ordinary olibanum. A resident at Aden may be able to gather some information 
upon tlus subject, as well as upon the next. 

i/^rrA.— This celebrated drug is collected in great quantities by the Somali tribes 
on the African coast, near the southern extremity of the Red Sea, whence it is 
brought to Aden for shipment to Bombay. A variety of m3rrrh, which is probably 
yielded by another species, is also produced (according to Yaughan) in a district 
lying forty miles to the east of Aden, to which place it is brought for sale. A thh^ 
variety, distinguished by the Arabs as Bissa B6ly is also collected by the Somali 
tribes, and sent by way of Aden to India. It is a point of much interest to deter- 
mine with accuracy the plants which afford these several sorts of myrrh, and for 
this end it is earnestly requested that those who have any opportunity for investi- 
gating the subject will not neglect to do so. 

Asia Minor, Persia, Central Asia. 

Gum TragacanOi is produced in Asia Minor by several species of Astragalv»^ 
which it is desirable further to identify. Travellers and others who have the oppor- 
tunity should preserve specimens of any species seen to yield the gum, as well afr 
specimens of the gum itself; noting at the same time whether the latter waa 

* Extracted from the Admmdty Manual ofSeientifio Inquiry. Third editioo, 1859. 
vol.. I. Q 

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obtained from inoiBioii in th6 stem, or whether exuded epontaskWoAj, Fine gum 
tragacanth is produced at Caissar ^or Eaisarieh) and Talayatz, in Asia Minor, at 
which places the practice of making longitudinal incisions in the stem of the shrub 
is adopted ; the gum is also collected at Isbarta, Bonrda, Angora, &c. 

Gum tragacanth is frequently adulterated with another gum, which has been 
called False Tragacanth, Hog Gum^ Baxaora Oum, or Chan Kutera. At Smjrna it 
appears to be known as Caramon Gum, What is its origin ? One of its propertiea 
is to swell up into an opaque mass upon being placed in water, in which, however, 
it does not dissolve. 

Storax.— "None of the Storaz found in commerce in modem times is derived from 
Styrax officinale, L. ; yet it Is certain that this tree is capable, imder favourable 
circumstances, of yielding a highly fragrant resin which was once much valued. 
Authentic specimens of this resin, which is the original and legitimate Siorax, are 
much desired. It was formerly produced in the south of Asia Minor, where the 
tree is still found in great abundance. 

Salep, — Obtun specimens of the different plants which yield salep m Asia Mlnoi', 
Persia, and Cashmere, and especially of those that afford the best kinds. What is 
the plant which affords the drug called Badthah Saleb, or Royal Salep ? Where is 
it produced, and for what purpose is it valued ? It has been exported to England 
ftom Bombay. 

Sumbul iR<N>^— -Nothing definite is known respecting the botanical origin of this 
remarkable root, which is said to come into Europe by way of Bussia. It is probably 
produced solnewhere in Central Asia. 

^Mo/dBftV/a.—- Although the ordinary assafoetida of commerce is doubtless the pro- 
duce of Ndrthex Anafatido^ Falc, there are some varieties of the drug which, it is 
reasonable to conclude, are derived from other species. One of those sent from 
India to the Great Exhibition of 1851 was a brown pellucid gam resin, ooHtaining 
pieces of the stalk of the plant, and differing considerably from ordinary assafoetida. 

Another variety, which has long been known, has been called ^xmy Auafoedioy 
from its containing about 50 per cent of gnrpsum, an addition wliich, in the case of 
so cheap a drug, it is difficult to understand. Assafoetida is produced in Persia, and 
reaches Europe by way of Bombay. 

Sagapennm, a gum-resin resembling assafoetida, but not acquiring a pink colour 
upon exposure to the air, and of not so strong an aUiaoeons odour. As it is occa- 
sionally shipped from Bombay, it is presumed that it is prsduoed in Pevria. 
Though it has been used in medicine for ages, its botanical origin is not ascertained; 
from analogy, however, we may in£^ that it is the produce of some large plant of 
the nat. order UmbeUi/erce, Compared with assafootida and galbanun^ sagapenum 
is a rare and costly drug. 

GalioHwn.—'The remarks we have made upon sagapenum apply to a great extent 
to the gum-resin known as Cfalbanum, Galbanum is, however, a far more abundant 
substance than sagapenum. It occurs in trade in two varieties, whidi are so dis- 
tinct as to lead to the inference that tbey are yielded by distinct plants, Galbanum 
is said to be imported into Russia in large quantities by way of Aftrachan, but 
that which reaches England comes principally from Bombay. 

Opopanax, another foetid gum-resin, the produce, according to most axrtiiofities, of 
Opt^mnax Chironium, Koch, a large umbelliferous plant, native of the south of 
Europe, and of Asia Minor. There is no modem account of the collection of this 
drug, nor is its place of production ascertained. 

JRAu&ar&.— Determine the true source of the various sorts of m«2fema7 rhubarb, 
especially of the Chinese rhubarb sold at Eiachta to the Bussians, and of that 
exported from Canton. Strange to say, we are still in the dark respecthig the real 
origin of this most valuable drug I In this and all such cases the drag should be 
procured by one who is an eye-witness to it being gathered, and specimens of the 
foliage, flowers, and fruit, caieftiUy dried for the herbarium on the spot, should 
accompany it. 

Iniha, Bum, Indian AncBiFExaao, China, &c 

Catechu. — ^Observe the prooesees by which the various kinds of CtOedhtf C^feA, 

Terra Japomea, and Cfmnbir are obtidned ; and if from trees, whether frwi othen 

besides Acacia Caiechuy Areea OcrtaeAu^and Uncaria Gambir. We wish to identify 

the trees with the re sp ie cti ve extracts. 

Gran CMb.-^The grasses used in India for affording the fragntDCt ftWOTtifl^ oils 

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known as Lmoit'ffratt Oil or Essence of Verbena^ Ginger-grasa Oil, Citronelle, &c., 
require inrestigation. What, for inataiice, is the souoe of the essential <^ im{x)rtei 
from Ceylon %a Oilqf Lemon-grasat It is considered quite distiaet from CiirmtMe^ 
which is also aprodnction of the island. 

BanzotM or Gum Betyamins — Obtam comfflete spedmens of the tree which aAarde 
t'h'* drag in Siam. 

Cardamoma.—The so-called WHd or Bastard Cardamom of Siaa is prodooad by 
Amomum xanthuHdea, Wallich, a plant of which complete and wtMrjtrmeroii specimens 
are requested. In order tliat it may he described and flgwed. The seeds per ae 
haye been imported into England, while the empty capsules are found fan the dx«g^ 
shops of China. Are the latter exported from Siam to China? 

What is the origin of the cardamom called by the Chinese Yattf^um^eha, the 
Hairy China Cardamom of pbarmacologists ? It is said to be prodnoed in the 
province of Kwang-tung, and it may be a native of Cochin China. 

Nothing is known of the origin of the scttamineous frnit to which the name Large 
Bomd China Cardamom has been c^ren, and which is known to the ChineBe as 
Teaou'kow, The same remark applies to the Bttter'aeeded Cardamom, Yth-cke-ieee^ 
and Oooid China Cardamom, Tsaon-kwo or Qud-leu ; it is probsMe that all of then 
areMoductions of the south of China, or of Cochin China. 

dassia J?arA.— Specimens are much desired of the tree wtdch affords tiik bark in 
Jaya. on the Halabar coast, in the south of China, and in Cochin China. BotJtnimI 
spedmeos should in sJl instances include good samples of the bark, young and eld, 
obtained from the same tree. 

Caaeia Buda. — ^These are the immature fruHs of a CmmamomMM, natiTe of Cochin 
China, specimens of which are requested. 

An inferior Idnd of Cassia Buds, known as* lavengeopeo^ is fovod at liackms. 
What is the spedes that affords it? 

Aromatic Barks of other Laurinete, as Catidawang, Maaaoy, Sintee^ an ol^ects of 
commerce in the Indian Arohipelago, and are but imperfectly known in Sm»pe. 
The trayeller should embrace the opportunity, when it oocars, of seeing the huk 
collected, and of obtaining authentic specimens of it, and of the tMe yiddiaig tt. 
liassoy Bark is produced on the west coast of New Quinea. 

GataMoaJ i?tt><.— Endeayour to procure ttn i^ant affordiag thk drag, wfakli is 
imported from the south of China. 

^ibai.— This resin is abundantly produced in the forests of the Ftrilippines, where 
it often assists in giTlng a dieerful hlaze to the Are of the tramUer. It is also 
exported from Kanifia as a drug. The tree that affords it is probably a Ctuuriaa^ 
but it is desirable to have complete specimens, in order to aseertain the species with 
exactness. Elemi is also produced in Mexico, where it is Imowa as CttpaL It 
Qocun in commeioe in scraped pieces, which axe seralH^ylisdrioal, yellowish, semi- 
opaque, and having the usual strong and fragrant odour of Elemi. This drag is the 
produce of Elaphrium elemi/emm, Boyle, a tree oecnrring near Oaxaca, of whkdi 
■pecimens are requested in order that it may be fUrther examined and desorihod. 
Aere are other resins, of whose origin little is known, which haye been imported 
fh>m Mexico, Brazil, and other parts of tropical Amerioa as JBhmL 
Cbmteal akd South Aiurzca. 

Saraaparilla^— The species of Smilax, the roots of which constitute the yarious sorts 
of saoH^arilla found in commerce, are yery imperfectly known. Good botanical 
ipedmens, comprising flowers, fruits, and leayes, and accompanied by the stem and 
root^ should be carefully preseryed, and transmitted to England for determination. 
The so-called Jamaica Saraaparilla grows near the Chiriqui Lagoon, in the state 
of Costa Bica, and a species yery similar, if not identical vrith it, at Bajorque, on 
the Bio Magdalena, New Granada. Other sorts of sarsaparffla are prodnoed in 
Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, &c. That of Guatemala grows in the depart- 
ment of Sacatepeques in that state. 

Bhutan^ BeoL^K yarlety of this drug has been exported of late years from 
SayanalliL in New Granada. Obtain specimens of the plant from which it is deriyed. 

UaUuiio Bark, a lughly aromatic bark, produced in New Granada. Of its origin 
nothing certain is known. 

Balaam (^ Copaiva is imported from seyeral parts of Brazil; it yaries setnewliat 
in properties, and is the produce of seyeral species of the genus Copaifera. It is 
deirable to obtain the balsam of each species, with a specimen in flower and leaf; 


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and, if possible, in fruit, of the tree affording it, and the name of the district where 
the tree grows, and its natire appellation there. 

Lignahe.— The name of a remarkably aromatic wood sent to the Paris Exhibition 
of 1855, from the department of Vera Cmz, in Mexico. By what tree is it afforded? 

IJgnum itephriticvm,— This rare wood was sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1855 from 
Mexica To what tree is it to be referred ? 

Cinchona Bark, or Peruvian BorA.— This raluable drag, the only source of quinine, 
is derived from yarious species of Cinchona growing along the whole chain of the 
Andes, from New Granada to Boliyia. Of these trees it may be said that good, 
pressed, botanical specimens of any species are interesting and desirable. Sach 
specimens ought to include the flowers and fruits, and in every case to be accompa- 
nied by several pieces of the bark, young and old, stripped firom the very tree from 
which the botanical specimens were gathered : all being most carefully and clearly 
labdled upon the spot with every particular worthy of note. 

A point of considerable uiterest, still to be determined, is the proportion of alkaloids 
contained in the young and old bark. For this determination two or three pounds of 
each sort of bark are requisite; and for a perfectly fair experiment they ought to be 
collected from the same individual tree. 

The attention of Englishmen residing in the countries indicated is especially 
requested to this by no means unimportant question. 

ialaam of Peru. — The drug known under this designation is produced, not in 
Peru, but in Central America, in a district lying between Accgutla and Port Libertad, 
in the western part of the state of San Salvador, known as the BaUam Coast, The 
tree which affords it may also be found at Ispanguasate (where it has been planted), 
and near Chiquimulilla, and on the eoast of Sudiultepeques. Of this tree, which is 
the Myrospermum PereirtB of Boyle, good flowering specimens are much, desired, aa 
are also fresh seeds, in order that the plant may be raised in our hot<houses. The 
seeds should be transmitted by post, as their vitality is not long retained. The 
balsam which is called Bahamo negro, is brought for sale to Sonsonate, previously 
to shipment at Acajutla. 

Although the plant above mentioned is undoubtedly that which affords the balsam 
of Peru of commerce, yet there is reason to think that a balsam of similar character 
was formerly extracted from other species. Monardes (1565) states that balsam of 
Pern is Uyhier than water, but the balsam of modern times is heavier. Inquire into 
this. Is not balsam prepared at Chongon, near Guayaquil? Is any produced in 
Mexico? We have received the seeds of a Myrospermum from that country. 

Balsam of Toliu—Myroxylon Toluifera, H. B. K., the tree which affords this sub« 
stance, is very imperfectly known. It grows in New Granada, in the neighbourhood 
of Turbaco, and especially in the high savannas near Tolu, Corozol, and the town of 
Tacasuan. It is also found at the mouth of the river Sinu, near El Zapote, and here 
and there on the banks of the Bio Magdalena, in the environs of Garapatas and 

Is it not possible to obtain at least the seeds, not to mention a supply of good 
botanical specimens, of this famous tree, and some account of the extraction o( and 
trade in, the balsam it affords? 

On Preserving Plants for the Herbarium. 

This is by no means the difficult process which many have ima^ned. The object 
is to prepare the specimens in such a manner that their moisture may be quickl^ 
absorbed, the colours, so far as possible, preserved, and such a degree of pressure 
imparted that they may not shrivel in drying. 

For these purposes, provide a quantity of paper of moderate folio size and rather ' 
absorbent quality— brown or stout grey paper answers the purpose exceedingly weU. 
An excellent kind, when not to be used in a hot and moist country, is BentaJts 
botanical paper, 16 inches by 10, which costs (folded) 15«. a ream; or of larger size, 
namely, 20 inches by 12, 21 «. per ream. It is sold by Newman, No. 9, Devonshire 
Street, Bishopsgate Street, London. In a hot and moist region, brown paper may be 
employed with advantage. Two boards are requisite, of the same size as the paper, 
or a trifle larger, one for the top, the other for the bottom, of the mass of papers. 
Some pieces of millboard plac^ between the specimens, if these are numerous or 
particularly thick and woody, are very useful. For pressure nothhig is better than 
a heavy weight on the topmost board, or, while trayelUng, three leathern straps and 

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bnckles, two to bind the boards transversely, and one longitudinally. Thus provided, 
^ther your specimens, if the plant be small, root and stem; if large, take off por- 
tions of the branches, a foot or rather more in length, always selecting those which 
are slender and in flower, or in a more or less advanced state of fruit. Long slender 
plants, as grasses, sedge$, and many yem«, may be doubled once or twice. Place them, 
as quickly after being gathered as you can, side by side, but never one upon the 
other, on the same sheet of paper, taking care that one part of the bundle be not 
materially thicker than the other; and lay over the specimens one, two, three, or 
more sheets of paper, according to the thickness of your paper and of your plants; 
and so on, layer above layer of paper and specimens, and subject the whole to pressure. 
In a day or two, according to the more or less succulent nature of the plants and the 
beat and dryness of the dimate, remove them into fresh papers, twice or oftener, till 
the moisture be absorbed, and dry the spare papers in the sun or by a fire for future 

If the spedmens cannot be laid down as soon as gathered, they should b« 
deposited in a tin box, which indeed is essential to the botanist when travelling ; 
there they will remain uninjured for a day and night, supposing the box to be well 
filled and securely dosed, to prevent evaporation. Some very succulent plants, and 
others with fine but rigid leaves — ^the heath and pine tribe, for example — require to 
be plunged for an instant into boiling water ere they are pressed. In this case the 
superabundant moisture must be absorbed by a cloth or by blotting-paper. 

When sufficiently dry the spedmens should be put into dry papers, one sheet or 
folio between each ; except they are unusually woody (which is the case with oaks 
and pines), and then more paper must be employed, care being used to distribute 
the spedmens pretty equally over the sheets, and thus a great many may be safely 
stowed in a small compass. A slip of paper should be placed with each spedmen, 
stating its name, if known, and the date and place of collection. Specimens so 
arranged are now ready for transport, either packed in boxes or covered with oil- 

Mosses and cryptogamous plants may be generally dried in the common way ; 
those which grow in tufts should be separated by the hand to form neat specimens. 
Seaweeds require a slight washing in A^sh water, and common blotting-paper is the 
best for removing the moisture from this tribe of plants. 

It is almost needless to add that all plants, whether living or dried, ought to be 
transmitted to Europe with the least possible delay ; the latter, especially in hot or 
moist climates, are often soon destroyed by the depredations of insects. 




On Oellnlose and the Oompoaitlon of Wood.->-A highly important discussion 
has been recently carried on in the French Academy, involving some valuable 
investigations into the chemical nature and composition of the proximate principles 
of vegetable tissues. The discovery by M. Schwdtzer of the solubility of cellulose 
in cuprate of ammonia, first suggested the means of further inquiry into the nature 
of the material of which the vegetable cells are constructed. It was early ascer- 
tained by M. Cramer, M. Payen, and others, that, while this cupric solution imme- 
diatdy dissolved the cellular tissue of cotton and many other substances, it 
exerted no action upon the cellular membranes of several algsB, champignons, the 
pith of trees, cork, &c. 

M. Payen, in a paper on the analogies and points of distinction between cellulose 
and starch, accounted for this difierence by attributing it to the protecting action of 
the intercellular matter, the incrustations of mineral, fatty, and nitrogenous sub- 
stances, and the presence of the epidermis. He found, if all these foreign substances 
were removed, and the cellulose left in a state of purity, it was immediately dis- 
solved; and that when again precipitated by adds it had all the properties and the 
composition of ordinary cellulose. 
M. Fremy, in a paper on the composition of vegetable cells,* showed, by means 

* Noticed in the " Beport'' of the Pharmaceutical Journal for August, page 116. 

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of tiie new reagent, that the fainer walk of the cells of firufts, &c., consist, not of 
eeUolose, but of a substance which he named Peciosey and which, under oomparatiYely 
[rilght influences, and during the ripening of fruit, is rendered soluble and converted 
into Pectine, In the course of this paper M. Fremy expressed an opinion that cellu- 
lose exists in several isomeric conditions, in one of which it is soluble in cuprate of 
aoKnonia, while in the other it is insoluble. This view, opposed to M. Fayen's, wsii 
more fully developed in a subsequent communication, entitled ** Distinctive Charac- 
ters of Ligneous Fibres, Cortical Fibres, and the Cellular Tissue which constitutes the 
Pith of Trees." Up to that time the utricular tissues and vegetable fibres were 
considered to be formed essentially of the same substance, cellulose. M. Fremy 
argued, while the cupro-ammoniacal reagent immediately dissolves the cortical 
fibres of all plants and tlie utricular tissues of firuits, but exerts no action upon the 
pith of trees, it is difficult to consider these tissues as being formed of the same sub- 
stance — the difference cannot be attributed to unequal penetration by the reag^t^ 
because the pith is much more porous than the mass of cortical fibres; the impurity 
of the insoluble body cannot explain the difference in action either, because the pith, 
properly selected, presents all the characters of a pure immediate principle, contain- 
ing but inappreciable quantities of mineral substances. These chemical characters, 
therefore, establish a striking difference between the cellular tissue of pith and 
cortical fibres. The wood or fibrous tissue is also insoluble, when purified as far as 
possible from incrusting substances, and also even when examined in the young 
eondition. It therefore appears that the ligneous fibres are quite distinct from the 
cortical fibres, the latter ^ing soluble in cuprate of ammonia, while the former are 
inseluble. That this distinction cannot be accounted for by the greater hardness of 
the woody tissue may be inferred from the fact, that the cupro-ammoniacal liquor 
IS capable of readily dissolving the albumen of the Phytelephu, or vegeta))le ivory, 
which presents much greater hardness and less porosity than the ligneous fibres. 
M. Fremy sought to ascertain what the conditions are by which the insoluble 
tissues may be rendered soluble. He found that rice paper, which ii insoluble in 
the reagent, when submitted to the action of diluted mineral acids, is converted into 
a membrane which is soluble; alkalies also efi^t the same result, but more slowly. 
Acetic acid, even boiling, is incapable of producing any change. The ligneous fibree 
•nd pith are thus modified and converted into the soluble condition; the tissue of 
champignons, however, withstand the action of adds, and remain insolnble. From 
these facts, M. Fremy concluded that M. Pay en, in his endeavour to perfectly purify 
the tissues, employed agents which were capable of modifying the principle itself. 

M. Payen has also brought forward several experiments tending to support his 
own view, and contends that there are not sufficient grounds for considering that 
the insolubility of certain membranes in the cupric reagent is due to tiio existence 
of several isomeric conditions of cellulose. He states that in all cases the cellulose^ 
when freed perfectly from foreign matters, is soluble in the reagent, and that the 
means employed in the purification are not sufficient to effect any isomeric modifi- 
cation. The cellular tissue of pith, he states, although containing no incrustmg 
substance, is nevertheless impregnated with certain bases, principally lime^ whieb 
exist partly in combination with silica and partly with the organic matter. These 
are so uniformly distributed, that after the complete incineration of the organic 
matter, a white skeleton remains, consisting principally of carbonate of lime, of 
which the weight amounts to 6-lOOths of the dried pith, and which, examined under 
the microscope, still retain the form of the tissue. The cells of the pith are, in ftMSfe, 
formed of cellulose, freed from organic incrustations, but their interior walls are 
coated with a thin layer of nitrogenous matter containing traces of fat and foreign 
bodies, which oppose the penetration and solvent action 6f the cuf^c reagent. 
To remove these impurities, the pith was cut into slices and immersed in the <^pper 
solution, by which the cells were coloured and swollen, but not dissolved. The 
slices were then removed, and immersed in cold water, acidulated with hydrochloric 
add, which slowly dissolved the lime, &c. ; they were then washed with pure water, 
and upon again treating with the cuprate of ammonia, they readily dissolved. 

M. Frem^ considers that in these experiments of M. Payen, the action of the 
hydrochloric add and the means employed to remove the impurities are suffident ta 
effect a modification of the insoluble cellulose. He points out, that tissue as dense 
as vegetable ivoi^, or impure as the ordinary cortical fibres, is readily attacked by 
the cupric solution. He has also shown that the tissue of pith may be rendered 

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tolable hf 9impiy exposing it to a temperature of 15(i° Cent, or by boiling it in 
wAter for twenty-ibnr hom^ in both of which cases the mineral matter remains un- 
affected, the organic substance alone undergoing alteration. The tissue, thus modified 
and rendered soluble, furnishes upon calcination the same amount of inorganic matter, 
which retains the original form of the tissue, as the original and insoluble pith. 

M. Pajen again brings forward the following experiments :-^In order to destroy 
the obstacles to solution which might result from the want of contact and wetting, 
owing to the interposition of air, the pith was submitted to a simple grinding in 
eold water, by which means 45-100th8 of the total weight was rendered soluble; 
this proportion was fiirther increased to 75-lOOths by previously drying the tissue 
at llO** Cent, in a racuum. In another case, the pith was immersed in water, and 
maintained in a racuum for some time; the tissue, thus gorged with liquid, was then 
frozen: when afterwards thawed and agitated with the reagent, it immediately 
eommenced to dissolre. In this way 56 per cent, of the tissue was brought into 
solution; the insoluble portion contained 15.5 percent of inorganie matter. The 
insoluble part in this experiment, and in the preceding, was wash^ with ammoniacal 
water, to rensoiTe aa far as possible the oxide of copper. In a third experimait, the 
pith was simply cut into extremely thin lamin®, not exceeding from one to tliree 
uiliimetrefl in tSucknesa, and agitated in the copper scdution. In the course of an 
hour it commenced to diMoWe, and 51 per cent, of the tissue was obtained in solu* 
tion. M. Paven is prepared to admit that Y&ry great differences exist between 
different kinds <^ cellular tissue, and that the properties of the cellulose will con- 
•tanily rary with the age^ the thickness of the cell walls, the amount and the kind 
€f incrusting matter, and the associated inorganic constituents; but that difference 
in the action of a single solvent, such as cuprate of ammonia, is totally insufficient 
to establish the existence of a distinct, although isomeric, species of cellulose. 

M. Ffemy, in his memoir on the composition of wood, Instead of assuming, as 
physidtogists have hitherto done^ that the yarioua tissues of the plant are form^ ot 
a basis of ceflulose, which is Tariously associated and impregnated with foreign 
•ubstaaces, considers that each tissue presents a particuJar chemical composition, 
aad special properties depending in some manner on the peculiar pbysiolog&al part 
which it supports in regetation. He has abready shown that the yegetable tissues 
oontain a prmczple, Pectose (which has not be^ disputed), and which has been 
confounded with oellukMe in microscopic observations. His analyses and examina- 
tion of the cvHeie also indicate that it possesses a distinct and peculiar composition. 
In this paper M. Fxemy only recognizes under the name of cMulose that substance 
which is ionmediately dissolved by euprate of ammonia, and which constitutes 
oott<m, cortical fibres, or the perisperm of the Pkytelephas, The substance which 
canstitutes the pith of trees, and which is insoluble in the copper solution, he names 
Paro'tdhdote. Knowing that experiments made upon a mixture of difi*erent organic 
tias«eB might lead to grave errors, M. Fremy sought to isolate the different organs 
of which wood is constituted, and submit them to separate examination. Botanists 
eoosider wood as formed of fibro-vascular bundles, separated one from the othar 
with cellular tissue, divided by rays running from the pith to the centre. Li 
certain parts of this ligneous mass are found masses of fibre unrolled and anniUaf or 
punctated vessels. To obtain the ligneous vessels in a state of purity, entirely free 
nom fibrous or utricular substance, the wood was treated first with dilute potash, 
which removed the tannin, albuminous and pectic matters. It was then submitted 
to the action of hydrochloric acid, commencing with dilute, and gradually changing 
it for stronger, until the fuming acid was employed. By this means the utricular 
tissue was partly dissolved, and the ligneous fibres rendered soluble in the ctipric 
zeaoent. In the last place, this tissue is treated with cold concentrated sulphuric 
add, then washed with water, alcohol, and ether. In this way the ligneous vessels 
are obtained perfectly pure. The substance of which these vessels are formed M. 
Fremy distinguishes by the name of oaactdase. It is characterized by its insolubility^ 
in hydrochloric add, concentrated sulphuric add, and cuprate of ammonia. It is 
dissolved, on the contrary, by potash, concentrated and boiling. 

The utricular substance, which forms the medullary rays, is identical with the 
pith. It is, like it, insoluble in the cupric reagent, but rendered soluble by the action 
of adds, of alkalies, or of beat. It consists of Para-cdlulose. The concentrated 
and boiling potash, which dissolves the ligneous vessels, can also dissolve the medul- 
lary rays; this sdubiUty affords the means of isolating the third organ of the woody 

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. tiB9ue; the ligneous fibres. Chlppings of wood are treated in a glass flask with 
potash sufiBciently strong and hot to effect the disorganisation of the wood. It is 
important not to go beyond that point, as the ligneous fibres themselves raaj be 
altered. The insoluble portion is afterwards removed, and washed with water, 
alcoholi and ether. It consists of ligneous fibres, perfectly white and in a state of 
purity. Oak and deal were the woods employed by M. Fremy. The substance 
forming these ligneous fibres is named Fibrose; it is characterized by its insolubility 
in the alkaline solutions, which dissolves the vessels and the medullary rays; by its 
solubility in sulphuric acid, which does not dissolve the ligneous vessels ; by its 
insolubility in the cupric reagent, which immediately dissolves the cellulose^ but 
does not attack the ligneous fibres until they are modified by chemical agents. 
Fibrose and cellulose may be also distinguished by the action of sulphuric acid, 
which immediately dissolves cellulose, converting it into dextrine, which is not 
reprecipitated by water. Fibrose submitted to the action of strong sulphuric acid, 
dissolves like cellulose, but, on immediately adding water to the acid solution, it is 
reprecipitated in the form of a thick transparent jelly. 

Aetton of Cbloride of Bolphur on the Aeetatos. — M, Schlagdenhauffen has 
shown that chloride of sulphur is capable of reacting most energetically on the 
acetates, giving rise to considerable elevation of temperature, and the production of 
anhydrous acetic acid, sulphurous acid, and a mixture of the chloride^ sulphide, and 
sulphate of the base present. 

108 grammes of chloride of sulphur were poured in small portions at a time ap<Sn 
164 grammes of fused acetate of soda, the elevation of temperature wliich took place 
at the commencement of the reaction, occasioned the volatilization of a portion of 
the chloride; towards the end of the operation the heat subsided, and the mass was 
wdl mixed with a spatula. The mixture was then heated in a retort^ when a portion 
of chloride of sulphur passed over unchanged, but, after further digestion, a perfectly 
dear, colourless liquid, with a powerful penetrating odour, was obtained; while, at 
the same time, a considerable quantity of sulphurous acid was disengaged. At this 
point the operation was stopped, and the distilled liquid submitted to rectification ; 
at 138^ Cent, it commenced to boil, and the portion which passed over between 186*^ 
and 189® C. was collected apart. This product was heavier than water, falling to 
the bottom without dissolving ; its solution was efiteted, however, by long standing, 
and also by a slight augmentation of temperature. Treated with potassium, a 
lively reaction resulted ; the product so obtained, mixed with water and a salt of 
silver, lead, or mercury, added, gave no precipitation or coloration. The specific 
gravity of this liquid was 1.075. Its elementary composition corresponded to the 
formula C4 Hs Ot. It was, therefore, proved to be anhy^i^QS acetic acid. When 
the operation, instead of being arrested at the point indicated, was continued fturther, 
and a stronger heat applied, acetone, oxide of carbon, a yellow liquid of a suffocating 
odour, and f^ sulphur occurred among the volatile products, while the residue in 
the retort only consisted of sulphate of soda, and chloride and sulphide of sodium. 
The decomposition is the same when perfectly anhydrous acetate of lead is employed 
in the place of acetate of soda. 

Combination of BeaqoloiKldea with Beaqolehloridea. — ^It is well known 
that constitutionally neutral sesquichloride of iron is capable of dissolving consider- 
able quantities of recently precipitated gelatinous peroxide of iron, forming a deeply 
coloured solution, which possesses very considerable stability. M. £e(£amp has 
recently published the results of some experiments on the extent of this solvent 
action, and the nature and composition of the bodies formed. 

He states that when freshly prepared moist oxide of iron is digested, in the cold, 
in solution of neutral sesquichloride of iron, & deep red liquid is obtained containing 
an oxychloride, which may vaxy in composition from Fes Cls + 5 Fci Ot to Fct Cls 
+ 13 Fez Oi. He considers that these two terms are definite, and may be produced 
at will; the first, containing five atoms of oxide to one of chloride, being formed 
immediately upon the addition of the oxide; while the last requures at least 15 days' 
digestion. Mr. Phillips has described a compound which he represented by the 
formula Fe* CI3 4- 13 Fes Os; and M. Ordway obtained one to wfiieh he assigned 
the formula Fes Cls + 23 Fes Ot. All these compounds are soluble in water; the 
solutions of those containing firom five to ten atoms of oxide may be evaporated to 
dryness without destroying the solubility of the body, but the oxychlorides oontahiing 
12 atoms and more of oxide do not again dissolve after being once dried. 

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A coM Bolntion of seiqiiicfaloride of iron, properly dihUed, slowly dissolyes coneider- 
able quantities of moist oxide of chromium. In M. Bechamp's experiment, after 
three months' digestion, the solution analyzed, contained a componnd which may be 
expressed by the formala Fe* CU + 4 Crs 0». The solution was olive green; no 
trace of ferric oxide was precipitated. 

Sesquichloride of iron is incapable of dissolving gelatinous alumina, on the contrary, 
when digested together, even in the cold, the oxide of iron is slowly precipitated. 
Reciprocally, sesquichloride of aluminium cannot dissolve oxide of iron. 

Solution of green eeequichhride of chromium is also capable of slowly dissolving 
recently prepared moist oxide o( chromium^ forming a compound Crs CU + 3 Crs Os; 
the solution is of a peculiar bluish green colour. Sesquichloride of chromium dis- 
solves the moist oxide of iron much more rapidly; after three months digestion the 
solution contains a compound 2 (Crs CIs) + 15 Fes Os. This liquid is of a deep red' 
colour, the green of the chromium compound being completely masked. Sesqui- 
bromide of iron also dissolves the oxide. 

When gelatinous hydrate of magnesia, oxide of zinc, or protoxide of copper is 
added to a solution of neutral sesquichloride of iron, the insoluble hydrate is at first 
rapidly dissolved, without any precipitation of ferric oxide, until a point arises when 
its solution ceases, and the oxide of iron is thrown down. Also when caustic ix>tash 
or ammonia is slowly added to the ferric chloride, the oxide which is first precipitated 
again dissolves up to a certain point. The author has ascertained that the limit of 
this solubili^ may be represented by the foUowing equation:— 

6 Fes Cla + 15 MO = 15 M, CI + (Fes Cls, 5 Fe^ Os). 

Thus, the base MO continues to dissolve without producing anv permanent pte- 
cipitation, until the oxychloride containing five atoms of oxide is formed— the same 
which is obtained directly by dissolving the moist oxide in the chloride. It is 
impossible in this experiment to form a higher oxychloride than the one above, in 
consequence of the chloride M, CI, which is simultaneously produced. In fact, if 
into a solution containing 15 Zn CI + (Fet CI*, 5 Fe. d) or 15 Mg CI + (Fes Cls, 5 
Fes Os) is poured, in the one case, a saturated solution of chloride of zinc, or in the 
other, of chloride of magnesium, a precipitate is thrown down, and, on filtration, 
the liquid passes through quite colourless, and containing not a trace of iron. It is 
this remarkable action which limits the composition of the oxychloride formed. 

The compounds containing 10 and 12 atoms of oxide are aJso completely precipi- 
tated from their solutions by saturated solutions of the sulphates, nitrates, and 
chlorides of potash, soda, magnesia, and several other bodies. 

A new Bialnfeetant for Dressing Patrid Sores and Ulcers. — Considerable 
* discussion has recently taken place in the French Academy respecting a new 
preparation, introduced by MM. Demeaux and Come, for dressing and disinfecting 
putrid sores and ulcers. It consists of a mixture of 100 parts of commercial plaster 
of Paris in very fine powder, and from one to three parts of coal tar. This mixture 
forms a powder of a more or less greyish colour, and a slightly bituminous odour. 
For application, it may ^so be made into a paste with olive oil, which binds the 
powder together without destroying its absorptive power. Tlie followmg are the 
properties of this substance, as described by the above gentlemen:— A gangrenous 
sore, with an abundant fetid suppuration, treated with this dressing is immediately 
freed from all disagreeable odour, and tbe bandages, even after 24 or 36 hours, exhale 
no more odour than if taken from a simple fracture. An ulcerated cancer producing 
a fetid serous suppuration, dressed with this substance is entirely deprived of odour 
as long as the dressing remains on. So also the linen saturated with pus, cataplasms 
impregnated with the suppuration, &c., placed in contact with this substance lose 
all their disagreeable odour; the infectious liquid produced by gangrene, dots of 
decomposed blood, tissues in a state of advanced putrefaction, treated with this 
substance are immediately disinfected. Its action appears to be to arrest the work 
of decomposition; it removes the insects, and prevents the production of maggots. 
The consistence acquired, either by the powder alone or the paste with oil, does not 
cause the least pain to the patient, or harm to the sore. Its application may be 
indirect or direct, the latter produces no harm, but rather exercises a detersive action 
fkvourable to cicatrization. This dressing has the double power of disinfecting the 
pus and other morbid products, and of absorbing them; the last circumstance is of 
the greatest importance, because it enables the use of lint to be dispensed with. 
Fifty kilogrammea of this powder may be made in Paris for one franc M. Yelpeau, 

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at fbe H6pital de la CSiarit^ and aerefal other Frencb Sofgaoas hare emploj«d this 
peparation with great success, and speak Terj highly of its disinfecting properties. 
Mr. Grace Cahrert, of Manchester, has addressed a letter to the French Academy, in 
reference to this subject, pointing out the great yariation which exists in the com- 
position of coal tar, and the consequent necessity for more accuvately ascertaining to 
which of liie coostitaents tlie disinfecting properties are really dne, in order to 
ensore the uniform action of the preparation. From the results of his own experi- 
ments he considers that the antiseptic properties of the tar are enturely due to the 
carbolic acid present. He states, that a corpse injected with a weak solution of this 
add, was presenred from decomposition for seTeral weeks; and that a piece of flesh 
steeped in carboUo acid, was exposed to the weather for three years without change. 
He also states, that a small quantity added to urine will preserve it from decomposi- 
tion for some weeks; and that it is also capable of prerentiag the gallic fermentation 
ficom taking piaoe in the solutions of tanning substances: 





Deak Sm,— In vol. xxix., page 404, you have given a formula for the preparation 
of a syrup of pyrophosphate of iron, in aoeordanee with the reeommendation of 
E. Bobiquet, by dissolving this ferruginous salt by means of a solutioa of citrate of 
ammonia. I have repeatedly prepared it in the way thare indicated, but within a 
few days I have come to the conclusion that the preparation of the pyrophosphatio 
salt is entirely unneceseary for the purpose. 

If a solution of citrate of sesquioxide of iron is mixed with an alkali, no precipita* 
tion takes place, since the newly-formed double salt is easily soluble in water; the 
same behaviour as the alkalies, has a solution of pyrophosphate of ammonia, and 
slso the ordinary phosphate; no precipitate of phosphate of iron occurs. 

A solution of sesquicbloride of iron, after being mixed with a solution of citrate 
of ammonia, is likewise not precipitated by the ordinary phosphate of ammonia, ov 
of soda; but the phosphate of potassa produces a precipitate immediately. If, 
however, a snflScient quantity oi phosphate of ammonia had been pieviously added, 
the further addition of the potassa phosphate will not disturb the clear solution. 

I inferred from these experiments, that not only pyrophosphate, but also the 
other phosphates of iron, will enter into a permanently dear solution with citrate of 
ammonia; in accordance with this inference, I prepared some ordinary phosphate of 
the sesquioxide of iron, and found it in its recent state entirely soluble in the 
ammoniacal citrate. It would appear, therefore, an easy matter for a physician to 
gire phosphate of iron in solution by simply ordering citrate of iron and phosphate 
of ammonia; the solution, no doubt, will contain the citrate and phosphate of both 

My time being so much occupied, I have not bad time to make any more experi- 
ments at present, and the few above related are not calculated to answer the 
question, whether or not a soluble double phosphate of ammonia add sesquioxide of 
iron may exist, or whether Bobiquet's syrup of pyrophosphate of iron is merely a 
solution of an insoluble phosphate in citrate of ammonia. 

I remain, yours very respectfhll^, 

Philadelphia, August lOfA, 1859. John M. Maibcb. 

rNoTx.^-The employment of citrate of ammonia as a solvent for pyrophosphate 
of IroB originated, we believe, with M. Kobiquet, who suggested it as a better agent 
than the pyrophosphate of soda for that purpose; and at pages 401-4 of this 
Journal for 1857 his process will be found noticed. Subsequently (January, 1858) 
J. Q. Richardson, of Philaddphia, in a new process for Compound Syrup of the 
Phosphates, uses citrate of amoMuia as a solvent for pyrophosphate of iron, whidi 
he introduces mto that preparation in lieu of the ordinary phosphate, and at the 
same time effiicts the solution of the phosphate of lime by fiig eitric acid, Joseph 
Boberts^ of Baltimore (see Maryland Journal of Pharmacy, Match 4th, 1 858} suggesto 
a syrup in which acid phosphate of ammonia is the solvent of phosphate of iron, and 
which he oonsideis a permanent pieparation. In Mr. Maisch's letter a step fhvthef 

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if taken; he aaeertidns tltst dtnite of ammoiiia will dIssolTe tni xetain tlie ordfaarf 
phosphate of iron in sohition, and that in presence of citrate of annwnia the ozioe 
of iron cannot be precipitated from the sesqnididoride of iron in Mention. The 
latter obeervation has been made before by Rose (see Gnelin's Auk/., xi., 447), to 
Ikr as citric acid in a free state is concerned. 

In a paper, wliich has reached ns since the abore was written, by Mr. A. F. 
Haselden, on names in connexion with Pharmacopoeial nsage (JPhtoTnaeeuHcai JaiiFnaly 
Angnst, 1859), we find the following: — ^Allnding to "symp of phosphate of iron, 
sometimes called syrup of superphosphate of iron, and sometimes syrup of phosphate 
of iron, I have no doubt that generally the same preparation is looked for; but in 
the first, if prepared as the name would imply, an opaque syrup of an insoluble 
compound is the result; in the last two, an excess of acid to the phosphate enables 
the operator to produce a clear preparation, but this is uncertain in its strength and 
miatable in its nature. In order to meet this difficulty, the General Apothecaxies' 
Compttsy hare introduced a preparation by the assistance or addition of cUniie of 
am mmmi to tke phosphate qf tran^ and thus a preparation in scales is obtained like the 
ansnionia-citrate of iron, which still sails under the name of the pyrophogphaU oC 
iron, and with which a light brown or dark straw-coloored syrup is prepazedr 
beaiing the title of syrup of pyrophosphate of iron.*' 

FrcNn this it appears that Mr. Maisch is anticipated in regard to citrate of 
flmmonia disBolyiDg phosphate of iron. By trial we haTO ascertained that citrio 
aod ia a free state is a perfect sdyent for recently-precipitated phosphate of iron, 
and the additiea of an alkali afterwards does not precipitate the phosphate. This 
naturally suggested a trial with the blue commercial ferroso-ferric phosphate. 
When equal parts of citric acid and of this blue phosphate are triturated with faax 
parts of water, and allowed to stand several hours with occasional agitation, the blue 
ooter gradually diflanpears, the phosphate is dissolved, and forms a greenish-brown 
solution, which on dilution is not precipitated, nor does ammonia or potash throw 
down the phosphate, which would indicate the formation of a double salt. 

Aa suggested by Mr. Maisch, these facts render the prescribing of phosphate of 
imi in sdntion eztcemely simple, and physicians can extemporaneously vary the 
piioportioii of the j^oaphate to suit their views of particular cases, as a few examples 
Wm esplaiB, "via.:^ 

Take of Phosphate of Soda, 3Uii« 
Sulphate of Iron, 5iiss. 
Citric Acid, in powder, 5]* 

Ifiz the symp with the water, di«olve the phosphate in one half, the sulphate in 
tte Q4her half, mix them, and add the citric acid. 

The resnltang mixture is a transparent thin syrupy liquid, not very un^deasant to 
the taste. Xach fluid ounce ccmtains about twelve grains of protophosphate of iron 
and a little sulphate of seda. The dose may be either a dessert-spoonful or a table- 
WfiooaML (three er six grains), as the ease may require. 
Or the sulphate of soda eiay be avoided thus:— • 

Take of (YalleVs} Ffotocarbonate of Iron, 3Uss. 
Citric Acid, 5isa. 
Phosphate of Soda, 3iy . 
I^n (or other syrup)| ^^^^ ^j, 

IMtonte the carbonate of iron with half the water and the citric acid till dissolved, 
add the syrup, and lastly the remainder of the water in which the phosphate of soda 
hae been dissoWed. 

The resulting liquid is a solution of phosphate of iron and citrate of soda, contain- 
ieg about three grains of the iron salt to the dessert-spoonftU. 

A §¥nm ofprotophomhate of iron may be made by dissolving five drachms of sul- 
phate of iron, and six drachms of phosphate of soda, severally ia hot sweetened 
water, mixing the solutions, washing the precipitate with warm sweetened water on 
a doth Alter, expressing carefully and forcibly, and disaolvuig the moist mass with 
two dradims of citric iwid, and sufflcient water to make the whete aseame two 
fluid ounces. To Uiis add six fluid ounces of sira^e symp^ mix, and filter ifnoeas 
iary. Each teaspoonfril will contain three grains of phosphate of inva. It is 

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probable that the addition of eufflcient ammonia to the solution to conrert the citric 
acid nearly all into a citrate of that base, would render the syrup more permanent, 
but less agreeable; and by eraporating this solution, without adding sugar, to a 
syrupy consistence, it is quite probable that the soluble phosphate in scales, abore 
fOluded to, may be prepared. 

The formula for ** Chemical Ibod,** or Compound Syrup of the Phosphates, may 
also, no doubt, be modified by substituting citric for phosphoric acid as a solrent 
for the phosphate of iron, as it has already for that of lime. — ^Ed. AmaicaH Jmamal 
of Pharmacy,'] 



Ik 1846, cotton goods dyed by a vegetable green colour were introduced and 
exhibited by the French commissioners, for the trade of China, at Lyons, St. 
Etienne, &c., and other sorts, forwarded by M. de Montigny, the French consul at 
Sh&ng-hai, were exhibited by the Chamber of Commerce, at Mulhouse, Rouen, and 
Lille. Mr. Daniel Koechlin-Schouch was the first who, in 1848, directed attention 
to the characteristic green dye, applied in such a way that only one side was 
coloured, the reverse being nearly without colour. This obsenration was made bj 
the chemist to the firm of Eoechlin and Benzard, at Rouen, in 1854. It was stated 
that this green colour was not a mixture of blue with yellow, but a pure and simple 
green, distinguished from all the other shades of that colour by its remaining pure 
in artificial light. 

In 1852, the genuine green colouring matter was forwarded, by Mr. F. S« Forbes, 
the consul of the United States, to M. Persoz, at Paris ; a small quantity (only one 
gramme) being divided between M. Koechlin-Schouch (Mulhouse), M. Guinon 
(Lyons), and M. Espinasson (Rouen). 

In October of the same year, M. Persoz made his first report to the Academic det 
Sciences, and in November immediately followed a communication by Profiassor 
Seringe to the Chamber of Commerce, at Lyons. This Chamber requested M. 
Natalis Rondot to procure five kilogrammes (11^ pounds avoirdupois wdght) ftom 
China. This order was executed by Mr. D. Remi, at Shang-hai, and in October, 
1853, were received 160 taels = 5.59 kilogrammes, valued at 2158 francs 33 cents. 
Several months before, however, M. Guinon was in possession of 256 taels of first 
quality, and two taels of second quality, bought by Messrs. Carvalho and Co., at 

Towards the end of 1853, the same colouring matter was imported by the Dutch 
consul at Amsterdam. The results of the examination by Mr. Walter Crum and 
Mr. Mercer, of a small parcel sent over by M. Persoz, were published in Appendix 
L to the First Report of the Department of Science and Art, p. 432. Mr. Mercer 
ascertained the identity of the Lo-kao with the green colour of the Chinese cotton 
goods, and was of opinion that it was applicable for steam and self-dyed colours. Mr. 
Walter Crum considered it useless to the dyer unless means were found of dissolving 
it like indiga Notwithstanding these inquiries, the firm of Halliday, Pochin, and 
Co., at Salford, owing to a lecture delivered by Mr, Grace Calvert, in December, 
1852, applied to the Board of Trade that some investigations relating to this matter 
in China might be ordered to be made. Mr. Meadows, interpreter at NUig-po, for- 
warded, in 1853, the Htoae-hwa, being the undeveloped flowers or buds of the 
Sophora japonica, already cultivated in Kew Gardens, and at Lyons, smce 1847.t 
(Annales de la Socigt^ Rovale d' Agriculture de Lyons, March, 1847.) The firm of 
Benard, p^re et fils, tried it for dyeing silk y dlow. It was introduced into Germany 
under the name of "Chinesisch Gelb-beeren" (yellow berries of China), and 
" Natalkomer" (grains of Natal). W. Stein, von Kurrer, &c., have published the 
results of their chemical and practical experiments. (Pharmac. Centralblatt, 1853, 

• In the sixteenth volume of the Pharmaceulieai Joumalf pp. 218, 517, and 558, there will 
be fonnd commuDications by Mr. Hanbnry and the Bev. M. H^lot on the Ghineee green dye, 
but as the above paper gives much farther valoabJe information respecting it, and as the dye is 
now attracting a considerable amount of attention thronghont Europe, we have reprinted it 
entire, with a few additions and correction8.~£D. Ph. Jourk. 

t See Paper by Dr. Tk W. 0. Martius in Pharm. Jaum^ vol. xiv., p. 61— Kd* Ph. Joobv. 

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pp. 193 and 845.) The same material was fbrwarded by the Dutch coiwal, who 
stated that it was employed to produce the green dye on cheap cotton doth. 

Mr. Sindur, interpreter at Amoy, sent in a report reUting to the same sub. 
stance. It appears, from both communications, that this yellow was applied on a 
blue ground to produce a green, but this was not the direct and actual production of 
a green dye with Lo-kao. It was quite true, as Mr. Mercer says, that the Hwae 
failed in giving any indication of green. Mr. Walter Crum says : The substance 
produces a yellow dye, which in China "becomes green by an exposure of some 
duration to the sun ; but here, after three or four days, there are only signs of such 
a change being about to take place." But this was a supposition. The Chinese are 
carafol to aToid the direct action of the sun on their cloths of Lo-kao-green. Mr. 
Sinclair savs, that the cotton cloth is spread out on the ground in the open air, but 
not after the hours of nine and ten, when the sun becomes too powerful. 

During and after the Paris Exhibition of 1855, the value of the Chinese colour 
applied to silk, became more and more appreciated. The nouveauUa of this shade 
were much admired for the splendour and purity of their colour by artificial light, 
when the usual mixed green colours change to blue. The " Yelours ^pingli et 
ooup^ en vert Y^nus" exhibited by the firm Gaudre et Co., occupied the first posi- 
tion among the articles of fashion daring the spring of 1855. In July following, a 
new shade, obtained by mixing with yellow, was produced, under the name *' Yert- 
Azof," and in August evening dresses so dyed were sold by Million and Co., and 
in October and November in the Magasins of Heckel, TeilUrd, and Ponson. 
Belatiog to the application of the Lo-kao, M. Michel and M. Guinon have the merit 
of ^Lscovering the best method of dissolving it for dyeing silk. M. Guinon has kept 
the method secret. 

From April, 1855-56, he has dyed 1500 kilogr. silk 
" 1856-57, •• 3500 " 

with this colouring matter. 

M. Michel has published his valuable investigations, which have been printed by 
Older of the Chamber of Commerce at Lyons (" Rapport sur le Yert de Chine," par 
M. A F. Michel, imprim^ par ordre de la Clumbre ; Lyons, 1836). In 1857 a new 
paper was published by the same Chamber Q* Concours pour la recherche du vert 
de Chine, dans les v^p^taux indigenes et exotiques"). The value of Lo-kao was 
confirmed by Its increased use for dyeing silk, the quantity imported during the first 
six months of 1857 being 1100 lb., of &e commercial vaJue of nearly £8000 ; from 
this it is evident how considerably its application in France has increased. The 
prices are variable ; they ranged in China from 24 to 95 piastres per Matty 
(0.6045 kilogr. = l^lb.}. At Lyons the kilogramme was sold at from 700 fr. to 500 fr. 
There are several qualities, the first being the original from Soo-chow-foo ; then follows 
the second, from Canton ; and the third is prepared at Amoy, being the least 

The Lo-kao of commerce is not a pure organic substance. Even when genuine it 
contains 30 per cent of inorganic matter, which remains as ashes after incineration. 
I found 30.60 per cent. It contains firom 9 to 10 per cent, of water. It is properly 
a mixture of finely-divided colouring matter with day, so that nearly one-third of 
such a costly substance is of no use at alL 

100 parts of ashes give substances — 

Soluble in water 1.96 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid 45.00 

Insoluble 53.04 

The constituents of the ashes are not from impurities, notwithstanding that on 
the last occasion some were detected. It appears to be impossible to avoid these by 
the Chinese method of preparation, for the Lo-kao is not a simple exsiccated vegetable 
juice, like the indigo or other colouring matters. 

The Chamber of Commerce at Lyons, after offering a premium of 6000 fr. for the 
pfeparatioUy &c., of a genuine pure dye matter, like the Chinese Lo-kao, published 
the above-mentioned paper, ** Concours, Ac.," containing several communications 
TClating to this substance. The most interesting was that of the Rev. Pdre H^lot, 
being a deecription of the Chinese plants* of the process of dyeing at Aa< and of the 

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prepuraticMi of Lo-kaa* A o»mmunkmtioa of a iimilar character was fivnrardad bj 
the Dutch ioterpreter at Amoj, JL de Qxya, dated 30th May, 1857 (JbumoZ de 
VeiktvUftt Nor., 1857> The other documeots aie— a letter of M. Aym&tyt FrocaBBar 
deaHiaaioaB des Lazariites at Ning-po, dated 22Qd Aviguat, 1856 ; and one from the 
Ber. J. Edkinfl at Shang-hait oontaloing some explanations, but no contradictions. 
Thne was also pablithM a report of the A^cultuial Society at Caleatta upon the 
experiments of B£r. Murray for cnltirating the Chinese plants in the garden of tbe 
Society, dated March, 1 854 . Mr. Fortune for varded the plants and seeds to Calcutta. 
M. Persoz, at Paris, who in 1857 was invited by the Agricnltnral Society of Calcutta 
to report on seTeral materials, reoeired only one piece of doth of the original green 
colour. Living plants have been forwarded by M. de Grys to Holland, and xeoeiTed 
in May, 1857 ; they are at present in the Botanical Gardens at Leyden. 

M. Natalis Bondot, celebrated for his profound knowledge of the Chinese and 
Odental trade and oommercial science^ has the special merit of baring indicated and 
assisted in importing phmts and seeds of the vegetables from which iiie Lo-luo is 
prqiaffed by we ChmaM. He distributed the seeds from wbick plants have been 
cultivated at Lyons, Paris, Ghent, &c. 

It had been already stated by the Bev. P^ H^ot that the Chinese employed two 
different sorts of plants, one with aio&ite bark, Pa-bi-lo-za, and another with a brown 
bark, Hom-bi>lo-aa; one growing wild, and the other cultivated; but till the return 
of Dr. Lockhart fhHn China, in 1857, it had not been possible to decide this. The 
Fa-bi-lo«a is the Rhamnus cMoropharut of Decaisue^f and grows wSd, the Hom-ln-Io 
sa is BhamMUM utHii of Deeaisne, the cnltivated plant The first was ixUroduced into 
Sun^ l^ M. Bondot, and was formerly called by ProL Seringe, at Lyons, .SAaowaif 
ginensis; the other by Mr. Fortune, and is now cultivated at Acton Green by 
Dr. Lindley, and at Tomham Green by Mr. Glendioning ; at Ghent by Mr. Van 
Houtte, &c. 

M Natalis Bondot published, at the commencement of last year, an admirable 
paper, by order of the Chamber of Commerce, entitled Notioe 4u veri de OUne etdebi 
temture «a veridkez fes ChmoU, mmk d'ims 4tMde detprfpniihekam^mu ettmetuiaUedu 
L^'kao^pmt M, T^Permz^ et de rBuhercheB nor la maHirB eolora/Ue dm merymm indiffhm, 
par M. A. F. MiekeL Lgmu, 1858. This valuable work gifies a ievie«r of whatever 
IS at pres^it known relating to this specialty. 

Hie Lo-kno does not contain any principle tiMt reseMbbs the oeastltaent «f 
indigo, altiiongh it has been often spleen of as a green indigo. Poiwe, wlio viatod 
Oodiin China in 1749, speaks of a plant, Tssi, prodwnng a gteen dvoing mattec 
Horta, in 1760, nentiotts Uie same as esqiloyed by the Tonqumese. Tbe word TsaL 
however, is an adjective, applied to several herbaceous and legnmiaovs plants, sm 
hence nothing could be distinctly known fay this denomination. Charpentier de 
OoBsigny speaks of another sabs t ano e ' D infa-xang; xang or xaah sigiiiies, in the 
Cochin Chinese language, green. Mr. Hedde, wlio visited Tooran in 1844, said that 
the price of such a dyeing material per kilogramme was 2«. 6<f., and that it is ptofaal]^ 
ooUected ftom the MttcunaUM psrsmiu. It may then be coachided thai Xsai and 
Dinh-xang were np to that time nnknown materials. 

Green indigo was imported into London in 1790 Inr Prkisep, and ezamiMd by Ux, 
Bancroft. This was supposed to be the Tsai of M.Poivie; b«t, as MFerBOSobesrved, 
it was only a mixture of chlorophyll (leaf-green) with indigo. AMempts wese ofteK 
made in India to produce a green material of tfale sane oompositioB. &amr speaks 
of it in 1801 ; Mr. Nidiobs C^zard, in 1837; it was examined by Gustavus Schwartz, 
of the Soci^t^ IndustrieUe de Mulhoose ; and in 185€ I zeoeived a specimen &om 
Java of the same character. 

The green coloured Barasat, forwarded by Mr. C, Birch, in 1793, from Calcutta, to 
Messrs. T. F. Baring and Go., and examined by Bancroft, was identical in composition. 
It was at that time supposed to be prepared from the AscUfiM tinctoria^ Boxb., but 
afterwards it was acknowledged to be the Taroem akkar or indigo of Sumatra, from 
the Maredmaa tmctoriOf Bob. Brown, Peryuiaria tincioria, Spr. Taroem signllSes at 
Sumatra indigo. Marsden (in the History of Sumatra, ed. 1811, p. 94) mentions it 
as generally employed as a blue dye in Sumatra; the plant being common in the 

* PkarmaoeutipalJmtmml, voL xfi, pp. 517 and 658. 
t We are iofixmsd by Dr. Iindl«7 that tfas JiAoMfNif «AAr«^^ 
gkbotm of Boagi^— £i». Pit. Jounv. 

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Indian Axohipeliga The pknt ii likewtoe oMunon in Borneo^ bat deef not grow in 
JaTB; another fpedes, Uartdema parv^a^ Dec, or Taroem aioi, ii coltiTated theie. 

In his report on Ike Parie Indoatrial £zhibition of 1855, the late Dr. Boyle noticed 
three kinds of green (indigo), one Chinese, one from the Biman empiie, and one 
from Assam. The last was exhibited by Dr. Falconer^ vnder the name of Rom, 
This was quite diflhvent from the Lo-kao, being a prodnct of a sort of HueUiot 
generally cnitiTated in the fiunoaan empire and P^gn. Xdla voem is the indiga tnm 
the Wrightia iMcftyrw, R Br. 

It is not astonishing that the name Lo-kao is pranonnoed and written in TKieua 
ways. This is oommmily the case when an Englishman, Pienchman, or Datcfaman 
espressee a foreign term aooording to his own langnage. Tbe Lokao of M. Bondot 
is Lak-kon (Camdlio), Lnk-kaon (Bdkins), Lan-kow (Bemi), Look-ko (at CaatonX 
Liok-kon or Lek-ko (at Fokien;, Loe-kaau (De Grys).* liiat^ir^pff freqaent]/ 
occur, tiierefbre, when a European oommnmcates with the natives, and henoe l£r. 
Forbes, when asking for the green dye, reoeiTed from the Chinese the SchweiiH 
fiirther green, a Enropean prodnct, in a Chinese bottle, with Chinese inscriptiaas. 

of Khiu-tQeoo-foe, at the 6.W. of Tflje-kiaag, and at Cantm, Hang-t(Qeoa-dbe, 
Kiariiang-foe^ and King-po. Pagota of it are soUL at 17s. per two hondred-welgbli 
but the baik only befog 50 per oent, its price is properly doable of tbia eon. 
ISie Honi4ii-]o*aa, or RhamnuM utUk, is found from 30^ to 89'' K.L.» also la a man 
tennierate eUmate. The fagoto are aoU at 7f. per buadzed-wevgbt^ tha tak 
gp ftT"g 14a 
M. fioodot ii of opinion that both plante could be acdimatiied in the aonth of 

It was not less difflcalt to decide what parts of these plants were employed. In 
1852, Ifr. Bonrbookui, at Macao, and Mr. Carralho^ at Canton, reported to the 
French Minister of Foreign AfEUrs, that the flowers and foliage were used, bat M. 
Persos, at Paris, veceftyed some cloth dyed by the colonring matter obtained from 
the roots. MM. Mare Amandtizon, £<&ins, HAot (as asaally at Az^)» Aynof (af 
usnally at Tflji-ti), noticed the bark. 

It appears that the froits being small black berries, with a herd audeosb ai laige 
as that of the hemp-plant, contain lycewise a colouring matter. The Bey. Fm 
H^Iot denies this. Mr. Edkina, however, asserts that the Chinese prepare ftom it « 
green cokme, and M. Bemi confirms this, saying that it is speciaUy employed £or 
both water and oil-painting, whilst the bark serves to dye cotton <3otL Mb. 
Fortune noticed that the colonring matter of the fruit is used for paindng on paper. 

The Lo-kao (translated in our language green paate) ia the sediment reniaiaiaf 
after dyeing wb cotton cloths with the bark of both plants, a thoasand pieoee 
pioduoing <mly one kilogramme. A friend of M. Bondot, at Shaag^haiy wrote (a 
him that he should be able to send oyer 800 or 900 lb., whidi would be the aediflMBt 
after the dyeing of a million of pieeeB. This, however, is not astonishing, when wa 
consider that the cdoor green is that BKist liked by the Chinese^ to in aerenl 
places regular green-dyeing establishments exist in that coaatry. 

The fagots, not older than one year, are cat in small pieces, and the colovr is 
extracted by boiling in water. At Aa^ both aorta of plants are boiled and cnrtraoted 
in separate vats; in another yat is prepared lime-water. The cotton doth ia ^^ 
from aeven to ten times ia the extract from Hon-fai-lo-sa, and then three timea ia 
the extract from Pa-bi-Io-sa. Befiore dyeing, a amaU quantity of lima*water la 
mixed with the Uquid extract. The doth is c(yed in the aftemooa, spread 0ttt ia 
the Adds daring the evenings, and taken up in the morning befioe nine or tea 
o'clock, so that the doth only undergoes the action of diflbaed daylight. The eAct 
ia that the upper aide becomea green, the under aide remaining quite folfmrieai 
When at first this diaracteristic appearance of the Chinese green <Mi was obaerred 
in Europe, it waa aappoaed that the cokrar wag i^lied by brnahea or some other 
mechanical means, totaUy unknown to the European dyer. Soch waa the opudoa «f 
Mr. Meroer aad M. Persos. IKnoe^ howeyer« M. Miohd, at Lyons, had aaooeeded in 

• LfthJoMm of Morrlsott^--£o. Pa looav. 

t WrittmPib-tiaadflanfrpibyMo m aoBi gix PBlML Jowau 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


producing a green coioor by the action of snDlight alone on doth, dyed with an 
indigenous erergreen lort of JRAomniM, M. Persoz acknowledged it to be a new, and, 
till now, unknown efl^ct of sunlight in producing regetable colours. 

After spreading, the doth is rinsed in vats with pure cold water; there are five or 
six arranged in a row. The water assumes a light green colour. All the wash- 
waters are collected in one rat, the bottom of which is corered with cotton thread. 
By boiling, the cdouring matter is precipitatea on the cotton, and the water above 
becomes odourless. From this cotton the colouring matter is separated by meiely 
pressing and wringing, and then spread on blotting paper and dried. The Lo-kao 
then assumes the appearance of tlun scales, like dried orange bark. 

Persoz assumes, as a distinctive new prindple or constituent of the Lo-kao, the 
Qfonme, a substance not containing nitrogen. As I before stated, the ashes contain 
45 per cent, of matter soluble in hydrochloric add; of this are 31.16 lime (Ca O), so 
that nearly ^ of the ashes aie lime; 13.24 per cent. (Fes Os) oxide of iron, alumina 
and phosphoric add, probably decomposed from the clay of the ground where the 
doth has been spread. It must be remarked that the Chinese distinguish the cloth 
dved with the extract of the plants, Be-lo-poe, with one coloured side, fh>m the 
cloth dyed with Lo-kao, the latter being called Oe-lo-poe, coloured on both sides, as 

It is a diaracteristic of the green-dyed Chinese doth, that its colour, when 
moistened with concentrated hydrochloric acid, vanishes, but after some time 
reappears. This experiment can be repeated several times without destroying the 
dye. The colour is changed to purple red by the action of hydrosulphate of 
ammonia; chloride of tin dianges it to salmon colour. On that ground M. Persoz 
supposes that there is really mixed with it a yellow colour, derived from a substance 
resembling the Persian berry. Should this be further confirmed, it will agree with 
the information I have recdved, that the Hwa-wha is used for reviving the green 
colour of Lo-kao in dyeing common cotton cloth. 

M. Natalis Bondot says, likewise, that all his inquiries tend to show that the' 
yellow colour of Hwa-wha, or of the Hoang-tsji, is employed to vivify the bluish 
green of the Lo-ts^ This explains why the Lo-kao of Soo-chow-foo is more 
tending to blue, and that of Amoy more to yellow. The properties of the Lo-kao 
are, according to the description of M. Persoz, as follows: — 

Lo-kao is insoluble in water, solable in alcohol, ether, sulphide of carbon, and 
volatile oils. By soaking it can be intimately mixed with 25 or 30 parts of water. 
By heat it is decompose without sublimation; on burning it gives a light yellow 
flame. Acetic acid facilitates its being dissolved, and the mineral acids, hydro- 
chloric and sulphuric add, have the same effect; a weak solution of tartaric acid 
rapidly dissolves it at ordinary temperatures. The reaction consists principally in 
dissolving the combinations with lime. The above-mentioned acids exercise no 
reducing or oxidizing action, but when concentrated or assisted by heat, they only 
decompose the supposed yellow constituent of the dye. Lo-kao is dissolved in 
concentrated hydrochloric acid, and produces a green gelatinous fluid; after some 
hours the coagulated part becomes grey, the liquid above being yellow. When this 
sediment is washed, and neutralized by ammonia, the green colour is not restored, 
but a blue or violet is produced. 

The colour is destroyed by the oxidizing acids. If exposed with caution to the 
action of these acids, the green colour changes first into red, and then into light 
rose-colour. The red colour appears equally by the action of the deoxidizing adds, 
sulphurous add, arsenious acid, oxalic acid, and formic add. Hydrosulphuric add 
dianges the colour into blood-red; this colour vanishes as the hydrosulphuric ncirl 
becomes decomposed by the influence of the atmosphere, and then tiie original 
green colour is restored. 

With concentrated sidpburic acid it forms a wine-coloured sdution, which is 
decomposed by water. From the sediment, however, the original green substance 
cannot be reproduced. 

The caustic alkalies appear to dissdve it, but by a long-continued action, or by 
boiling, the colour is changed into brown, applicable for dyeing cotton, br the4dd of 
alum or a salt of tin. The same reaction follows when it is boiled with lime-water, 
or the carbonates and sulphates of the alkalies. Sulphide of ammonium has a 
ipecific reaction, changing Uie colour into red, as is mentioned above. 

The Lo-kao, after soaking in water, becomes very soluble in warm solutions of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


'floda or borax. These solutions can be employed to dye cotton doth directly. 
Soap made with soda dissoWes it very easily. A solation of soda-soap, containing 
from Ave to six parts per 1000 of water, dissolves it, with the aid of heat, and forms 
a perfect dyeing-liqoid for cotton. 

Chloride of zinc and chloride of magnesium change the colour into pure blue, 
resembling indigo blue on cotton. The salts of alumina give to the colour rather a 
bluish tinge. The salts of tin change the colour into blood-red. This colour is the 
best for dyeing silk, because, after saturation with an acetic alkali-salt, and 
exposure to the atmosphere, the green colour reappears. In this case, much 
attention is to be fixed on the degree of concentration of the salt. 

In every case it is necessary, for uniform dyeing and printing by Lo-kao, that it 
should be freed fh>m earthy constituents. Tlie best way of doing this is given by 
M. Persoz. The soaked Ix>-kao is dissolved in a concentrated solution of carbonate 
of potash. After having separated the sediment, the liquid is diluted, and then 
from this the green colouring matter will fall down. The Lo-kao can likewise be 
dissolved in 1^ parts of acetic acid, diluted by 5 of water ; this is properly the 
clearing from the combination with lime. After filtration, the liquid is neutralized 
by ammonia, and the Lo-kao subsides in a pure state. For further details, the 
admirable work of M. Natalis Rondot ma^ be consulted. I will only add that, for 
printing, the Lo-kao is diluted with a solution of gum, alum, acetate of alumina, &c. 

It would be of great importance to ascertain whether there are any European 
plants containing the principles for a colouring matter resembling the Lo-kao. 
Sinoe it was decided that the Chinese prepare it from two sorts of the genus 
Ehanimms, the way was opened for making experiments with European species, such 
as B. alatemuij franguh^ caAariieuM, hybrtdus, alpinuM. M. Michel, at Lyons, 
succeeded in treating cotton cloth with the extract of the A. caiharticus, especially 
by spreading it at night, and taking it up every morning before sunshine, which, 
when repeated several times, produced a green colour on one side verjr mu^ll 
resembluig the Lo-kao. 

The genus Bhamnus was long since mentioned as producing green and yellow 
colours. The vert de vusie is prepared from the unripe fruit of B. catharticus; the 
Persian berries from B. BOxaHlia; the grains (Tavignon, or yellow berries, from B. 
vdectorius, A green or yellowish-green can be dyed with the foliage of the black 
aider tree {R. frangula). It is very remarkable that the wood of the B, alaiemus 
can be employed for blues ; and hence appears the possibility that, by mixing it 
with the yellow that can be extracted from the bark of another kind of Bhamnus, a 
green colour may be procured. In tliat way it could be explained why the Chinese 
employ two different sorts of the same genus of plant« Very much, however, 
depends on the climate and season. In Sweden, where the B, frangula is employed 
for dyeing woollen cloth, the bark is separated from the plants and dried. The 
fruit of the same plant gives a yellow colour before ripening in July and August, 
but in September and October, after ripening, a blue-purple, green, or blue, varying 
with the composition employed as a mordant. 

We may now conclude that the problem, how the Lo-kao is prepared, is not 
entirely solved, but there is no doubt that the scientific investigations made in 
Europe will soon supply this want We are indebted to M. Natalis Rondot for 
having drawn the attention of European manufacturers to some other vegetable 
colours used by the Chinese dyer. 

In the first place may be mentioned the Hoang-tsjl or Wong-shi. Hoang or 
Wonff signifies yellow, and hence it is the yellow colouring matter of the Tsji. It is 
called by the Germans Chinesiache gelhachoien. It is, in fact, the berries of Gardenia^* 
which appear to be capsules filled up with brown-coloured, very hard grains or 
seed in a yellow pulp; the yellow colouring matter is combined with the vegetable 
jelly of the pulp. By soaking in cold water a very pure yellow colour is produced, 
that can be fixed on cotton doth without the use of a mordant. The colour is not 
attacked by alkalies or acids, with the exception of nitric acid. 

In September, 1857, the Chamber of Commerce of Lyons bought a quantity of 
23| kilogrammes from Prof. Th. Martins, at Erlangen, paying St. 4d. per kilo* 
gramme. In January, 1858, M. Rondot received 2^ kilogrammes from MM. Bemy, 
Schmidt, and Co., at Shang-hai. 

* Pharm, Jovm,, vol. xviil p. 626. 


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There are three sorts : the largest fruits ftom the Gardenia grond^on (Lour.>. 
This HoaIlfl^tsji is called by Mr. Hanburj, Tsji-tse, and is the same as that sc^d hy 
Frof. Marthis. It is mentioned by Kaempfer. 

Another sort of better quality is in egg-shaped fraits, the Gardenia Jhrida (Lour.)* 
Mr. Hanbnry ciUls this Bjam-it^u The third sort is the smallest, neariy globidar. 
It is not determined whether it originates from G, flonda at radioams. The same 
sorts of plants are very common in Jara, where the name is KtUja'piermg, and also 
in the other islands of the Archipelago. In Java it is only an omameMtel flower, 
because, owing to the high temperature, the fruit is not dereloped. In the higher 
districts like Ijipannas, at S400 feet above the sea, the fruit can be laiiely 
collected* The Chinese species of Gardenia waa introduced and cultiTated at Jara 
at the same time that the culture of tea was nndertaken, because the colour waa 
employed in China for colouring the t^a chests. At that time it was not generaily 
known that the plant is a native of these islands. I hope shortly to reoeire the 
fruit from Java for a comparatire examination. 

At Sumatra, our celebrated botanist, Mr. Teysman, has detected another species^ 
C7. giutinosa, whose fruits giTe an equally beautiftil yellow c(dour. Samples of title 
sort will be likewise forwarded for trial. 

The other T^;etable yellows of the Ctiinese are, JSToofi^tef^— probably the root of 
Meniapermum coccubUf or Indian berries, or Ft^raurea tinetoria (Lour.). Swrng^ttfi, 
or Samower, from Carthamw tinctoriuB; Hoang-pe^mou, or bark of Pteroeatpuajlavus 
riiOur^). Tt-hoang, the root of Bhamneaia ginenna; Kutng-hoang, the root of Cwreuma 
umgOf the Turmeric : the Hwae-hwa, Hoai-hoa, Wei-fa, or the non-deiTeloped flowere 
of Sophora japonkoj as already mentioned^ It is sold in Chins at 5(1 or Sd!; the 
kilogramme. It is well known that it is employed fordyeing'green with iKHkao, or* 
alone for producing yellow. Mr. Meadows asserts that, by a pnoeeea ksept secret is 
the proYince of Canton, the Hwae-hwa is employed to dye cotton* and silk green» 
without mixing or grounding with blue, but this requires oonftrmaition. It waa 
stated by Mr. Sinclair that at Amoy there exists an estaUlshment for dyeing' 
cotton green, but the prooess is unknown. At l]aaff-tjsoe-foe it is said to be 
employed for dyeing silk green. Thia material is called at Canton Oee-fa; Ningpo, 
Wae*hoei; Amoy, Hoeae-ho. It was, in 1861, exhibited aa WhinmL 

The plants producing a blue colour are called by the Chinese Laa. Such ai» 
seTeral sorts of the genus, Pbfygonwn and the JRuella indi^oHca of T^ Klang. The 
indigo of the southern provmces is prepared from laaitie tndigoUca, From the same 
genus the Woad Is procured. The Dutch ambassadors sent to Fekin neariy twe 
hundred years ago, P. de Qoyer, and Jacob de Keyzer, make mention of the blue 
dyemg with the Tgm-wha or Tten-koa of the Itatis. 

The indigo of the Ind^fera bears the name of Thoe-tien or Tefa^'hn^-Jowmal of 
the Society of Arte, August 5, 1859. 



Ik the July number of the Journal de Pharmacie et de CMmie for the present year 
there is an article on the above substance, in which it is recommended as a remedy 
in epilepsy and some other nervous affections. From this paper it appears, that 
this remedy was first disooTered in 1807 by Dr. Trinius, a Russian phy8ician» who 
obtained the 8ecret_from a peasant, who had employedlt with much success in 
who reported 

Peschier published an analysis of the root of^the above plant, and aiso narrated 
several cures obtained by its use-t From 1827 to 1852, nothing original appeared 
regarding it, but at the latter date Dr. Herpin published a Treatise on epilepsy, in 
which severid articles were devoted to it§ Since that period, Dr. Herpin (the author 

' * Mimoiree de la Soc, Pkvt» M4die* de Motcou^ t, iii., p. 86. 

VerhandL der Medic. Chirurg. GeeelOch der cant, Zurich, 1826, pp. 16 et 122. 
X Actes de la SocOU heMtique dee Sdencee natureUee^ en 1827. 

§ Du Pronoetic et du TYaitement curaiifde FEpikpsiC' Paris, 1852, Bailli^re, pp. 594 et suir., 
612 eteair. 

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of tiw piieaeiife. paper) atstes that he has had macfa further experience in the use of 
tlie aelimmf haying' empleyed it in a great number of eaiee, and, feeting certain that 
the remedj does not deserve the oblirion into which it has fiiUen, he has-noirmade 
known, his researches upon its natural history, phyBiological effects, posdogy, ftc. 

Nidural HiMkiry, — ^The author shows that the marsh selinum, which briengs to the 
Nat. Ord« UmbeUi/ercB, has received Tarious names by diiftrent anthOTK TlniB» it 
is the 

Stlmum palustn (Linn. De Cand.). 

Sdmum mbfe^reX^acqam), 

Sdamm AgsatUawn (&ant£}. 

TAysflf^'mcBi paluUre (Hoffman, Koch^ Gaudin). 

ThyageUnvm PlmU (Sprengel). 

ThyanUmm syhettre, paimtre et anffvMti/oKim (Beidienbach). 

T^Bselinum ^IvgBtre^ (Vaucher). 

Pmeedtmum syltfutn (l>e Candoile). 

AiHedaMttAilia/iifl^CMoBncfa, Dnby,Co8Son et Germain, Grenier et Godron, Bdfeau 
et Godet.) 

Die author then shows that the last name is the one by which the plant should be 
distinguished, and afterwards gives a botanical description of it under that name 
(PsMcwfaniMi paimtre), and then makes known its habitats. The root (the part used ) 
is described as branched, fleshy, of a deep brown colour externally, white uid milky 
within, having a strong aromatic odour, and an acrid and piquant taste. 

The plant is common in the north and east of France^ less so in the centre and 
west, and apparently wanting in the south. It is also found in certain parts of 
Switzerland, Germany, a^d Russia.* 

Materia Medwa.^The root is the only part of the plant which has been employed, 
but the fruit has a similar taste, and hence the author supposes that it would possess 
somewhat analogous properties. The dried root resemues that in a recent state in 
its odour, taste, and colour, although in the latter particular the brown colour is less 
deep. The powder- is described as of a bright yellow, bordering on grey. 

Aeoording to Peschier, the root contains a voUttUe oil, a fatty oil soluble in ether 
and alcohol at 94° C. (= 93^ Fafar.), gummy mattir, a yeUow eoknarmg prmeipley a 
mtrogaunu mneomhWKcharvM prmcipU, a pecuUar add, which it is proposed to caH 
tdimcj pkotphate of lime, and tooocbf matter* The dleo-resinous matter constitutes an 
eighth or tenth part of the root, ntd h^ice Peschier recommends an alcohotic extract 
as the best preparation. The auth<»T, however, says that he has had but little 
eiperience in the use of such an extract, but, judfi^g from his own experience, he 
prefiBTS, and always employs, the powdered root. 

Fkyeiologiieal Ejfffeets.^The selinum appears to aet principally uponr the parts 
cOBnected with digestion. In seventy-nnie cases in which it was tried by the 
anther, a^ somewhat purgative effect was observed in half of' them, and in a few 
instances nausea, gastralgia, or dyspepsia was noticed, although in a trifling degree 
only. In no case was any injurious eflbct produced upon the genend health, but, 
OD the contrary, its use appeared, in some instanoes, to have a benefldaliinfluenoe. 
In the majority of cases in which it was employed it exercised a very fiivourable 
influence upon menstruation, and the disorders incident thereto. 

Po8obgy.-^ln the treatment of epilep^ the author was accustomed to administer 
tiie selinum three times a day; but if, in the course of the treatment, the patient 
emBered firom diarrhoea or colic, the number of doses was reduced to two, or some- 
times to one in a day. The commencing weekly dose for an adtdt was 30 grammes 
(=: 463 grains), which was divided into 20 doses, and administered at the times 
above stated. This dose was increased weekly by 15 grammes, until it became 120 
grammes, which quantity wotdd be arrired at in the seventh week. In the eighth 
week the dose was increased to its maximum, namely, 125 gnunmes; and this 
weekly dose was continued for six weeks longer in those oases in which the remedy 
was unsuccessful, and for a much longer time still if an evident remedial eflect was 
obswed. The dose for children from scTen to fliteen yean old was reduced by a 
third, and for infants by two-thirds. 

• This plant is generally known in England under the above name of Peucedanwn ptduttre. 
It is a rare plant with ns, bat ma/ be occasiooally foond in marshy and ftaoy dbtiictsv— Ed. 
Pfttfrst. Joum. 


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Therapeuiu:s,~-The author states that in 1S52, with bis then limited experience, 
he arranged the four medicines which had succeeded with him in the treatment of 
epilepsy in the following order : selinum, oxide of zinc, ammoniacal sulphate of 
copper, and yalerian; but with his present experience, without changing the order 
of the tliree last, he would remove the selinum from the first to the fourth rank, 
but at the same time preserving for it an important value. 

The author tiiinks that it would be desirable to try the selinum in other nervous 
affections, as hysteria, chorea, &c. He also says that he has recently obtained most 
favourable resmts with it in a case of hypochondriasis and in three cases of hooping- 
cough. Dr. Herpin concludes his communication by expressing further confidence in 
the future success of the selinum, in consequence of discovering in the works of 
Dioscorides a description of a Pencedanum, which had very many analogies with 
that of Peucedanum palustrCf and which was stated by him to be useful in epilepsy 
and other nervous affections, in retention of the menses, catarrh, &c. The Peuce- 
danum of Dioscorides, however, differs from the present species (P. palustre) in 
severid particulars; thus, it has yellow instead of white flowers, and is found in 
mountainous districts, not in marshes. It appears to the author to be the P. 
qfficinaU of modem botani8.ts.* This Peucedanum is mentioned by Plinv, and 
is alluded to also in most of the treatises on Materia Medica until the close of 
the last century, but it has since fallen into disuse. The author proposes again to 
try its effects. 



{Continued from page \^b,) 

Fourth Part. — Formation of the more complicated Hydrocarbons by the action of 
Heat upon ike Acetates and Butyrates, 

The synthesis of the more simple hydrocarbons, such as marsb gas, defiant gas, 
and propylene, is effected by means of the binary compounds of carbon, the oxides, 
sulphides, and chlorides. The more complicated carbides of hydrogen cannot, 
however, be obtained from the same source. For their production it is necessary to 
react on the simple hydrocarbons previously formed. Thus from defiant gas, pre-, 
pared from inorganic materials by the meUiods described, ordinair alcohol ma^ be 
obtained, which may be again readily converted into acetic acid. The synthesis of 
olefiant gas therefore involves that of alcohol and acetic acid ; the latter body may 
therefore be taken as a new starting-point for the synthesis of other organic com- 
pounds. The following reasons idso indicate its suitability for this purpose: — 
Acetic acid is very analogous to formic acid in its physical and chemical properties, 
but it is richer in carbon and hydrogen, and poorer in oxygen; consequently more 
suited to yield hydrocarbons when submitted to the same conditions as those under 
"Which formic acid was decomposed, that is to say, when distilled with an alkali, 
which retains the oxygen as carbonic add, and leaves the carbon and hydrogen firee. 
to enter into combination. It is, in facl^ in this manner that Chemists generally 
prepare marsh gas, but as marsh gas, Cs H4, presents a more simple composition thaa^ 
acetic add, C4 H4 O4, its formation by means of the acetates is not a process of 
synthesis but of analysis. It will be shown, however, that, simultaneously with 
this gas, and as secondary products resulting from the same reaction, carbides of 
hydrogen more condensed than marsh gas are formed. These are olefiant gas, C« H|, 
propylene, Ce H«, butylene, €• H., amylene, do Hio, &c. ; carbides characterized by 
having the same composition, but a different condensation. These phenomena have 
been previously pointed out in the distillation of formiate of baryta, where olefiant 
gas, propylene, and probably still more condensed carbides arise. In the destructive 
distillation of the acetates they occur to a greater extent, and still more so with the 
butyrates and with sugar, bodies progressively richer in carbon. These changes, 
in £iict, appear to occur with all organic matters when heated with excess of alkali; 
the analytical character of the decomposition is already known, the object now in 
▼lew is to point out the synthetical action which takes place simultaneously. 

* The P. offidnaU is found in some parts of EngUod, bat not in moontainons districts, as 
mentioned above by the author, but in salt-marshes in Kent, Essex, &c. — ^Ed. Pharm, Jowm, 

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The intenrention of the alkalies in these changes is not indispensable; heat alone 
is 8u£Scient in certain cases to effect the same production of the carbides of hydrogen 
from the elements of the organic matter, but the voUtile substances, snch as acetic 
or butyric acids, generally require for their destruction a higher temperature, and 
furnish more simple products, when heated alone, than when in contact with an alkali. 
The presence of the alkali determines the decomposition of acetic acid at a tempera- 
ture little abore 400° C, and the products can be immediately remored Arom the 
Airther action of the heat, which tends greatly to their preservation; free acetic acid, 
however, may be made to traverse a tube heated to dull redness without decomposi- 
tion occurring, and to effect its destruction the temperature must be so elevated, and 
prolonged in such a manner, that the resulting compounds are but few and very 
stable. Among these latter bodies are found, however, certain hydrocarbons, very 
stable, and yet remarkable for the complexity of their fonnulae; such as naphthaline 
and benzine, which are obtained in decomposing acetic acid and alcohol at a red heat. 
In proportion as the formation of the more complicated carbides increases, so the 
means of synthesis becomes more and more powerful ; fh>m the simple and stable 
mineral compounds, of which the conditions of equilibrium are so firm and pre- 
ponderating, the delicate and mobile bodies which characterize organic compounds, 
and which are easily transformed and combined one with the other, are gradually 
formed. From the carbides of hydrogen the oxygen compounds are obtained, such 
as the alcohols, which may be again submitted to those various and ingenious 
reactions which Chemists are successively imagining. It is not necessary to follow 
out the infinite results which may be thus obtained, but simply to demonstrate that 
carbides of hydrogen are formed more complicated than the body decomposed, 
observed in the case of the formiates and acetates, and also the butyrates, and whidi 
appears to belong to all analogous compounds. It is therefore a general process of 
synthesis, because each carbide furnishes an alcohol, each alcohol a corresponding 
flicid. If, then, the acid can form in its turn a carbide more complicated, analogous ta 
the first, having an alcohol and an acid, it is obvious that this is a means of 
synthesis apparently without limit. 

Dry Distillation of the Acetatet. — The general principles of this action having been 
explained, it is only necessary to describe the experiments from which they were 
deduced. Pure acetate of soda was employed, deprived of its water by fusion, and 
of which the total quantity used in the rarious experiments amounted to 10 kilo- 
grammes. The acetate of soda was heated in various ways. It was distilled by 
itself, mixed with its own weight of iron filings, with its weight of soda-lime, and 
lastly with twice its weight of soda-lime; these various conditions did not appear to 
exercise any marked influence on the production of the carbides of hydrogen, but 
modified extremely the nature and proportion of the empyreumatic liquids. To 
simplify the results and diminish the proportion of these jiquids, the m'ixture of 
one part of acetate of soda and one part of soda-lime was generally employed. This 
mixture was introduced into a glazed stone retort, and carefully heated; the gas 
formed was passed through two cold vessels, two ovoid eprouvettes containing 
bromine, a washing bottle holding soda solution, and then collected over water. The 
gas collected over the pneumatic trough consisted of marsh gas sensibly pure. In 
the bromine was condensed the defiant gas and the analogous carbides: propylene, 
butylene, amylene, &c. The excess of bromine was immediately dissolved in a 
solution of soda, moderately concentrated, without avoiding the heat disengaged by 
the reaction. In this manner the alkali destroyed not only the excess of bromine, 
but also several bromides formed by the pyrogenous liquids, and the destruction of 
which is indispensable to obtaining, in a state of purity, the bromides of the 
hydrocarbons. If a great excess of alkali is not at once employed, the decomposition 
of the liquids indicated is accompanied by a development of extremely irritating 
vapours, producing infiammation of the eyes, and at the same time the supernatant 
liquid is deeply coloured. When the reaction of the alkali upon the bromine was 
complete, and the liquid had become cool, eight or nine times its Tolume of water 
was added to the alkaline solution, to'aroid the precipitation of pulverulent bromate 
of soda, and the neutral, colourless bromides of the hydrocarbons separated by a 
pipette. The products of several such operations were then mixed together and 
submitted to fractional distillation ; the bromides passing over below 140® C, 
between 140® and 155®, from 155® to 170®, and between 170® and 200® were 
collected separately. At this point abundant vapours of hydrobromlc acid were 

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dmmgaged, sad the liquid eoatained in the retort commeaced to Uackien; the 
diitilkition was censeqaently stopped. The separated portions were then each 
redistaied separately. Af tar three series of systematic distiliations the foUowiog 
prsdacts vere ohtaiaed:-- 

1. A liquid bcnling at about 146°, consisting of bromide of propylene. It was the 
prineipal produet 

5. A liquid boiling at a litUe abore 160°, consisting of bromide^of bufylene. 

8. A liquid boiling betsreen 1 76° and 180°, consisting of bromide of amylene. This 
was in small quantity, and at each distillation disengaged a little bydrobromic acid. 

4. Sereral drops of a liquid boiling below 140°, consisting of a miztuze of bromide 
of propylene and bromide of olefiant gas. 

6. In the catort in which the first distillation was effected seyeral liquid bromides 
remssned, mbuh deoomposed at 200° without rcdatiliziiig. These liquids apparently 
rontained bromides of the hydrocarbons more condensed than aqaylene. The 
oarbusettod iiydroifenfl were then regenerated from their respective bromides, and 
submitted to analysis. The following is the evidence by which the formation of the 
hydrooarbons mentioned abore was established. The existence of oUfiend gat was 
established by the separation of a bromide boiling below 140°, from which the olefiant 
gas was regaoerated, mixed, howerer, with a little propjrlene. Submitted to the 
actian <rf snlphnric add, the gas was very slowly aud graaually absorbed, requiring 
pndopged agitation, in a manner quite characteristic of olefiant gas. The formation 
of this gas was also established by obtamiag its iodide, decomposable by potash Jit 
]^° C with liberation of the olefiant gas; this experiment euabled the gas to be 
oompletely isolated. The gases formed during the distillation of acetate of soda were 
passed tinougha flask with a long neck, in which some iodine was kept in a state ef 
nsisn. The oxoess of iodine was afterwards dissolved in « soluUen of soda, and a 
half carbonized substance isolated, which consisted of a mixture of the iodide of 
olefiant gas with several products of the decomposition of the other gases or pyxo- 
genons vapours by the iodme. This body was then introduced into a small flask 
filled with potash and boiled, when the gas was disengaged, collected, and analyzed 
in the eudiometer. Its composition accorded with that of olefiant gas. The possi- 
bility ef isolating the olefiant gas from the other analogous carbides, by means of 
iodine, is veiy interesting, because these carbides are also capable of uniting wiUi 
this metalloid ; but it seems that their iodides are formed with less facility, and aie 
much meve^eaaily destroyed by the heat employed in the reaction. The proportion 
of olefiant gas formed in the distillation of the acetates is very small. 

The formation oipiropykn€ was established by the neutral liquid bromide obtained^ 
bailing at 140°, and whteh, when analysed, gave — 

1. 2. 

Carb<9 17^ •. 17.8 

Hydrogen 2.9 3.0 

3toauBe.« 79i4 79^ 

lOOi) 100.0 

aooording with the formnla Co H» Br*. The bromide was then decomposed in the 
usual mauner, and the gas obtamed aaalyxed in several difievmt ways, the resnlt c(f 
which esta b li s hed the pnesanoe of propylene. This body was more abundant than 
any of the other anak^fous carbides produced by the dry distillation of acetate of 
soda. In oonsequenoe of this fact, and with a view to obtain a more characteristic 
verifloatien of the esisteaoe of this body, an endeavour was made te obtain propylic 
aloohol and some of iU ethers from the gas of the acetates. For this purpose. M 
Utaes of the gas firom the acetates, colleeted oyet water, were agitated, faii, with 
su^uxic acid diluted with its own volume of water, to remove the en^yreumattB 
vapours, then shaken, litre by liia^e, with concentrated oil of vitrioL This acid, alter 
the o p e r a t i a n, presented the peculiar odonr which is characteriitic of ita action «u 
propylene; oarefitily diluted with water, saturated with chalk, and then evaporated, 
a very hygromatric line salt was obtained, htfving all tiie properties of pr^yl-sul- 
phate of Ume. This salt was mixed with benzoate of potairih, and disttUed in an oil 
bath; it tenished, at between d20° and 240°, a benzoic ether, having the odour, the 
boiling point, and the properties of propyl-benzoic ether. 

In connexion with the formation of propylene in the distillation of acetate of soda* 
may be desoribed several experimenta matle upon the pyrogenous liqiUds obtidned 

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from the same source. These liquids were submitted to several operations for the 
purpose of seeking for trood spirit or methyiic ether. It is not necessary to state 
the reasoas which caused the presence of three bodies to be 'suspected, ^t one of the 
experiments led to a result of oonsidevable interest : the formation of a gaseous 
carbide which appeared identical with propylene, by the action of solphnric acid 
upon acetone. 

The ezperioient was made •upon commereial acetone, also upon the several pyvo. 
^enous Uquids firom the acetate of soda, both in the crude state, and after beii^ 
separated one from the other by means of fractional distillation. Fure 'acetone and 
liquids, soluble and insolnble in water, boiling at 65°, from 66° to 75°, iirom 75° to 
90°, from SS"" to 100°, from 100° to 150°, and from 150° to aoo», were thus operated 
upon. The four last furnished no particular oombustible gasexcept oxide of carbon^ 
the others Aurnished a few babbles only. The roost preferable result was obtained 
with acetone prepared from aeetate of soda and purified as completely -as possiUa; 
40 to 50 gsaomies of concentrated sulphuric acid were iatroduoed into a flask of 200 
cubic centimetres' capacity, and 15 to 20 grammes of the acetone caiefaUy added in 
small portions at a time, ayoiding ^asny notable deration of temperature; a ooviB, 
adjusted with two tubes, one to conduct the gas liberated to the naeronrial tKmgh, 
the other to introduce a current of carbonic acid, was then iltted to the flask. The 
air in the apparatus was displaced by the carbonic acid, the cnreent of whidi 
was then stopped and heat carefully implied to the flask. The reaetioii was 
extremely . active, the mass swcUed up and became carbonised; a mixture of 
•ulphurotts acid and carbonic acid was evolved, together with a small quantity ^of 
a oombustible gas: the whole of these were oolleoted over mercury, and the reactieb 
continued by the aid of heat for a length of time, winch caused the formation of 
some oxide of carbon. In the eprouvette which contained the gas was introdaced 
some solid potash with a few drops of water. Almost the whole of the gas was soon 
absorbed, but a small quantity of a combustible hydroearbon remained, which was 
not SCTsibly soluble in water. This gas was submitted to analysis, the result of 
which indicated that it consisted of propylene, hydride of propyle, and a little oxide 
of carbon. The analyses, however, could only be made upon very small v^umes sf 
the gas. It is a question whether this gas resulted from the direct actioB of snlphnric 
acid upon the acetone, or upon minute traces of propylic alcohol suxsd with the 
acetone. Propylic alcohol and its ethers are the only bodies, up to the present tisM^ 
known to furnish propylene and hydride of propyle under the iafluenee of sulphuric 
add. The formation of this alcohol in the distillation of the acetates is of very great 
interest; unfortunately the proportion of the gas obtained only amounted to sonw 
thousandths of the weight of the acet(me employed, which rendered the precise 
detenninatioQ of its origin very difficult. 

The hu^me was regenerated from its bromide, which boiled at 1^^ C, and 
aaafysed. The results left no doubt of its nature. 

The bromide of amjflene, which boiled between 175° and 180°, aoeompanaed by 
dight signs of decomposition, contained 70.2 per cent, of bromiine, agvesiag with the 
formula Ci» Hm Bib. The amylene was regenerated from the bromide in the usual 
manner^ and obtained as a volatile liquid having the dukvaoteristic odour and pro- 
perties of that body. In consequence of a small quantity of this liquid only bikag 
obtained, it was analysed as a gas, according to the method' einployed by Oay Lnssac 
and Faraday, by allowing its vapour to be diffused in a certain quantitiy of air. 

It is probable that, in the distillation of the acetates, carbides of hydrogen analogous 
to amylene, but more condensed, were formed, because the crude mixture of broondes 
contained a sensible proportion of products less vdatile than the bromide of amylene, 
and which could not be distilled without decomposition; their proportiOD, however, 
was too smsll to admit of their bdog further studied. 

The forn»ation of olefiant gas, propylene, butylene, and amylene, at the ei^ense 
of the elements of acetate of -soda, is thus estsMished. It may be asked, however, if 
these carbides pre-existed among the gaseous products of the distillatkm of acetate 
of soda, or whether the bromides from which they were extracted were formed by 
the reaction of the bromine upon the pyrogenous liquids resulting from the same 
distiUation? To solve this question, bromine was separately mixed : 

1st. With a portion of the crude liquid products, obtained during the distiUation 
of the acetate of soda, and at the same time as the preoedlsg foreMides. 

.2nd. Wifk pave acetcme, extracted from another portion of ihe same prodoot 

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3rd. Separately with the products insoluble in water, boiling between 60° and 80**, 
80** and 100°, 100° and 120°, 120° and 150°, 150° and 200° C. 

4th and lastly, with the aqueous liquids separated from the preceding substanoes^ 
which might contain other empyreumatic principles. 

The reaction of the bromine upon almost all these liquids was extreme!}' active; 
when it ceased, the products were allowed to stand for an hour or two, and then 
treated with a diluted solution of soda, which dissolved the excess of bromine and 
destroyed several bromine compounds which had been formed at the expense of the 
acetone and other liquids. This destruction complete, a few little drops only 
remained, of a bromine compound, neutral and liquid, which was not bromide of 
olefiant gas or any analogous carbide, but bromoform. It boiled at near 150°, and 
contained 95.1 per cent, of bromine; thus agreeing with the formula Cs H Br*. 
Treated in the usual manner with copper, water, and iodide of potassium at 275^|^ 
nothing but marsh gas was regenerated. M. Dumas has ali«ady indicated this 
production of bromoform from acetone. It is possible that a little bromoform, 
formed from the vapours of acetone carried over by the gas from the acetates, occurs 
mixed with the bromides of the hydrocarbons, but the quantity is very inconsiderable; 
it is separated in great part by the fractional distillations, and its presence need not, 
therefore, be considered as in any way affecting the results. 

The preceding experiments demonstrate that the bromides of defiant gas, of pro- 
pylene, butylene, and amylene, resulted from the direct action of the bromine upon 
the gas of the acetates, and prove the pre-existence of those hydrocarbons. The 
proportion of the carbides obtained vary according to circumstances; under the most 
fkvourable conditions the carbon they contain may amount to one twentieth of the 
total carbon present in the acetate of soda. 

Action of a red heat on Alcohol and Acetic Acid. Synthesis o/Bentine and Naphtha- 
line. — The synthesis of naphthaline may he effected by processes previously described. 
This substance has been formed from the elements of sulphuretted hydrogen and 
sulphide of carbon ; it has been also produced by means of one of the chlorides of 
carbon. The synthesis of naphthaline necessarily involves the synthesis of the 
bodies derived from it, and in particular benzine and phenic acid. 

The synthesis of these same compounds may be effected by another method, as 
shown by some experiments made eight years ago (^Annates de Ch. et de Ph., 3rd 
series, xxxiii., p. ^95), and which tend to throw a new light on the decomposition of 
organic substances by heat, and on the general character which the products of this 
decomposition present. They complete in this respect the results obtained in the 
dry distillation of the formiates and acetates. These experiments showed that 
alcohol and acetic acid, submitted to a red heat, furnished a certain proportion of 
benzine, dt Ha, of naphthaline, C20 Hs, and of phenic acid, C» H« Oi. The acetic acid 
may be formed by means of alcohol, the alcohol by means of defiant gas, which may 
be prepared from the simple bodies. They give rise then to benzine, naphthaline, 
and phenic acid. The formation of benzine and of phenic acid from alcohol and 
acetic acid can be established by other experiments. Thus, bromoform, whidt 
results from the action of bromine on alcohol and on acetone, derived from acetic 
acid, may give birth to benzine. It is only necessary to direct the vapour of bromo- 
form over metallic iron heated to dull redness to effect this result. The proportion 
formed, however, is very inconsiderable. Phenic acid, or an analogous body, is formed 
in small quantity when absolute alcohol is heated to redness in sealed tubes, filled 
only to a fifteenth of their volume. This decomposition requires a temperature 
approaching that at which glass softens; the tubes must, therefore, be very strong and 
difficultly fusible. A very large volume of gas is formed, which renders the opening 
of the tubes dangerous; no trace of carbon is deposited. A small quantity of phenic 
acid may be also detected in the liquids obtained by tlie distillation of acetate of soda. 
If these liquids be mixed witli an equal volume of water and the supernatant oil 
separated and agitated with a concentrated alkaline solution, upon supersaturating 
the latter with hydrochloric acid, if the volume of the liquids employed is properly 
proportioned, a few drops separate which possess the physical and chemical properties 
of phenic acid. 

The formation of benzine and of naphthaline under these conditions appears due to 
the following circumstances: — Under the influence of an increased temperature, the 
carbon and hydrogen tend to disunite, and their gradual separation gives rise to 
more and more stable compounds, in which the carbon predominates ; at the same 

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time the molecule becomes complicated and its equivalent increased. It is thus tbiit 
the carbide easiest to obtain is the most hydrogenated, and possesses the lowest 
equiralent, protocarbide of hydrogen, Cx H4. If it is sought to obtain a carbide less 
rich in hydrogen, the bicarbide of hydrogen, a gas is obtained, which contains in the 
same Yolume 3, or 3, 4, &c., times as much carbon as the preceding: olefiant gas, C4 
H4, propylene, Ce H«, &c. If it is wished to push the dehydrogenation still further, 
and to obtain, under the influence of a higher temperature, a quadricarburetted 
hydrogen (Ci H), benzine results, ds He, that is to say, a liquid,'the vapour of which 
contains, in the same volume, three times as much carbon as olefiant gas, and six 
times as much as marsh gas. Lastly, under the influence of a more powerful 
dehydrogenation, a carbide is obtained, of which the vapour contains, in the same 
volume, five times as much carbon as olefiant gas, ten times as much as marsh gas-* 
naphthaline. This, moreover, is not the last term of these complications. We may 
thus look from another point of view in connecting the phenomena described in this 
paper. It has been seen that the formation of olefiant gas, C4 H4, in the distillation 
of the acetates, is simultaneous with the formation of propylene, Ce H«, of butylene, 
Ct Ht, and carbides of the same order. In the pyrogenous products, in coal tar for 
instance, benzine, Cu H«,is accompanied by a whole series of hydrocarbons: benzoene, 
Cu Hs, zylene. Cm Hio, cumene. Cm Hh, &c., which present between themselves and 
to benzine the same difierence (n Cs Hz) as exists between olefiant gas and the 
corresponding carbides. All leads to the idea that the formation of benzine, either 
at the expense of alcohol or acetic acid, or from coal and other analogous bodies, is 
due to the same general causes, and accompanied by the same products. This 
hypothesis, however, requires new verifications, it enlarges the field of synthesis. 
In fact, phenic acid, naphthaline, benzine, and the analogous carbides, present, towards 
benzoic acid and the oxygenated essences, the same relations which connect marsh 
gas and olefiant gas to acetic acid and the alcohols; because naphthaline, benzine, 
phenic acid, &c., are the ultimate products of the decomposition of benzoic acid and 
the oxygenated essences, and without doubt it is by the means of these ultimate 
products of analysis that the synthesis of this order of compounds may be realized. 

Be it as it may, the preceding experiments establish the transformation of alcohol 
and acetic acid into benzine and naphthaline, and consequently the total synthesis of 
these two carbides of hydrogen. 

I}istUlation of the ButyraUa and several other Substances in presence o/the Alkalies. — 
TI16 formation of marsh gas, of olefiant gas, of propylene, &c., in the dry distillation 
of formiate of baryta and acetate of soda is not a special phenomena of these salts. 
A great number of other organic substances distilled with the alkalies give similar 
results; the alkali determines a production of the carbonic acid, and the oxygen is 
separated in that form, leaving the nascent carbon and hydrogen to remain combined, 
forming carbides of hydrogen. Among these carbides some are more simple than the 
body decomposed, as has been long known, and their formation is due to analysis. 
Others, on the contrary, are more complicated than the original substance, and can 
not only regenerate it, but even produce bodies of a higher order. Their formation 
is due to synthesis; they are known from the experiments here described. 

To demonstrate this formation more completely, the results obtained in the dis- 
tillation of the butyrates, of sugar, and of oleic acid are here described. Thes^ are 
essentially analytical ; the last furnishes the best process known for preparing tlie 
bromides of propylene and the analogous carbides. The first, on the contrary, 
analogous to the two others in its final results, presents a more general character, 
because it gives rise not only to carbides containing less carbon in their formula 
than butyric acid, such as olefiant gas and propylene, but also to carbides, which 
contain an equal or superior amount, such as butylene and amylene. Butyric acid, 
Of Hg O^, may be formed either by the oxidation of butylic alcohol, Cs Hio 0«, de- 
rived itself from butylene, or by the transformation of the hydrocyanic ether of 
propylic alcohol, formed from propylene. Now, butylene and propylene are pro- 
duced in the distillation of the acetate.*!, and acetic acid can be formed by means of 
alcohol derived from olefiant gas; we are thus led to admit that butyric acid, add 
consequently the pyrogenous carbides which it forms, can be synthetically formed 
entirely by means of the simple bodies of which it is constituted. These carbides cAn 
then again, in their turn, form alcohols and acids more complicated than butyric 
acid. Thus, starting from the simple bodies, synthesis is enabled to build up, by 
successive degrees, organic compounds of an order more and more complicated. 

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Pure butjrate of baryta, and also butyrate of lime, were submitted to dry diatil- 
lation, sometimes alone and sometimes mixed with an equal weight of iron or of soda- 
lime. The results were most neatly obtained in the presence of the soda-lime, but 
this condition was not favourable to the formation of butylene and amjlene. Ex- 
periment showed that to obtain these bodies it was preferable to distil the butyrate 
of baryta alone. The apparatus used was analogous to that employed in the former 
cases : a stone retort, two cooled flasks to condense the liquids, a flask holding 
sulphuric acid diluted with its own Yolume of water, an eprouTette containing bro- 
mine under water, a washing bottle containing soda, a flask filled with boiled, 
absolute alcohol, intended to dissolve the carbides analogous to marsh gas. 

The gases dissolved by the alcohol consisted of equal volumes of marsh gas and 
hydride of ethyle. Some hydride of propyle might, however, have been present, 
because this gas, mixed with its own volume of marsh gas, gires the same eodio- 
metric results as hydride of ethyle. 

The neutral bromides of the hydrocarbons formed were separated as usual and 
submitted to a series of fractional distillations, by which were obtained : 

1. A trace of a bromide mixed with water, boiling below ISO*'. 

2. Bromide of olefiant gas, boiling at 130°. 

8. Bromide of propylene, boiling at 145^ This product was more abundant than 
all the others. 

4. Bromide of butylene, boiling at 160^ and a little above. 

5. Bromide of amylene, boiling between ITS'* and 180°. 

6. A mixture of non- volatile of bromides, which appeared to belong to the hydro- 
carbons, more complicated than amylene. 

The first five products were decomposed, and the gases analyzed as in other cases. 

The decomposition by boat of the bromides less volatile than that of amylene pre- 
Tented their separation and purification in the same manner. They were, therefore^ 
converted into the more volatile monobromides, bodies which boil 60^ or 80° C. bdotr 
the original compounds, by mixing them first with absolute alcohol, then with 
potash, and gently distilling, precipitating the distilled product with water, and 
again fhu^tiooizing. The pr(^ucfcs, however, were too small to be examined. Several 
experiments were made to deoxydize butyric acid by other processes than t^ 
employment of alkalies. Those only which furnished any results consisted in 
passing this acid over iron heated to a dtUl redness, which furaisfaed principally 
olefiant gas and propylene ; and in treating with nascent hydrogen, « bromifto 
derived from butyric acid. This latter body is obtained by heating to lOO'' for 260 
hours in a thick, sealed flask, a mixture of 1 part of butyric acid and 15 parts <^ 
perbromide of phosphorus, and th^i distilling the products. Between 185^ and 
190* a peculiar liquid passes over, of which the composition resembles a bu^ric 
tribromide, €« H; Bra, derived from butyric acid by substitution of bromine for 
oxygen. An endeavour was made to replace the bromine in this compound 
by hydrogen. As this body is decomposed by water, it was heated in sealed tubes 
to 27 S^' with polysulphide of hydrogen and copper. The gas so formed oonsLsted 
of hydrogen mixed with a few hundredths of hydride of butyle, Cs Hw. 

DisHmiion of Okie Acid.^ThQ formation of hydrocarbc^s in the distillation of 
organic substances, in presence of the alkalies, results from very general causes, and, 
so to say, independent of the nature of the substance decomposed. This formation, 
therefore, majr be observed under the most varied circumstances, and at the expense 
of the most diverse bodies. The analytical nature of these phenomena is already 
well known to Chemists. To results of this class may be added some others more 
particularly intended to furnish an easy and certain means for preparing considerabto 
quantities of the bromides of propylene, butylene, amylene, and anidogous carbides. 
Among the several processes for the preparation of these bodies, iPie following 
Appears the easiest and best :— 

One kilogramme of oleic acid of commerce is mixed with 300 grammes of slaked 
lime, then the oleate so formed with 300 grammes of soda-lime. In defoult of 
oleic add, the crude lime soap obtained with ordinary oil may be employed. The 
mixture is introduced into a stone retort of two litres' capacity; to this is adopted. 
1st, a series of two or three flasks of 1 litre, carefully coded ; 2nd, « flaskoK 
1 litre, containing sulphuric acid diluted with its own volume of water ; 3rd, two 
Qprouvettes, the one containing 750 grammes of bromine and 100 of water, the other, 
250 granmies of bromine and 100 of water— the first should be surrounded with gM 

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water ; '^tb, a flask of 1 litre, containiog soda solation dilated with its own yoLuiao 
of water. The retort is carefully heated, when the products beg^n to pass oyer. In 
aboat two hours tlie distillation is finished. The bromine contuned in the first 
eprouvette is completely decolorized and converted into bromides. The contents 
of the two eprouvettes are mixed together and agitated with a diluted solution of 
caustic soda; then washed several times with water, and set aside. The distiUatioa 
of the oleate of lime is then repeated twice more, and, from the 3 kilogrammes of 
deate of lime and 3 kilogrammes of bromine thus employed, 2 kik^rammes of 
liquids condensed in the two first flasks, and 1200 grammes of bromides of the 
hydrocarbons are ultimately obtained. These 1200 grammes, submitted to a 
systematic series of fractional distillations, furnish in a state of purity 600 of bro>- 
mide of propylene, 100 of bromide of oleflant j$as, 100 of bromide of butylene, 50 of 
bromide of amylene, and 200 to 300 grammes of bromides not Yolatile wiUiont de- 

The process for the preparation of these bromides by means of oleic aQid, 
iumishesmore satisfactory results than any other method, and certainly more so 
tlian the distillation of solid fatty bodies with alkalies, or the decomposition of 
amylic alcohol at a red heat. 

DistUiatkn of Sugar, ^'The formation of the carbides of hydrogen in the distiUa- 
tion of sugar with alkalies, presents particular interest In fact, sugar standi 
entirely apart, in its properties and composition, from the fatty aeids and the 
soTCoal bodies employed in the preceding experiments: it is one of the most essential 
and complex products of yegetable organization. Its centesimal composition, how- 
erer, may be represented as carbon united with the elements of water, that 
resembling acetic acid. It giyes rise to analogous carbides, but in mnch less quaa- 
ti^. The opecation was conducted in the same manner w^ those pveyiously 
described, the sugar or glucose being mixed with Its own weight of soda4ime. firo* 
mides of oUflant gas, propylene, 4uid butylene, were obtained uid separated. If 
glucose is employed, the operation is much more difficult, in consequence of the first 
action which the alkali exerts on this body. The production of oleflant gas in the 
distOlation of sugar gtves rise to a curious observatiou. Until now, sugar could 
only be converted into alcohol by fermei\tation. This body, however, is readily 
fanned from olefiant gas ; consequently, alcohol may be obtained from sugar without 
having recourse to fermentation. 


ITp to the present time the carbides of hydrogen have always been formed by the 
destruction of pre-existiug organic oomponnds* In this destruction, generally ef- 
fected under the influence of heat, the elements of the compound are divided into 
two T*»M*q"*^ portions ; one portion of the oarben and hydrogen being ^sonq^etely 
burned at the expense of the oxygen, while the other portion of the elements ave 
separated in the form of principles more combustible than the original body. These 
principles axegenerally more simple, not only in composition hot also in the number 
of equivalents of «arbon contained in their formula. This change, however, is 
purely ana^jrtical ; it does not permit the acconq>lishmeat of the first step of sya- 
tfaads and the formation of any of the carbides of hydrogen, because it presupposes 
the existence of the combinations of carbon with hydrogen, which is precisely what 
it is intended to effect. It is easy to prove this by recalling the processes now em- 
ployed by Chemists in the preparation of the carburetted hydrogens. Thus, marsh 
gas was at first extracted from the products of the Hxxitaneeus deoompesition of 
vegetable d^ris, afterwards forsoed by decomposing oiganic snbstanoes, particularly 
the acetates, with heat. Oleflant gas, formed in the dry distiUation of a great number 
of oi^ianic substances, is generally prepared with ordinanr alcohol, produced by 
fermentation fh>m sugar. As to propylene, butylene, amylene, and analogous oar- 
bides, they are prqiared either by means of the corresponding alcohols, or by the 
dry distillation of a great number of salts, all more complicated than the resultfaog 
carbides. All these carbides belong to one series, all cootam equal equivalents ef 
carbon and hydrogen, Imt are mere and more condensed. NaphthaUne and beoaine 
do not belong to this series, but, like the preceding, are only prepared from organic 
substances. It may be seen from all these cases that the formation of the hydro- 
carbons resulted, until now, fr(Hn analytical phenomena, from a partition, in eon- 
sequence of which the elements of a complex organic «ubstanoe are gBHiped into 
more simple compounds. In the researches which ase now d es cri bed an -eiitiielir 

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opposite ooane was pursued, and the sTnthesis of the carhuretted hydrogens and 
alcohols realized. 

Marsh gas may be formed by the distillation of formiate of baryta, wliich has 
been produced with the oxide of carbon extracted from carbonate of baryta. It may 
also be produced by means oS sulphide of carbon. Olefiant gas is also formed in the 
distillation of formiate of baryta, and may be obtained from sulphide of carbon. 
Propylene is formed in the distillation of formiate of baryta. Butylene and amylene 
are formed in the distillation of acetate of soda, which is derived from the alcohol 
formed by means of the oleflant gas prepared by the preceding process. Naphthaline 
is ft)rmed by means of sulphide of carbon, by means of alcohol, and also of acetic 

Benzine is formed by means of alcohol or acetic acid, which may be prepared firom 
oleflant gas. 

The starting-point of the synthesis of organic compounds is thus assured^it 
remains to convert these carbides into oxygen compounds; that is to say, to re- 
verse the ordinary conditions of the production of these carbides. This has been 
effected, and the corresponding alcohols obtained. 

Until now, the various alcohols were produced by several processes from com- 
pounds more complicated than themselves, and to which they were not connected 
by any general and regular relation. Thus, methylic alcohol or wood-spirit was 
found among the numerous products of the distillation of wood, an organized vege- 
table substance. Ordinary alcohol is a normal and regular product of the fermenta- 
tion of sugar; its only source, therefore, being an immediate principle selected from 
the vegetable kingdom. The amyiic, butylic, and propylic alcohols were the acces- 
sory, if not accidental, products of fermentation. Caprylic alcohol was formed in 
the distillation of castor oil in the presence of alkalies. Ethalic, cerylic, and 
melissic alcohols were formed by means of spermaceti and certain kinds of wax, 
which result from the combination of the fatty acids with these alcohols. 

Fur these various and analytical processes are substituted direct and regular 
general methods, which enable the alcohols to be formed by means of the hydro- 
carbons. Thus methylic alcohol has been formed with marsh gas by replacing an 
eqaivalent of hydrogen by chlorine and decomposing the hydrochloric, methyl-ether 
so formed, by potash. Yinic and propylic alcohols have been formed by combining 
oleflant gas and propylene with sulphuric acid, and then decomposing this combina- 
tion with water. The elements of water remain united to the hydrocarbon. Lastly, 
the propylic, amyiic, caprylic, and ethalic alcohols, and probably all the others, can 
be obtained by means of their hydrochloric, hydriodic, or hydrobromic others which 
result from the union of the hydrogen acid with the carbides of hydrogen correspond- 
ing. The total synthesis of all the alcohols, the corresponding hydrocarbons of 
which have been produced from the simple bodies, is thus realized. These alcohols 
have now become, owing to the labours of modem Chemists, the starting-point of 
the migority of other organic compounds. To realize the total synthesis of the oar- 
bides of hydrogen and the alcohols is then to effect the synthesis of an almost 
infinite number of organic compounds, natural as well as artifldal, by means of the 
simple bodies which enter into their constitution. — ExtracUd firm the AnnaL des 
Chim. et de Phy, 


IM answer to several correspondents on this subject, we subjoin the following, 
which has appeared in the medical journals: — 

'*The solution of this persalt is now almost universally employed to arrest 
arterial or venous hssmorrhage, resulting either from accident, or as a consequence 
of surgical operations. It has also been found usefhl in intestinal haemorrhage; in 
one case in particular, M. Demarquay, of Paris, administered, morning and evening, 
enemata of seven ounces of fluid, with twenty drops of the concentrated solution of 
perchloride of iron, and a tablespoonful of the perchloride syrup (Ave or six drops to 
the tablespoonful), where the haemorrhage from the bowels was considerable, and had 
resisted the ordinary remedies. The result was extremely satisfactory. The same sur- 
geon relates a second case of extensive abscess of the shoulder, where an injection of 
iodine caused severe haemorrhage. This was arrested by throwing into the sac a 
lotion composed of seven ounces of water and ten drops of the perchloride. 

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" In gonorrhoea and leucorrhoea, injections of the perchloride have been tried with 
snccess in weak and lymphatic subjects, the proportion of the perchloride being 
twenty drops to three ounces and a half of water." 

*' As A H^uosTATic— 1. As a local or external hemostatic, 3 to 5 parts chloride 
of iron to 100 parts of distilled water. Lint soaked .in this mixture is to be applied 
with more or less pressure on the seat of hemorrhage. 2. As an internal haemo- 
static, 1 part of chloride of iron to 500 of distilled water, sweetened to taste. One 
tablespoon ful to be giren every hour, or ofteuer if necessary. This formula suffices 
to check the fiercest hasmorrhage within twenty-four hours. The same formula, 
without sugar, forms a useful uterine injection or astringent lavement in cholera 
or colliquatiye diarrhoea. 3. A hemostatic and resolvent ointment is composed 
of 4 to 15 parts of chloride of iron to 30 of axunge.*' 

In a letter in the Medical Oazeite, Aug. 27 th, Mr. J. Zachariah Lawrence states 
that having, a few months i^po, drawn the attention of the profession to the 
powerful local styptic properties of the solid perchloride of iron, he has since that 
time found a supenor method of employing it. *'If the solid perchloride of iron be 
kept in a bottle, a small portion of it after a time deliquesces into a thick brown fluid, 
which is constantly kept in a state of super-saturation by the unddiquesced por- 
tions of the salt. This liquid, applied by means of a spun-glass brush to a bleeding 
tnrftce, arrests the bleeding almost instantaneously. This mode of applfcation is 
particQlarly valuable in applying the styptic to such cases as excision of the tonsils, 
bleeding fi-om the deeper-seated gums, &c,** 


This process, puUished by M. Guillermond in the Gazette MSdieale of Lyons, is a 
modification of one alieady published by the same writer in 1847. The following is 
the nrocess: — ^Take twenty grammes of yellow bark, powder it without leaving any 
residue^ and pour upon the powder alcohol at 76*', in sufficient quantity to form a 
soft paste, which is to be heated for a few minutes until the fibre is thoroughly 
penetrated by the liquid; then introduce into the paste ten grammes of hydrated 
ume in fine powder ; mix thoroughly, so as to form a homogeneous mass, which is 
to be heated on a plate until all humidity is completely eliminated. This powder is 
afterwards to be treated with 100 grammes of rectified sulphuric ether, which will 
dissdve and remove all the quinine. This ether is then to be rapidly evaporated at 
the heat, of boiling water, and the residue will contain only the quinine and a small 
proportion of a yellow oolonring matter, which may be neglected. In order to 
determine the quantity of quinine obtained, either of the three following methods 
may be adopted:— 

1. Dry completely the ethereal residue. Its weight will give that of the quinine, 
pins the portion of colouring matter, the quantity of which is insignificant. 2. Dis- 
solve the residue in a little alcohol and acidulate it with very dilute sulphuric acid, 
the saturating power of which for quinine is ascertained. For tliis purpose a 
graduated tube may be employed, so that a given quantity of the dilute acid 
corresponds to one gramme of quinine. 3. Weigh the sulphate of quinine which is 
obtained. It may be dried in a few moments by exposing it to the sun or to the 
heat of a stove. 

This process, according to M. Guillermond, is recommended by its simplicity, and 
the celerity with which the result is obtained, for only about three hours are re- 
quired in the operation; and the plan possesses the additional advantage of sepa- 
rating completely the whole of the alkaloid.^Brit. and For, Med, Rev,, from BuU. 
Gen. de Ther. Oct. 30/A, 1858.— American Journal of Pharmacy. 


M. BoiTROuioNON, SO Well known in Paris by his successful researches on " the 
acaros scabiei,'' has published in the Gazette Medicale the following formula. One 
general firiaion, not preceded by soap ablutions, is sufficient:— Yelks of two eggs; 
essence of lavender, lemon, and mint, of each seventy-five drops; essence of cloves 
and cinnamon, of each 120 drops; gum tragacanth, half a drachm; well pounded sul- 
phur, twenty-six drachms; glycerine, thirty-two drachms. Total weight, neariy 
eleven ounces. Mix the essences with the yelks of egg, add the gum tragacanth, 

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^ make » good mneilae^, and then add ywj gradually the glycerine and Bolt^iiar. 
Many coiee hare been obtained by this prepmtion, which has the adranta^ of 
giying no pain. The well-known Hdmeric onxtment being really luefol, M. 
BonrgoignoQ has modified itj and snbstitnted' glycerine for the anmge. In the 
altered form the preparation is not any dearer, as eflicacions, and lesi painM than 
tiie original ointment. It does not grease the dotbes, and has aa agreeable perfome. 
Onm tragacanth, fifteen grains; carbonate of potash, tidrteen dradims; well pounded 
•olpimr^ twenty-six- drachms; glycerine, fif^two drachms; essence of larender, 
jeoMin, mint, doTea, and cinnamon, of each fifteen drops. Tbtal weight, nearly 
efeven onnees: make a nradlage with the gum and one ounce of g^oerine, add the 
carbonate, mlr until it is dissolred, and then gradually add the sniphnr and glycerine; 
lastly, pour in the essences. With this compound, Bl Bourgnignon advises two 
general fHctlons of half an hour, within twelTe hours of each other, and followed, 
twenty-four hours afterwards, by a simple warm bath, as the glycerine is sdnble in 
water. IVo-thirds of the preparation should be used for the first firicttoir„ the other 
lliird fixr the second. — Lancet. 

M. YsxA, of Turin, arguing from the &ct shown by M. Bernard, in 1850, that 
the woorara poison is a direct sedative of the motor nerves, undertook a series of 
experiments which dearly showed the antagonism between strychnine and woorara. 
Bdng appointed to the French Military Hospital of Turin during the late campaign, 
and sedng eeveral cases of tetanus wluch had resisted opiates, ether, &c., M. Yella 
resolved to try woorara. The first trials were made upon two patients who had 
been suffering from tetanus for fevr and five days respectivdy, in consequence of 
gnorshot wounds. Ttny were both la a semi-asphyaiated and de^erate stattti The 
woorara produced a general relaxation of the muscular qrstem, wluweapoa the 
patients mlt much relief; bat they both died. The same treaiment was, however, 
employed upon a third patient, who reoovered. He was a sergeant, tUtrty-ftveyeam 
old, tetanic from a gui»>shot wound of the fool Two grains of woorara were 
dissolved in nine drachma of watery and compresses meisteaed with the sdutioft 
were applied to the wound; the strength being gradually inereased to fifteen grauu* 
in fourteen drachms of water. For the first font days the compresses- were reneired 
every third hour; afterwards every fifth hour, up to the twelfth- day, wlaea the 
changes were reduced to three and two ia the twenty-fi^nr hoarsi In twenty-two 
days the patient could leave his bed, and retomed ts France thirty-six daysk after 
the first api^caticm of the woorsra, — LanotL 

Ma. AmrAK, builder, Downfidd, wishing to ham hon^tsken from a hive without 
killing the bees, and having before heard of chloraftnm being used, felt anxious to 
try the experiment He first dosed the doorway, then covered the hive with adoth 
to shut out the light as much as possible, after which he coaunenced to blow 
chloroform into the hive. When it was discovered that the bees had iUlen adeep. 
they were easily removed to another hive without harm to anyone^ and next morning 
were all awake and in a livdy state, humming around their hrve^— 2>iai<ies Adoeriuer. 

A FBiza of £100 has been placed at the disposal of the Council of the Sodety of 
Arts, by Sir W. C. Trevdyan, Bart., to be awarded for ** the best Essay on the 
Applications of the Marine Algae and their Products, as Food or Miedidne for Man 
and Domestic Animals, or for Dydng and other MaauflBCturing Purposes." 

We are requested to call the attention of our Members, and Chemists in general, 
to the quality of the flint-glass used by several manufacturers of bottles, the use of 
which by Chemists is attended with, serious inconvenience. From its ffradnal de- 
composition the excess of alkaU contained in this glass effloresces on the sur£M», 
and acts chemically on many substances, particularly on hydrocyanic acid, which it 
^eedily blackens. After the most careful cleanhig of the surfkce of the bottles 
made with this glass, th^ gradually become dull,and give the appearance of dirty 
bottles having been employed. 

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Bb. 8ufON8» of Alkei^ in Belgium* has just had the mkftxrtwitt of seeing a child of 
seven yean perish, to whom he had given santonine (as he thought) as a yermlAige* 
On eicamination of the bottle firom which the powders had been prepared, it was 
found that, though labelled santonine hy M. Degheest, the wholesale druggist who 
had ddivered the bottle, the hater contained a powder composed of one-sixth of 
santonine and five-sixths of strychnine. The Court before whom this sad affiui was 
brought decided that the heaviest penalty should be inflicted upon M. Degheest and 
his assistant, as their warehouses were found in a most irregular and dangerous state 
as regards poisonous substances. Dr. Simons^ though evidently guiltless, was 
lightly fined, as, according to the letter of the law, he was bound to examine and 
test the mediehud substances he received from the wholesale druggist. It is, 
however, p^ectly plain to every one^ that the busy ooontxy practitioner cannot find 
time for Midi investigation, besides not being snAcienily aoovstomed te the uMessaiy 
manq^vhitiOBS.*— Z?«Mw MUdiaal Pt^m*, 


Ah inquest was held on Thursday, Sept. Ist, at the Chehea Workhouse, on the 
bo^ of Mary Newnes» a married woman, aged 32, who for the last thirteen years 
had been in the service of the late Dowager Countess of Norbury, and whose 
husband was the countess's coachman. Since the death of her mistress, to whom 
the dece as ed was very much attached, she had been in a desponding way, and on 
Ttnsday last she was found suffering from the efRtots of oxalic add, from wtiioh she 
shortly afterwards expired. Verdict — ^Temporary insanity; 


Qv Thursday, September 16 th, Bobert G. Visick, of Brighton, committed soielde 
by taidng strydinijie. The deceased was formerly in business as a Chemist. On 
tne day above mentioned his son went to his room, and deceased told him he had 
taken aoraetiiing to destroy himself. Dr. Davies was sent for» who deposed : — ** 1 
fi>nnd him strongly convulsed with every symptom of tetanus. I inquired of Mr«» 
Yisiok what it was» At first she told me she did not know, but afterwards said he 
had taken poison. I inquired what poison. She made no reply, which I attributed 
of mind. I then said to deceased, * What poison have you taken ? ' 

to her distress of mind. I then said to deceased, * What poison have you 1 
He z^Uad^ * Strychnine.' I then asked him how much, but he said he could not 
teU. Death shortly afterwards ensued." Evidence was given that deceased had 
been labouring under mental distress, and a verdict of ^ Temporary insanity" waa 

IiAST week, some children belonging to the town of Sevenoaks went out blackberry 
gatherings axid one of them, a lad about ten years of age, was induced to eat some 
berries which he found growing in Eaiole Park, and which proved to be the bella- 
donna, or deadly nightshade, one of the most dangerous of the "narootico-irritant " 
class. The poisonous effect of the berries soon became visible^ and shortly after his 
arrival home he appeared in a state of extreme intoxication. This was afterwards 
followed by great delirium and total blindness, althoug]^ the eyelids were widely 
extended,, as if in earnest gaze. For some time his life was despaired of, but owing 
to the unremitting attention of the parish surgeon, the lad is going on favourably, 
although still in a precarious condition. — Sowth-EaaUm (^Maidslone) OazetiB, and 
Lancet, Sept. IQth. 


It is our melancholy duty to record the death of this g^itlenum^ at his residence 
at Tumham Green, on the morning of the 7th of September. Prof. Henfrey has 
long been known as an excellent histologist and sound vegetable physiologist. 
EspeciaUy conversant with the botanical literature of the Germans, it has been to 
his pen that we owe many valuable dissertations upon subjects little attended to in 
England* The papers in the Mkrographic JHotkmary by himself and his firiend Dr. 
Qriflith are justly celebrated for their accuracy as well as skilful oondensation. The 

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physiological part . of his. Elementary Course of Botany^ and the papers on vegetable 
Btmcture now in conne of publication in the Joumai of the Royal AgricuUural Society ^ 
urill always be regarded as the productions of one who was not only familiar with 
the truths of scierice, but able to render them attractive to those who are little 
accustomed to think upon those subjects. In private life he was endeared to his 
fHends bv the gentleness of his manners and the genuine kindness of his nature; 
while to his young family his loss is irreparable. Professor Henfrey was a Fellow 
of the Royal and Linnean Societies, a Member of the Council of the Horticultural 
Society, Professor of Botany in King's College, London, and Examiner in Natural 
Science to the Royal Military Academy and the Society of Arts. He died in the 
thirty-ninth year of his age. — Oardenere' Chronicle and AgricuUural Gazette, 


The DisraNsiNO and Salb ov Poisons. — Mr, Smeeton (Leeds) calls attention to 
a letter in the Lancet, Sept. 1 0th, on this subject, in which a case is related of a 
Physician ordering atropine, tincture of aconite, and soap liniment, as an embro- 
cation, and chloroform and hydrocyanic acid to be taken as drops. Our corre- 
spondent thinks the case given applies to the prescriber rather than the dispenser. 
This is obyious, and it is rather strange that a Surgeon should require some 
legislative enactment to restrict the prescribing of poisons by a Physioian. 

Oxford Middlb-glass Exakinatioit. — We see with much pleasure that Mr. 
Hooper Tolbort, an apprentice of Mr. Froud, of Dorchester, stood at the head of all 
the candidates for honours. We gladly g^ve publicity to this fact, as an indication 
of what may be accomplished by the diligent application to study in spare hours. 

Ammonia from thb Waste Gases of the Vitriol Chamber. — Mr, C, Griffin 
(Leamington Priors) states, in reply to Mr. Tanner's claim, that he has searched the 
List of patents from the earliest period, and cannot find any patent in the name.of 
Tanner for making ammonia from the nitrogen of vitriol works, or for anything 
relating to that manufacture. He also thinks that Mr. Tanner should have s^ven 
his address. 

J, B, (Islington).— (I.) We know of no formula for ointment of chloride of zinc 
(2.) No. 

A, P, S, (London). — (I.) Chloroform, Jj., in a prescription, would be one ounce 
by measure. (2.) No particular scent is intended. 

R, G, (Grantham). — SumhuL Vol. xi., page 358, and vol. xv., pi^^e 508. 

A Eegistered Apprentice (Bradford). — Latin Pharmacopcna, Seleeia i Preec r iptia, 
Fownes's Manual of Chemistryf Koyle's or Pereira's Materia MedicOj Balfbui^s 
Manual of Botany, 

M, J, F, ^Devonport) should apply by letter to the Secretary, 17, Bloomsbnry Sq. 

A Victim (Newcastle) sends us a copy of Chapman's Veterinarian's Pharmacoptna, 
price 2s. 6cf., from the diaracter of which he considers himself victimized in having 
made the purchase, and wishes to caution others. 

B, (ManchesterV — (1.) The conditions relating to the Botanical Prize will bo 
found in the April number of this Joumai, page 501. (2.) Apply by letter to the 
Secretary, 17, Bloomsbury Square. (3.) Unless equivalent proportions are used, 
the pirecipitate is re-dissolved. 

M. G. (Kennington). — Probably the seed of a species of palm; but the specimen ' 
sent is too imperfect to enable us to speak positively. * 

A Member (London) wishes for forraulsB for " Crocy's Acid Nitrate of Silver," and 
" Boinet's Iodized Bread." 

M, (London^— Iodizing Solution Vol. xviii., page 200. 

Syr. Ferri lodidi,— The author of a paper on this subject, signed E. S., is requested 
to communicate his name to the Editors. The paper is considered suitable for pub- 
lication with the author*s name. 

J, F, T, (Birmingham), G, W, (Brighton), and M. P, S, (West Ham), in our next. 

ERRAxnif. — Page 194, line 23 from top, /or Hy CI, read Hg CI. 

Instructions from Members and Associates, respecting the transmission 
of the Joumai, before the 25th of the month, to the Secretary, £lia8 
Bbbmeibob, 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Advertisements (not later than the 23rd) to Mr. CfTURCHiLL» New 
Burlington St. Other communications to the Editors, 17, Bloomsbury Sq. 

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VOL. I.— No. v.— NOVEMBER Ist, 1859. 


Ik another part of this Journal will be found a letter addressed to the Goremor 
and Company of the Apothecaries' Hall of Dublin by Mr. John Grattan, of Belfast, 
on a subject which our readers on this side of the Channel may have some diffi- 
culty in fully comprehending without further explanation than is there given of 
the state of Pharmacy in Ireland, and of the controversy which has existed for 
some months between the Irish College of Physicians and the legal representatives 
of Pharmacy in that country. In Ireland, the exercise of the art of Pharmacy, 
as a profession, is entrusted by the Legislature exclusively to those {who have 
received a licence from the Company of the Apothecaries' Hall of Dublin, and 
who style themselves Apothecaries. Druggists are mere dealers in Drugs, and 
are not empowered to dispense medicines. The Irish Druggist, therefore, is not 
a Pharmaceutist, he diners entirely from the Chemist and Druggist in this 
country, being restricted from the exercise of the art of Pharmacy. The Irish 
Apothecaries, since the year 1791, have been the only legally recognized Phar- 
maceutists. Iq the first instance they were very nearly what the Pharmaceutical 
Chemists now are in England, excepting that m addition to their beinff legally 
recognized as the qualified dealers in, and dispensers of, medicines, they were 
on the one hand invested with the exclusive right to dispense Physicians' pre- 
scriptions, and on the other hand they were not restrictea from the practice of 
medicine, which in a subordinate degree, and usually subject to the directions of 
the Physician, had always formed part of the duties of the Apothecary. This at 
least has been the construction put upon the law affecting Apothecaries in 
Ireland. In 1791, an Act was passed "for the more effectuiuly preserving the 
health of his Majesty's subjects, for erecting an Apothecaries' Hall in the city of 
Dublin, and regulating the profession of an Apothecary throughout the kingdom 
of Ireland." This Act is known as the Apothecaries Act of Ireland, and by it 
the exercise of the art of Pharmacy is governed in that country. It provides 
for the establishment of a "companj^ or firaternit]^ of judicious Apothecaries well 
skilled in preparing and compounding of medicines," and for the erection of a 
HaU, ** amplv supplied with medicines of the purest quality, prepared under the 
inspection of persons well skilled in the art and mystery of such preparations." 
The Company was to consist of subscribers, being Apothecaries resident in the 
city of Dublin or within the suburbs or liberties thereof, who should subscribe one 
hundred pounds each, and the number of whom should not exceed sixty. The 
sum thus subscribed was to be applied for the establishment of the Irish Apothe- 
caries* Hall, and the Company was to be called *'the Governor and Company of 
the Apothecaries' Hall of the city of Dublin." The Act, however, not only 
contemplated the establishment of '*an Apothecaries' Hall,'* it was also to 
regulate the profession of an Apothecary throughout the kingdom of Ireland. It 
therefore, states, 

And in as mnch as many dangerous and fatal consequences have heretofore arisen 
from the practice of taking as apprentices to the art and mjstery of an Apothecary, 

VOL. I. 8 

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boys or persons disqualified by the want of proper education, to prepare or vend 
medicine, not being capable of learning their nature, difference, effects, and qualities, 
to the imminent hazard of the lives of his Majesty's faithful and loyal subjects, be it 
enacted by the authority aforesaid, that from and after the twenty-fourth, day of 
June, in the year One thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, no person or persona 
shall be received, taken, indented, or employed as an apprentice, foreman, or 
shopman to any Apothecary throughout the kingdom of Ireland, until he or they 
shall be examined by the governor or deputy-governor and directors of the 
Apothecaries' Hall of Dublin, any five to make a quorum, who are hereby autho- 
rized and required to examine into the education and qualifications of such person 
or persons who shaU apply to them for that purpose, and the msgority of such 
examiners are hereby authorized and empowered after such examination to certify 
that such person or persons so applying to them, as shall appear to such examiners 
properly qualified to becomp .an apprentice or apprentices, journeyman or journey- 
men, to learn or transact tfii^ business of an Apothecary, in the manner or to the 
e&el fioUowingy that is to say: 

''To oU to whom these presents shall come greeting, know ye, that we the 
governor, deputy-governor, and directors of the Apothecaries' Hall of Dublin, have 
this di^ duly and carefully examined A. B., the son of C. D., of^ or late of 
[as the case may bel, in the county of ^ • and we think him properly 

educated or quslified to become an apprentice or journeyman [as the case may be], 
to learn or transact the business of an Apothecary, and we do hereby certify the 
same. Given under our seal, the day of , in the year of our 


In the event of a candidate for this certificate being rejected, the Act specifies 
that he may present himself again for examination iSter a lapse of six months, 
and if he be a second time rejected, he may appeal to a general council of the 
Company, or to the subscribers at large. 

The Act also provides for the exammation of all those who should theroafler 
commence business as Apothecaries in Ireland. It says : 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that from and after the 
twenty-fourth day of June, in the year of our Lord One thousand seven hundred 
and ninety-one, no person shall open shop, or act in the art or mystery of an 
Apothecary within the kingdom of Ireland, until such person shall have been 
examined as to his qualification and knowledge of the business by such persona and 
in such manner as herein before mentioned and required for the examination of 
persons applying to become apprentices or shopmen ; which examiners shall take 
the oath l^fore mentioned in manner as herein before required, and shall grant or 
xefiise to the person so applying, a certificate to open a shop, or follow the art 
and mystery of an Apothecary, within the kingdom of Ireland, with the like remedy 
of appeal as herein before mentioned. 

The same appeal is here provided for as in the case of apprentices and shopmen, 
but in addition to this, the candidate for a licence to open shop, if rejected by 
the examiners and by the general council or subscribers at large, may, if he 
think fit, appeal, within eight da^s, to the King and Queen's College of Physicians 
in Ireland, who shall examine him, and may reverse the decision of the Apothe- 
caries' Hall, and grant a certificate, which ^^shall^e as good, valid, and effectual 
in law** as iiie other. The examinations are to be open to all Apothecaries who 
may wish to be present. There are clauses specifying that no Apothecary in 
Ireland shall take an apprentice for a shorter term than seven years, nor 
take an apprentice or shopman without a certificate, nor open sho]^ without 
having been duly examined and licensed, subject to a penalty m either 
case of twenty poimds, to be recovered by the (rovcmor and Company of the 
Apothecaries Hall of Dublin, and appbed to the use of the said Company. 
There is also a clause specifying that no Apothecary in Ireland *' shall grind, 
compound, sell, or keep any arsenic, oils or colours for painters' use, in the shop 
or room ifdierein he compounds medicines,** under a penalty of five pounds. 

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The only exemption from the application of the proTistons of this Act are as 
follows : — 

And proTided also, that nothing herein contained shall extend or he construed to 
extend to any apprentice or shopman, or Apothecary's foreman, or owner of the 
shop, or manager in or about the business of an Apothecary as aforesaid, who shall 
appear to have been really and bomd fide taken, received, indented, or hired, or to 
haTe opened shop before the passing of this Act 

No mention is made throughout the Act of Chemists and Dru^rgists as having 
anything to do with the dispensing of medicines; it seems to have been 
assumed that this duty belonged entirely to the Apothecary ; indeed, the term 
Druggist occurs only in a clause at the end of the Act, relating to the sale of 
arsenic, where it states that "every Apothecary, Druggist, or other person 
selling any c^uantity less than one pound weight of arsenic,'^ shall enter the sales 
in a book, with the names of the persons purchasing the same. 

It is obvious from the provisions and general wording of this Act, that it was 
intended for the regulation of the practice of Pharmacy in Ireland^ with the 
Tiew of ensuring to the public a supply of good and pure medicines, and a cla» 
of men qualified and capable accurately to dispense the prescriptions of medical 
men, as well as otherwise to supply the public with the medicines they required. 
There is no reference anywhere in the Act to the requirement by the Apothe- 
cary of a qualification to practise medicine, or of any other qualification than 
that involved in the preparation, dispensing, and sale of medicines. So much is 
this the case, that any one reading the Act, and having no other means of 
judging, woidd conclude that the Irish Apothecary was a Pharmaceutist and 
nothing else. That the sole object of the Act was, at the time of its passing 
and long aflerwards, understood to be what we have represented, is further 
proved by the conduct of those by whom the law was carried into efFect. The 
Act does not specify what was to be the nature of the examination by which the 

aualification of Apothecaries should be tested. This was left to the A'pothecaries 
tiemselves, the examining body, and by them it was decided that the examina- 
tions should be confined to Chemistry, rharmacy, Materia Medica, and Botany, 
precisely the subjects comprised in the examinations of the Pharmaceutical 
Sodety of Great iBritain. For nearly fifty years after the passing of the 'Act it 
was carried out in the spirit of a Pharmacy Act. Our correspondent, Mr. 
Grattan, became a Licentiate in 1823, after passing an examination in the four 
subjects named above, and even so late as the year 1838 the certificate issued 
by the Company was in the following words : — 

To all to whom these presents shall come greeting, know ye, that we, the 
governor, deputy-governor, and directors of the Apothecaries' Hall, Dublin, have 
this day duly and carefully examined A. B. in Chemistry, Pharmacy, Materia 
Medica, and Medical Botany, &c., and we think him properly qualified to commence 
the profession of an Apothecary, and we hereby certify the same. Given under our 
lumds, &c 

Up to this time the Irish Apothecary was not required to possess any 
qnahfication for practising as a medical man. His certificate was a licence to 
cpen diop and carry on husinMB as an Apothecary, and his quahficatioQ was 
confined to subjects relating to practical Pharmacy. But with the example of 
the English Apothecaries before them, with an Act of Parliament of a very 
elastic character, in which there is no definition, except by inference, of what an 
Irish Apothecary should be, with a complete monopoly of all the dispensing 
business of the country, and with no restriction, as they conceived, to the 
acquirement, in addition to this, of a fair share of medical practice, the 
Apothecaries in Ireland have been tempted and drawn away from their 
legitimate calling, and now claim to be as completely Medical Practitioners as 
those who bear the same name in England. It is this claim, which has 


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been brought more prominently into notice in connexion -with the working of 
the new Medical Act, that has called forth from the King and Queen's College 
of Physicians in Ireland a ** Statement," in which they say — 

This being the first occasion on which this claim has come before the College in 
an official and authentic shape, the President and Fellows consider it their dutr 
formally to expose the groundless nature of a pretension which, if sustained, would, 
they feel oouTinced, prove detrimental to the interests, not only of the profession of 
Medicine^ but of the art of Pharmacy, in Ireland.'* 

They further say — 

The President and Fellows are too sensible of the great advantages to the profes- 
sion and the public which a special class of Pharmaceutists in Ireland secures, to 
desire that the monopoly of the Apothecaries' Hall of Dublin, as regards the 
qualifying of Pharmaceutists, should be removed; and they therefore cannot but 
approve of SecUon 55 in the Medical Act, which secures to the Company a con- 
tinuance of that exclusive privilege. It is, however, with regret that they deem it 
their duty to observe, that the Company of the Apothecaries' HaU of Dublin, in its 
ambition to assume the province of a body qualifying in Physic, has practically 
discountenanced the pursuit of Pharmacy, the object of its incorporation, not only 
by compelling the candidates for its certificates to complete a course of education, 
and undergo an examination, in which anatomy, the science and practice of medicine 
and surgery, are prominent subjects, but, by not requiring apprentices to serve for a 
longer time than three years — a regulation which, while it acts as a discouragement 
to the practice of Pharmacy, is in effect a violation of the Act of Parliament, 
which requires a seven years' apprenticeship, and is incompatible with the oath 
which every Apothecary takes upon his admission into the Company as a share- 

It is important to observe carefully the marked distinction that exists between 
the London Apothecary and the Apothecary of Dublin. By the Act 55 Geo. III., 
chap. 194, the Master, Wardens, and Society of Apothecaries of London are 
expressly authorized and required to examine all persons applying to them— *< who, 
in addition to an apprenticeship of five years, had previously produced testimonials 
of a SUFFICIENT MEDICAL EDUCATION (Sect. 15), foF the purposc of ascertaining the 
skill and ability of sucli in the science anj> pbactice of medicine" (Sectw4) ; and 
to license them accordingly: provided that nothing in the Act shall affect Chemists 
and Druggists in the buying, preparing, compounding, dispensing, and ** vending of 
drugs, medicines, and medicinal compounds, wholesale and retail" (Sect. 28). 

It is almost superfluous to repeat that no such power has been conferred upon the 
Apothecaries' Company of Dublin. Persons possessing its certificate are qualified 
only in the "art and mystery of an Apothecary;" for general purposes Uiey are 
Pharmaceutists, being somewhat similar to the Chemist in England. But the 
Legislature has passed no enactment which would support the assumption of the 
Company that the certificate of that body confers upon its possessor a statutable 
right to practise Physic. 

The reply to this Statement, signed by the Secretary on behalf of the 
Governor and Company of the Apothecaries' Hall of Dublin, is the document 
to which Mr. Grattan*s letter particularly refers. The subject is one of 
considerable^ impoi'tance, involving as it does the character of the Pharmaceu-^ 
tical profession m L^land, and it cannot be devoid of interest to the Members 
of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. If the Apothecaries in Ireland 
are determined to follow the example of those who bear the name in England, 
and, relinquishing Pharmacy as tneir special calling, become General Prac- 
titioners in Medicine and Surgery, it will become necessary to provide for the 
proper exercise of the art of Pharmacy there through the medium of some other 
body than that to which it is now entrusted. 

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AT A MEETING OF TUE COUNCIL, 5th October, 1859, 

Present — Messrs. Bird, Bottle, Brew, Bucklee, Cupiss, Davenport, Haabar/, Herring, 
Hollier, Meggeson, Morson, and Squire, the following were elected 


Halifax Gill, Hugh 

Kettering Watson, DaWd 

London Yates, Francis 


Allen, James Ilore Barnstaple 

Baker, Alfred Philip Cosham 

Hinton, Henry Archibald London 

Madgwick, William Butler r Alresford 

Mathew, John Alfred Cape Town 

Thompson, Charles Henry Huddersficld 

Yideon, Charles London 


Delf, Frederick Daniel Southampton 

Giddings, William H. C London 

Holmes, William C London 

Hooper, Frank London 


AllansoD, Greorge Mr. AUanson Harrogate 

Beavan, Alfred James ...Mr. Matthews Mile End 

Butler, Edwin Mr. Dowman - Southampton 

Dawson, Oliver Robert... Mr. Smith Southampton 

Ekin, Charles Messrs. Argles, Son, & Stonham... Maids tone 

Fearneley, J. William ...Mr. Gamble Grantham 

Holmes, E.Morell Mr. Hayward 47,CheyneWalk,CW8€a 

Laurens, F. Lempri^re... Messrs. Ereaut Jersey 

Lescher, Frank H Messrs. Evans, Lescher, & Evans... 60, Bartholomew Close 

Lock, Edward Mr. Haydon Fordingbridge 

Martin, Frederick Mr. Candler Margate 

Metcalfe, John Sykes ...Mr. Mander Preston 

Bidding, William Mr. Marris 37, Berners Street 

Smyth, Samuel Mr. Sims 8, Hemingford PL,Barn8- 

Sutclifie, J. Clarkson Mr. Strachan Barnsley [bury 

White, Alfred Mr. Mount Canterbury 


£ 9. <L 

Allan, William, Dumfries 10 

Allen, Messrs., & Co., 38, Charterhouse Square 2 2 

Atkins, Samuel R., Salisbury 1 

Baildon, Henry C, Edinburch 110 

Baildon, William, Edinburch 1 1 

Baker, Messrs., Chelmsford 5 

Baker, William, Retford I I 

Barron, William, Cheltenham 110 

Bedford, Joseph, 27, Haymarket I I 

Blandford, John F., 9, Bruton Street 10 6 

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£ 9. d, 

Blansbard, George, Edinburgh 110 

Blanshard, Thomaa, Edinburgh 1 1 

Brauwell, George, Liverpool 1 I 

Brewer, Eli, 4 8, Duke Street, Manchester Square J 1 

Brown, Jonathan, Manchester 10 6 

Brown, James, 27, Aldgate 1 1 

Brown, David R., Edinbur^. 110 

Burgoyne & Burbid^e, 31, Throgmorton Street 10 10 

Burns, James A., Stirling 10 

Carrick, James, 46, Ghurton Street, Belgrave Road 1 1 

Gbipperfield, Robert, Southampton 2 2 

Coles, John, New Road, Gamberwell 110 

Compton, Charles, 14, Brewer Street, Golden Square 10 6 

Corfield, Daniel, 22, Thrawl Street 2 2 

Cotton, Gilbert Knill, Barnstaple 110 

Cotton, John Lovering, Barnstaple 110 

Crispe, James, 4, Cheapside 2 2 

Davies, Henrjr E., 43, Wood Street 10 6 

Denson, J., Liverpool 110 

Doughty, Edward William, 4, William St., Knightsbridge 2 2 

Down, Richard H., Torpoint 10 

Duncan, Flockhart, & Co., Edinburgh 5 5 

Eddy, Charles W., 30, Crown Street, Finsbury 110 

Fearnall, Messrs., & Co., Liverpool 10 6 

Finlayson, Thomas, Leith 110 

Foulkes, W. J., Birkenhead 1 1 

Fowler, Richard, 14, Brewer Street, Golden Square 10 6 

Fox, William, 48, Church Street, Bethnal Green 2 2 

Fuller, J. G., Burntisland 10 

Fuller, J. G.,jim., Burntisland 2 6 

Fusson, — , Fulham Road 10 6 

Gale, Henry, 3, Millbrooke Place, Camden Town 2 2 

Gardner & Ainslie, Messrs., Edinburgh 110 

Gedge, W. S., 73, St. John Street 10 6 

•Gerard, Philip A., 890, Strand 5 6 

Gill, Hugh, Halifax 110 

G Ian field, George, Torquay 110 

Glass, John T., Cheltenham 1 I 

Goodbame, Thomas, 13, Charles Place, Hoxton 110 

Groodbame, Thomas R., Hornsey Road 110 

Goss, Samuel, Barnstaple 110 

Gristock, Thomas, 42, South Street, Manchester Square .... 1 1 

G.W.J :. 2 6 

H 2 2 

Ham, Charles, CoUumpton 110 

Hearon, McCulloch, & Squire, 95, Bishopsgate Street 10 10 

Hill, William, Manchester 5 

Hillgenberg, Henry, 11, Houndsditch 110 

Hodgeton, David, Brechin 110 

HoUier, Elliott, Dudley 5 5 

Hooper, Bartlett, 19, king William Street, City 5 5 

Hooper, William, 7, Pall Mall 5 5 

Howden, Robert, 78, Gracechurch Street 110 

Hughes, J. H., York Glass Company 110 

Jolley, George, 13, Curzon Street, May Fair 1 1 

Jones, Henry S., Fulham Road 110 

Kemp, David, Portobello 110 

Kershaw, George, Camden Town 110 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


£ 9. d, 

Lawrence, Frederick, Kentish Town 110 

Lawrence, Henrj, 49, High Street, Kensington 1 1 

Lidwell, Joshua E., 86. Hi^h Street, Notting Hill I 1 

Lindsay, Robert, Edinburgh 110 

Linsley, Thomas, York I o 

Mackay, John, Edinburgh 5 5 

Marshall, John F., Gainsborough 1 l o 

Mart}Ti, — , Cliftonville, Brighton 1 i o 

McCulloch, Charles, Corent Garden 5 5 

Negus, Samuel, Northampton 10 

Oakley, George W., 35, Lamb Street, Spitalfields 1 1 

Owles, Edward J., Southampton 10 6 

Parsons, Edward, Barnstaple 110 

Pasmore, James, Chelsea 1 1 

Peacock, Hamerton R., Poplar 1 1 

Pearson, Edward, Liverpool 110 

Peppin, Sydenham H., 25, Princes Street, Leicester Square 110 

Player, Edmund, Bristol 1 1 

Pooley, John C, Bath 110 

Potts, Robert U., 55, South Audley Street 1 1 

Power, B. M., 19, Chesham Street *i 2 

Powers, Edward, Atherstone 110 

Procter, Richard E., Cheltenham 110 

Prosser, Evan T., Woodstock 1 1 

Radermacher, Charles J., 2, New Cavendish Street 1 1 

Raimes, Richard, Edinburgh 5 5 

Rankin, Messrs., & Co., Kilmarnock 3 3 

Rawdin, Joseph, Jedburgh 110 

Robertson, James, & Co., Edinburgh 2 2 

Roach, Pope, 8, James Street ] 1 

Sainsbury, Samuel, 177, Strand 110 

Schacht, William, 38, Houndsditch 110 

Shirley, John George, 1, Westboume Grove, Baiys water ... 1 1 

Sidley, Thomas J., Edinburgh 1 1 

Sims, John F., 8, Hemingford Place, Barnsbury 110 

Slipper, James, 86, Leather Lane 2 2 

Smith, Nathaniel, Cheltenham 2 2 

Southwood, Thomas S., Harrow Road 110 

Starkie, James, 4, Strand - 2 2 

Steward, Messrs., Kidderminster 2 2 

Stocken, James, 112, Drummond Street 110 

Tatham, John W., Barnstaple 110 

Thompson, Henry, 16, Wiiiipole Street 2 2 

Thompson, Henry A., 86, Chiswell Street 5 5 

Trotter, Messrs. G. & J., East Linton 10 

Tupholme, John T., 38, Lamb's Conduit Street 

Tylee, John P., Bath 

Wagstaif, John Henry, James Street, Westbourne Terrace 

Warburton, Thomas, Bolton 

Warrior, William, Northallerton 

Watts, William, 3, Gray's Place, Brompton 

Welsh, Alexander, Dalkeith 

White, Edmund, 19, Park Terrace 

White, John, 228, Piccadilly 

Wills, Thomas D., Bamstople 

Wilson, George, Professor, M.D., Edinburgh 







Wyman, John, 122, Fore Street 5 

Wyon, Leonard C, 54, Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wood 1 

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^ 9. 

York Glass Company, York 10 10 

Young, James R., Edinburgh 1 1 


For Mailor, J., Manchester, read Marlor, Jabez, Lees, near Oldham. 
OmU Clark, W., Clifton, £1 1«. 



Wednesday i October 5th, 1859. 
Thb following 

were announced : — 

lUustratuma of the Nueva Quinologia of Pavon. Farts I. and II. By J. E. Howard, 
F.L.S. From the Author. 

Boudauh on Pepsine. From Mr. Squire. 

Proceedings of the Medico- Chirurgical Society. From the Society. 

Transaction of the Linnean Society. From the Society. 

Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society, From the Society. 

The Dentist. From the Publisher. 

Assurance Magazine. From the Society of Actuaries. 

Photographic Journal. From the Photographic Society. 

Journal of the Society of Arts. From the Society. 

JSrinnerung an Mitglieder der Mathematisch-PhysikaliscJien Classe der K. Bayr, 
Akademie der WissenschafUn. By Dr. C. F. P. Von Martins. Presented by the Autlior. 

Robert Brown. 'By the same Author. 

Specimens of African Turmeric. From Dr. Daniell. 

Specimen of Dried Tamarind, and Syrup made from the same. From Mr. Ilaselden. 


Thb prizes awarded to the successful candidates at the examinations which 
took place at the conclusion of the last session of the School of Pharmacy, 
were now distributed. 


Dr. Redwood said he was enabled to give a favourable report of the Class of 
Chemistry and Pharmacy. The attendance had been good, and the conduct of 
the pupils unexceptionable. There bad also been an unusually large number of 
competitors for the prize and honorary certificates, and it had afforded him 
mucn satisfaction to be able to recommend to the Council that five of these 
should receive marks of distinction. 

The following were the questions for examination :— 

1. What is the specific gravity of a liquid, one fluid ounce of which weighs 655.25 


2. A piece of metal (a), weighed in air in the usual manner, weighs 255 grains; 

suspended from one end of a balance, and immersed in distilled water, it 
weighs 240 grains; immersed in like manner in a liquid (x), it weighs 237 
grains. What are the specific gravities of the metal (a), and of the 
liquid (x) ? 

3. Represent the relative powers of conducting heat possessed by platinum, silver, 

iron, and copper. 

4. Describe the general characters of the salts of barium, strontium, calcium, and 

magnesium, including their chemical reactions. 

5. Describe the PharmacopGsia process for the preparation of Liquor Potassa, and 

explain the conditions which are most favourable to the production of a pure 
solution of caustic potash, and the means of detecting impurities. 

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6. What is the best method of producing solid hydrate of potassa in a state of purity, 

and what are the impurities generally contained in it as met with in com- 
merce ? 

7. Giye the formula representing the composition of nitrous ether. Describe the 

best method of producing this ether, the reactions which occur iu its pro- 
duction, its properties, and the changes to which it is subject. 

8. Describe the process of the London Pharmacopoeia for the preparation of Spiritus 

JEiheria Nitrici, and state the proportion of nitrous ether usually contained in 
this preparation. 

The prize and certificates were awarded as follows :— 

John Henry Baldock Medal 

George Brigg Pearson Fikst Cestificatb of Msbtt 

Edwin Barnes Second " 

Thomas Fleetwood.; Third " 

Albinus J. Roberts Fo vet h " 


Professor Bentlet said tliat he was very glad to report most fayourably of 
the conduct and diligence of the students in his class during the last session. 
The competition for the prizes was a very severe one, nine of the pupils having 
contended for them, of which five had been awarded honours, and he must 
add that they had well earned their distinctions. He thounrht that it 
was a very satisfactory circumstance to find that the pupil who had succeeded 
in obtaining the medal on the present occasion, had distinguished himself two 
Tears since by gaining the silver medal given by the Council for the best 
herbarium. It proved that the possession of the latter had acted as an addi- 
tional stimulus on the present occasion, and showed how desirable it was for the 
student to ground himself practically in botany during his apprenticeship. 

The questions for the written examination were : — 

1. What are the substances contained in young Cells? Describe the structure and 

mode of development of the Starch-granule? 

2. Define a Bulb, Corm, Rhizome, Tuber, and Tubercule. Mention the officinal 

substances which belong to them respectively, and name the plants which 
yield them, and the Natural Orders to which they belong. 

3. What are the differences between Annual, Biennial, and Perennial Plants? 

Distinguish between Epiphytes and Parasites? 

4. Define a Spike, Amentum, Spadiz, Baccme, Corymb, Panicle, Capltulum, Umbel, 

and Cyme. 

5. Enumerate the officinal plants of the Composite^, Describe the physical and 

chemical charactcrislics of Dandelion root, and state how it can be distin- 
guished from other roots; also, mention the time at which Dandelion is 
usually regarded to possess the greatest activity, and the data upon which 
such an opmion is founded. 

6. What are the characters of Alexandrian, East Indian, and Tinnivelly kinds of 

Senna? Mention their botanical and geographical sources, the substances 
commonly used to adulterate them, and the means by which such adultem- 
tions can be ascertained. 

7. Enumerate the officinal plants of the Order Piperacea. Describe the substances 

obtained from them respectively, the conditions in which they are collected, 
the countries which produce them, and their medical and economic properties. 

8. Give the essential characters of the following Natural Ordera :—Cruci/era, 

Butacea, Cucurbitacea^ Sohnaceff, Scropkulariacea, Polygonacea, Dioscoreaceee, 
and Liliacta. 

VIVA VOCE examination. 

Besides the questions given above, to be answered in writing, the following 
plants were submitted to the candidates, who were required to name them, to 
state the natural order to which they respectively belonged, to mention their 
medical and economic properties, and to describe any peculiarity which they 
might present : — 

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Aconitum Napellus — Delphiniom St^>hysagria-> Adonis autumnalis — Althaaa 
officinalis— Astrantia major— FcBniculam rulgare— Apiam graTeolens— Daucua Ca- 
sota — Fuchsia spec. — ^Lobelia inflata — Ecbalium officinarum— Uubia tioctoram— 
Knautia arvensis— Artemisia Absinthium—Tanacetum vulgare— Cynara Scolymus 
— Inula Helenium-- Anchasa tinctoria— Symphytum officinale — Pentstemon spec.-* 
YerbascumThapsus— Jasminum spec— Lyaimachia Nummularia — Mentha Pulegium 
—Mentha Piperita — Mentha Tiridis— Marrubium vulgare — Origanum vulgare^- 
Gentiana asclepiadea— Solanum Dulcamara— Solanum nigrum — Datura Stramonium 
— l^icotiana spec— Kumex aquatica — Mercurialis annua — Aristolochia Clematitis— 
Veratrum nigrum — Funkia spec 
The medal and certificates were awarded as follows : — 

Thomas Fleetwood Medal 

George Brigg Pearson First Cebtifigate of Merit 

William H. C. Giddings Second " 

Edwin Barnes Third " 

Frank Hooper Fourth ** 

The following papers were read : — 


Hon. Member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

Among other vegetable products resorted to by the native Africans for the 
purposes of dyeing, are certain tubers procured from a |)laiit apparently indige- 
nous to West Africa. Being frequentljr offered for sale in the markets of Sierra 
Leone, my attention was engaged m 1856 to discover their source and 
appliances. These rhizomes, in their fresh state, were of a greyish or }>ale 
orange color externally, smooth, somewhat plump and fleshy, variable in size, 
and marked by a series of transverse rings ; one extremity bein^ partly round 
or blunt, the other flat, having a central eschar or notch, indicating its detach- 
ment from another of maturer growth. Thev were usually met with under the 
form of slightly-curved, more or less cylindrical masses, from one to five inches 
in length, and about half to one and a half inches in diameter. A number of 
minor lateral oflshoots or tubercules proceeded from most of the larger varieties, 
which thus often assumed a palmate conformation. Occasionally intermixed 
were large round tuberous roots, distinguished by similar annular wrinkles, and 
evidently constituting the parent stock from which the precedinff ramifications 
had sprung. When broken, the internal surface presented a deep ffolden or orange 
tint, with a smooth, wax-like fracture. With the exception of a brighter hue, 
their physical characters so closely resembled those of the East Indian Turmeric, 
that it would be difficult to define their distinction in the absence of other 
specific diflerences, since the African drug is equdly endowed with the peculiar 
odour and taste of the former, tinges the saliva yellow, and fireely imparts its 
coloring principles to both spirit and water. 

Laboring under the impression that these rhizomes could only have been furnished 
by some species of Curcuma^ I was induced to place several in my warden, with 
the view of ascertaining to what particular variety they pertained, in the course 
of a few months the young shoots appeared, flowered, and, much to ray surprise, 
proved to belong to a beautiful Canna, commonly designated in colonial parlance 
by the name o£ Indian shot. Observing that similar plants were cultivated in the 
adjacent negro enclosures, I had a quantity of t^eir roots dug up, which were 
found to correspond in every respect with those I planted. Specimens in leaf, 
flower, and fruit, were carefully preserved and transmitted to my friend Mr. 
Bennett, of the British Museum, and b^ him determined to be identical with the 
Canna speciosa of Roscoe. This species does not appear to have been men- 
tioned by botanical writers as indigenous to Western Africa, and has probablj 
been confounded with the Canna Orienialis, or Indica, which are stated to be 
more or less common in Sierra Leone and other regions of the coast to the 

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southward. E.osco6»m his work on Monandrlan plants, has given a good figure 
and description of this production reared in the ^Botanic Gkrdens of Liverpool, 
from seeds brought from Africa in 1819.* Boots were subsequently received 
from Dr. Wallich, at Calcutta^ who had discovered the same species growing in 

During the early settlement of Sierra Leone, a great variety of useful seeds 
and roots were forwarded by Dr. Roxburgh firom the East Indies, with the 
object of increasing the commercial resources of the infant colony. Suspecting 
this plant mi^ht thus have been introduced and subsequently naturalized by 
culture, I instituted a series of inquiries among the old African settlers, in the 
hope of obtaining some satisfactory information relative to its origin. Sufficient 
data, however, did not exist to determine this point. Several of the negro 
inhabitants nevertheless, asserted that it had been imported from the Slave coast^ 
where the roots were extensively employed by the Foys and Mahes to dye 
gnsa and cotton fabrics a yellow hue. It is therefore no doubt the product to 
which Robertson alludes, when he observes that in Dahomev " these yellows are 
dyed with a root, which has the appearance of ginger. The color appears to 
resist acids better than some of those used in Britain.'^! 

Thonnin^, in his Bescrwdse af Guineiske Planter^ briefly describes a Carma 
rubra flourishing in Acquapim, and the Curcuma longa as cultivated by the 
natives in that portion of the Gold coast, but does not specify any distinct 
locality where the latter may be procured. Hitherto, no species of Curcuma has 
been described as indigenous to intertropical West Africa, and it seems doubtful 
whether it has even been introduced by European colonists, if so, the cultivated 
plant has since disappeared. Thonning, doubtless from a casual inspection of these 
tubers, may have been led to the erroneous conclusion that they pertained to the 
above Curcuma, which on inquiry would be apparently conurmed by their 
aboriginal appliances and other peculiarities indicating a remarkable affinity 
to turmeric. 

Similar kind of rhizomes are produced, probably from this Canna, to a 
limited extent in the Portuguese Island of St. Thomas, a small sample of which 
I purchased in 1850, at St. Anna de Chaves, and deposited as specimens in 
some of the economic museums in this countrv. 

African turmeric is cultivated by the inhabitants of Sierra Leone, chiefly for 
the rich yellow dye it yields. Grass cloths, mats, baskets, and other aboriginal 
manufactures are colored from a peculiar preparation of the roots, which, retain* 
in^ their permanenc)r of hue, become highly esteemed as articles of traffic. The 
brilliant flowering spike, large bright green leaves, and luxuriant development, 
render the plant one of the most conspicuous ornaments of the colonial gardens. 
Its inflorescence occurs in April, and, in &ct, throughout the rainy months, 
the tubers attaining their maturity about December or January ; they are then 
dug up and exposed to the sun, previous to their collection for the markets. The 
price hitherto has been merely nominal,